Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process.
In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, is given as a ratio of distance travelled per unit of fuel consumed. Fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon (mpg) in the USA and usually also in the UK (imperial gallon);there is sometimes confusion as the imperial gallon is 20% larger than the US gallon so that mpg values are not directly comparable. In countries using the metric system fuel economy is stated in kilometres per litre (km/L) in the Netherlands, Denmark and in several Latin American or Asian countries such as India, Japan, South Korea, or as the reciprocal ratio, "fuel consumption" in liters per 100 kilometers (L/100 km) in much of Europe, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Litres per mil are used in Norway and Sweden.
Diving equipment is equipment used by underwater divers to make diving activities possible, easier, safer and/or more comfortable. This may be equipment primarily intended for this purpose, or equipment intended for other purposes which is found to be suitable for diving use.
Equipment which is used for underwater work or other activities which is not directly related to the activity of diving, or which has not been designed or modified specifically for underwater use by divers is excluded.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed.
It was developed by the Robert Bosch GmbH company during the late 1960s under the supervision of Dr. Günter Bauman. The original sensing element is made with a thimble-shaped zirconia ceramic coated on both the exhaust and reference sides with a thin layer of platinum and comes in both heated and unheated forms. The planar-style sensor entered the market in 1998 (also pioneered by Bosch) and significantly reduced the mass of the ceramic sensing element as well as incorporating the heater within the ceramic structure. This resulted in a sensor that started sooner and responded faster.
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of engineering, physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.
The engineering field requires an understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. Mechanical engineers use these core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering, and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers, or digital signal processors (DSP).
Power control, broadly speaking, is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication system to achieve good performance within the system. The notion of "good performance" can depend on context and may include optimizing metrics such as link data rate, network capacity, geographic coverage and range, and life of the network and network devices. Power control algorithms are used in many contexts, including cellular networks, sensor networks, wireless LANs, and DSL modems.
Increasing transmit power on a communication link has numerous benefits:
An air–fuel ratio meter monitors the air–fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine. Also called air–fuel ratio gauge, air–fuel meter, or air–fuel gauge. It reads the voltage output of an oxygen sensor, sometimes also called lambda sensor, whether it be from a narrow band or wide band oxygen sensor.
The original narrow-band oxygen sensors became factory installed standard in the late 1970s and early 80s. In recent years, a newer and much more accurate wide-band sensor, though more expensive, has become available.
OBD-II PIDs (On-board diagnostics Parameter IDs) are codes used to request data from a vehicle, used as a diagnostic tool. SAE standard J/1979 defines many PIDs, but manufacturers also define many more PIDs specific to their vehicles. All light duty vehicles (i.e. less than 8,500 pounds) sold in North America since 1996, as well as medium duty vehicles (i.e. 8,500-14,000 pounds) beginning in 2005, and heavy duty vehicles (i.e. greater than 14,000 pounds) beginning in 2010]citation needed[, are required to support OBD-II diagnostics, using a standardized data link connector, and a subset of the SAE J/1979 defined PIDs (or SAE J/1939 as applicable for medium/heavy duty vehicles), primarily for state mandated emissions inspections.
Typically, an automotive technician will use PIDs with a scan tool connected to the vehicle's OBD-II connector.
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.
A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases within an area, usually as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can also sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave the area. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals.
Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be found in a variety of locations such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such as photovoltaic.They may also be used in firefighting.