White bread is made is from wheat and flour from which the bran and germ have been removed. This is where the nutritional, More?
Sprouted bread is a type of bread made from whole grains that have been allowed to sprout, that is, to germinate. There are a few different types of sprouted grain bread. Some are made with added flour, some are made with added gluten, and some, such as Essene bread, are made with very few additional ingredients.
These are breads that contain the whole grain (or kernel, or berry) of various seeds, although only after they have been sprouted. They are different from 'white' bread in as much as 'white' breads are made from ground wheat endosperm (after removal of the bran and germ). Whole grain breads include the bran, germ and endosperm, therefore providing more fibre, and naturally-occurring vitamins and proteins. Sprouted (or germinated) grain breads have roughly the same amount of vitamins per gram.
Some][ claim that sprouted grains have 50-1350 times more minerals and vitamins than non-sprouted grains. Although there may be a slight increase per gram of such things, much of this increase follows the increased size of the grain due to the germination process and therefore, by and large, the amounts per gram remain the same. A comparison of nutritional analyses shows that sprouted grains contain about 75% the energy (carbohydrates), slightly higher protein and about 40% of the fat when compared to whole grains.
Wheat is not the only grain used for sprouted breads. Grains and legumes such as millet, barley, oat, lentil and soy may also be used. Bread that is made from an array of grains and legumes can provide a complete set of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. There may be a slight increase in trace minerals and nutrients over non-sprouted breads. Other than that, they supply much the same advantages as whole grain breads over refined grain breads, such as lowered risk of coronary heart disease.
Essene bread is a very primitive form of sprouted grain bread. It is often eaten uncooked, or slightly heated, by proponents of raw foods. The Essenes, a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD, are credited with the technique and basic recipes for Essene bread, which is made from sprouted wheat and prepared at a low temperature. These two practices ensure the maximum possible vitamin content for this foodstuff. The sprouting also breaks down the lectins and other substances that some individuals may be sensitive or allergic to.
The following is an excerpt from The Essene Gospel of Peace, as translated by Edmund Bordeaux Szekely.
Essene bread - 70% sprouted rye, 30% spelt whole grain
Essene bread - 70% sprouted rye, 30% spelt whole grain
Essene flat bread - 100% sprouted wheat
Essene fruit bread - sprouted spelt
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed. Along with bran, germ is often a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. Cereal grains and their components, such as wheat germ, rice bran, and maize may be used as a source from which vegetable oil is extracted, or used directly as a food ingredient. The germ is retained as an integral part of whole-grain foods. Non-whole grain methods of milling are intended to isolate the endosperm, which is ground into flour, with removal of both the husk (bran) and the germ. Removal of bran is aimed at producing a flour with a white rather than a brown color, and eliminating fiber: neither of these objectives is necessarily desirable from the nutritional viewpoint. Germ is rich in polyunsaturated fats (which have a tendency to oxidize and become rancid on storage) and so germ removal improves the storage qualities of flour.
Wheat germ or wheatgerm is a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium, as well as essential fatty acids and fatty alcohols. It is a good source of fiber. White bread is made using flour that has had the germ and bran removed. Wheat germ can be added to protein shakes, casseroles, muffins, pancakes, cereals, yogurt, smoothies, cookies, and other goods. Wheat germ can become rancid if not properly stored in a refrigerator or freezer, and away from sunlight. Some manufacturers prevent rancidity by storing wheat germ in vacuum sealed glass containers.
In molecular biology, wheat germ extract is used to carry out in vitro translation experiments, as the plant embryo contains all the macromolecular components necessary for translating mRNA into amino acids, but contains relatively low levels of its own mRNA.
Wheat germ is also useful in biochemistry, as it contains lectins that bind strongly to certain glycoproteins, hence it can be used to isolate such proteins.
The term wheatberry or wheat berry refers to the entire wheat kernel (except for the hull), composed of the bran, germ, and endosperm. Wheatberries have a tan to reddish brown color and are available as either a hard or soft processed grain. They are often added to salads or baked into bread to add a crunchy texture. If wheat berries are milled, whole-wheat flour is produced.
Wheatberries are the primary ingredient in an Eastern European Christmas porridge called kutya. In France, cooked wheatberries are commonly eaten as a side dish instead of rice or corn. This side dish is often referred to as Ebly, although this is actually the name of the first brand of cooked wheatberries to hit the market.
Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts of whole grain flour, usually rye or wheat, and sometimes dark-coloured ingredients such as molasses or coffee. In Canada and the United Kingdom it simply refers to whole wheat bread, except in the Maritimes, where it implies a bread made with molasses.
Whole wheat flours that contain raw wheat germ, instead of toasted germ, have higher levels of glutathione, and thus are said to result in lower loaf volumes.
In Ireland, sometime prior to 1848, brown bread was handed out to the poor. In England, brown bread was made from brown meal. Around and prior to the year 1845, brown meal was considered a less desirable grain product, and was priced accordingly, However, by 1865, due to recently discovered health benefits of bran, brown meal's London price had increased to a point often greater than that of fine flour.
Historically, brown meal was what remained after about 90% of the coarse, outer bran and 74% of pure endosperm or fine flour was removed from the whole grain. Using slightly different extraction numbers, brown meal, representing 20% of the whole grain, was itself composed of about 15% fine bran and 85% white flour. In 1848 it was asserted grain millers knew only of bran and endosperm, but by 1912 it was more widely known that brown meal included the germ.
The brown colour of whole grain breads is caused by cerealine, a discovery attributed to M. Mège Mouriès of France. Cerealine, considered by Mouriès an active principal or ferment similar in action to diastase, came from the cereal layer of rectangular cells that millers considered a part of bran: later it was alternatively called the layeraleurone. In a statement attributed to Mouriès, if the cerealine is neutralized, white bread can be made from bran-containing flour.
Irish wheaten bread is a form of Irish soda bread made with whole wheat flour.
Ideal brown bread was made from brown meal, yeast, salt, and water.
New England or Boston brown bread is a type of dark, slightly sweet steamed bread (usually a quick bread) popular in New England. It is cooked by steam in a can, or cylindrical pan.
Brown bread's colour comes from a mixture of flours, usually a mix of several of the following: cornmeal, wheat, whole wheat, graham flour, or rye, and from the addition of sweeteners like molasses and maple syrup. Leavening most often comes from baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) though a few recipes use yeast. Raisins are often added. The batter is poured into a can, and steamed in a kettle. While most variations are quick breads, and can be made in less than an hour, several commercial brands are available. Brown bread is somewhat seasonal, being served mostly in fall and winter, and is frequently served with baked beans.
Brown bread is closely related to an earlier bread known as "Rye and Indian" (from "Indian" cornmeal) or "thirded" bread from its use of rye, cornmeal and wheat flours. Unlike modern brown bread, thirded bread is generally yeast-raised and baked rather than steamed.
Whole wheat bread
Atta is the flour used to make most South Asian flatbreads, such as chapati, roti, naan and puri. Most atta is milled from the semi-hard wheat varieties, also known as durum wheat, that comprise 90% of the Indian wheat crop, and is more precisely called durum atta.
Hard wheats have a high content of gluten (a protein composite that gives elasticity), so doughs made out of atta flour are strong and can be rolled out very thin. Indian wheat are mostly Durum wheat, which are high in protein but less in "bread forming gluten" so the bread when baked with this flour does not rise as well and tend to be dense.
Atta is the Hindi or Urdu word for dough; it is used by metonymy to mean "flour used for baking". Atta refers to the pulverized whole wheat with brownish white color. In India and Pakistan a common term used for atta is "chakki atta" which is mostly used in rural areas. Chakki atta is ground wheat without any additions or subtractions, and is thus in more natural form.
In India and Pakistan wheat products like 'wheat powder' or 'wheat flour', 'atta flour', 'maida flour' and 'sooji'(semolina) (also known as 'rava') are available in the market.
Whole wheat grains contain all three parts of the kernel (Kernel means a grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk). There are, mainly, three parts for a wheat grain.
(1) Germ (2%) - Embryo of the wheat kernel.
(2) Endosperm (85%) - Nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo.
(3) Bran - Multi-layered outer skin of the kernel.
Some chapati mixes are said to be made from a combination of maida flour (bleached white flour) and atta.][
The Atta flour found in commerce varies in fiber content from near 0% to 12%. Wholemeal (US whole wheat) atta is obtained from grinding complete wheat grains. It is creamy brown in color and quite coarse compared to other types of flour.
Traditionally, atta is made by stone grinding, a process that imparts a characteristic aroma and taste to the bread. The high bran content of wholemeal atta makes it a fiber-rich food. This may help to regulate blood sugar as well have other health benefits.][ The temperatures attained in a chakki (mill or grinder, traditionally from stone), produced by friction, are of the order of 110-125 deg C. At such high temperatures, the carotenes present in the bran tend to exude the characteristic roasty smell, and contribute to the sweetness of the atta.
The various quality control parameters for the atta industry are ash content, moisture content, acid insoluble ash, water absorption, alcoholic acidity, granulation profile, damaged starch and gluten content.
Rolling of atta dough
Paratha prepared from atta
Puri is made mainly from atta
Whole-wheat bread is a type of bread made using flour that is partly or entirely milled from whole or almost-whole wheat grains, see whole-wheat flour and whole grain. It is one kind of brown bread. Synonyms or near-synonyms for whole-wheat bread elsewhere in the world (such as for example in the UK) are whole-grain bread or wholemeal bread. Some varieties of whole-wheat bread are traditionally coated with whole or cracked grains of wheat, though this is mostly decorative compared to the nutritional value of a good quality loaf itself.][
The exact composition of whole-wheat bread varies from country to country and even within one country. In some cases, the bread is made with whole-grain flour that contains all of the component parts of the grain in the same ratios as they occur in nature, whereas in other cases the bread may include only representative amounts of bran or wheat germ. In Canada for example, a proportion of the wheat germ may be removed from the flour to reduce the risk of rancidity, but the term "whole-wheat bread" is still used.
The term "wheat bread" is sometimes used to mean whole-wheat bread, but this is an ambiguous term because most white bread is made from wheat flour, and thus could legitimately be called "wheat bread".
Food and drink
Whole-wheat flour is a powdery substance, a basic food ingredient, derived by grinding or mashing the whole grain of wheat, also known as the wheatberry. Whole-wheat flour is used in baking of breads and other baked goods, and also typically mixed with other lighter "white" unbleached or bleached flours (that have been treated with flour bleaching agent(s)) to restore nutrients to the white flours (especially fiber, protein, and vitamins), texture, and body that are lost in milling and other processing to the finished baked goods or other food(s).
The word "whole" refers to the fact that all of the grain (bran, germ, and endosperm) is used and nothing is lost in the process of making the flour. This is in contrast to white, refined flours, which contain only the endosperm. Because the whole flour contains the remains of all of the grain, it has a textured, brownish appearance.
Whole-grain whole wheat flour is a robust, full-flavored flour containing vitamins, minerals and protein. Whole-grain whole wheat flour is more nutritious than refined white flour, although white flour may, in a process called food fortification, have some micronutrients lost in processing added back to the white flour (required by law in some jurisdictions). Fortified white wheat flour does not, however, contain the macronutrients of the wheat's bran and germ (especially fiber and protein) like whole-grain flour does. Whole grain is a good source of calcium, iron, fiber, and other minerals like selenium. Regular "whole wheat" flour commonly used commercially has 70% of the germ removed to prevent rancidity, and as such cannot be labeled "whole grain".
Whole-wheat flour has a shorter shelf life than white flour, as the higher oil content leads to rancidification if not stored properly, such as with refrigeration, or in other cool areas.
Often, whole wheat flour is not the main ingredient in baked goods, as it may add a certain "heaviness" that prevents them from rising as high as white flours. This can add to the cost per volume of the baked item, as it requires more flour to obtain the same volume, due to the fewer and smaller air pockets trapped in the raised goods. Thus, many baked goods advertised as whole-wheat are not entirely whole-wheat; they may contain some refined white wheat, as long as the majority of the wheat used is whole-wheat.
Nevertheless, it is possible to make a high-rising, light loaf of 100% whole-wheat bread, as long as one increases the water content of the dough (the bran and germ in whole wheat absorb more water than plain white flour), kneads the dough for a longer period of time to develop the gluten adequately, and allows for a longer rise before shaping the dough. Some bakers let the dough rise twice before shaping. The addition of fats, such as butter or oil, and milk products (fresh milk, powdered milk, buttermilk, yogurt, etc.) can also greatly assist the dough in rising.
White whole-wheat flour is flour milled from hard white spring wheat, rather than traditional red wheat. In the United Kingdom, whole-wheat flour is more commonly made from white wheat instead of red as in the United States. The difference is that soft white wheat has a lower gluten content and also lacks the tannins and phenolic acid that red wheat contain, causing white whole wheat to appear and taste more like refined red wheat; it is whitish in color and does not taste bitter.
White whole wheat has almost the same nutrient content as red whole wheat. However, soft white whole wheat has a lower gluten content and contains a lower protein content (between 9% and 11%) when compared with harder wheats like red (15–16% protein content) or golden wheat.][
Despite historical consumer preference for refined flour and the traditionally higher per-unit cost of whole grain, whole-wheat flour products are ascendant largely due to changing consumer attitudes. The Whole Grains Council industry association reports an approximate doubling of the whole-wheat flour production over the course of the years 2003 to 2007. In another visible example, whole-wheat bread has reached approximate parity with soft white bread as measured by slice volume in the United States; as of 2010, whole-wheat bread narrowly exceeds soft white bread as measured by dollar volume.