War Eagle is a battle cry whose origins stretch back to a Civil War legend when a wounded baby eagle became a fixture on campus.
William J. Samford Hall is a structure on the campus of Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. It is an icon of Auburn University and houses the school's administration. The building is named for William J. Samford, the Governor of Alabama from 1900 to 1901.
When Auburn University (as East Alabama Male College) opened in 1859, classes were held in a structure named "Old Main" on the current site of Samford Hall. On June 24, 1887, Old Main was destroyed by fire. The following year, Samford Hall (then simply known as the "Main Building") was constructed, using, in part, bricks salvaged from the ruins of Old Main. The design of Samford Hall roughly mirrored that of Old Main, except that Samford Hall had two main entrances instead of Old Main's one, and on Samford one of the two flanking towers was considerably taller and was constructed to contain a clock. In 1889, a clockworks and bell were added to the taller tower.
Through the late 19th century, Samford Hall was the college's main classroom building and contained the library. In May 1929, the building was officially named for William J. Samford. In 1941, the tower's mechanical clock was converted to run on electricity, and in 1977, a carillon was added. Samford Hall underwent major renovations in 1971, and the original clockworks were replaced in 1995. Today, Samford Hall houses the school's administration, accounting, planning, and public relations offices.
Samford Hall's clock tower is the most recognized part of the building. The original clockworks were built by the Seth Thomas Clock Company of Thomaston, Connecticut. These clockworks were replaced in 1995 by a clock and electronic carillon made by the Verdin Company of Cincinnati, Ohio. A portion of the original clockworks and an original clockface are on display in the reception area of Samford Hall. The Samford Hall carillon plays the Westminster Chimes on the quarter-hour, and plays the Auburn University fight song, "War Eagle", a few seconds after 12:00 noon.
According to a University legend, students once led a cow up the tower stairs as a prank.
Since 2000, an evergreen tree in front of Samford Hall has been the site of the school's Christmas tree lighting ceremony. The decision to officially refer to the tree as a "Holiday Tree" (rather than a "Christmas Tree") resulted in controversy in 2005 when commentators on townhall.com and World Net Daily criticized Auburn University's choice of names as an example of political correctness gone amok. As a compromise, the ceremony was in subsequent years renamed the "Holiday Celebration featuring the Lighting of the Christmas Tree."
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War Eagle is a battle cry, yell, or motto of Auburn University and supporters of Auburn University sports teams, especially the Auburn Tigers football team. War Eagle is a common term of endearment, greeting, or salutation among the Auburn Family (e.g., students, alumni, fans). It is also the title of the university's fight song and the name of the university's golden eagles. It is incorrect to say the War Eagle battle cry in the plural, as in "War Eagles".
The widespread use of "War Eagle" by Auburn devotees has often led to outside confusion as to Auburn's official mascot. However, the official mascot of Auburn University is Aubie the Tiger, and all Auburn athletic teams, men's and women's, are nicknamed the Tigers. Auburn has never referred to any of its athletic teams as the "Eagles" or "War Eagles." The university's official response to the confusion between the Tigers mascot and the War Eagle battle cry is, "We are the Tigers who say 'War Eagle'."
Since 1930, and continuously since 1960, Auburn has kept an actual eagle as a live, untethered mascot flying over the football stadium at athletic events. War Eagle VII, a Golden Eagle named Nova, along with Spirit, a Bald Eagle, perform the War Eagle Flight before all Auburn home games at Jordan–Hare Stadium. War Eagle VI, named Tiger, has retired from the War Eagle Flight, but is still present on campus.
As early as 1916, the Columbus, Georgia Daily Enquirer mentioned "War Eagle" as an Auburn Tigers battle cry. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, "War Eagle" appeared from time to time in the United States as an evocative nickname for people and things such as Native Americans (including professional wrestlers); race horses; a U.S. civil war mascot; and, in one case, a coal mine interest.
There are several stories about the origin of the battle cry. One of these is a mythical story published in 1960 in the Auburn Plainsman, conceived by its then-editor Jim Phillips. This myth is detailed below under War Eagle I.
A 1914 football game against the Carlisle Indians provides another myth. According to this story, there was a lineman/tackle named Bald Eagle on the Indians' team. Attempting to exhaust that player, Auburn's team began running multiple plays directly at his position. Without even huddling, the Auburn quarterback would yell "Bald Eagle," letting the rest of the team know that the play would be run at the tackle. Spectators, however, thought the quarterback was saying "War Eagle," and began to chant that.
Another legend claims that "War Eagle" was the name given to the large golden eagle by the Plains Indians because the eagle furnished feathers for use in their war bonnets.
According to a 1998 article in the Auburn Plainsman, the most likely origin of the "War Eagle" cry grew from a 1913 pep rally at Langdon Hall, where students had gathered the day before the annual football game against the University of Georgia. Cheerleader Gus Graydon told the crowd, "If we are going to win this game, we'll have to get out there and fight, because this means war." During the frenzy, another student, E. T. Enslen, dressed in his military uniform, noticed something had dropped from his hat. Bending down, he saw it was the metal emblem of an eagle that had come loose during his wild cheering. Someone asked him what he had found, and Enslen loudly replied, "It's a War Eagle!" The new cry was used by students at the game the following day.
Auburn has had seven numbered "War Eagle" birds, but the first of these only appeared in a legend about the history of the phrase "War Eagle".
The mythical War Eagle I has the most colorful story of all of the "War Eagle" eagles. War Eagle I's story begins in the Civil War. According to the legend, a soldier from Alabama was the sole Confederate survivor of a bloody battle, Battle of the Wilderness. Stumbling across the battlefield, he came across a wounded young eagle. The bird was named Anvre, and was cared for and nursed back to health by the soldier. Several years later the soldier, a former Auburn student, returned to college as a faculty member, bringing the bird with him. For years both were a familiar sight on campus and at events. On the day of Auburn's first football game in 1892 against the University of Georgia, the aged eagle broke away from his master during the game and began to circle the field, exciting the fans. But at the end of the game, with Auburn victorious, the eagle fell to the ground and died. In 2010, a children's book,"The War Eagle Story" by Francesca Adler-Baeder and illustrated by Tiffany Everett was published that favors this version of the story.
This legend was originally published in 1960 in the Auburn Plainsman and was conceived by then-editor Jim Phillips. Though apocryphal, this tale is most often told as the beginning of the association of "War Eagle" with Auburn.
Auburn's first real, live-eagle mascot, War Eagle II, was mentioned in the New York Times, which noted then that "War Eagle" was already established as Auburn's battle cry. In November 1930 a golden eagle swooped down on a flock of turkeys in Bee Hive, Alabama, southwest of Auburn, Alabama, and became entangled in a mass of pea vines. Fourteen individuals and businesses scraped together $10 and purchased the eagle from the farmer who owned the pea patch. Cheerleaders DeWit Stier and Harry "Happy" Davis (who later became executive secretary of the Alumni Association) helped care for the new bird. It was put in a strong wire cage and taken to the Auburn football game against the University of South Carolina in Columbus, Georgia on Thanksgiving Day.
Auburn, having not won a Southern Conference game in four seasons, was anticipated to lose. However, Auburn took a 25-7 victory over the Gamecocks. The student body concluded that the luck from the eagle's presence—which had been absent from their prior losses—was responsible for the victory that day. The eagle was kept in a cage behind Alumni Hall (renamed Ingram Hall), and cared for by members of the "A" Club.
The bird's ultimate fate is unknown. Some say it died or was carried away by students of a rival school. Others say it was given to a zoo due to the high cost of upkeep; there is even a rumor that it was stuffed and put in the John Bell Lovelace Athletic Museum.
Originally known simply as "War Eagle" this bird was retroactively named "War Eagle II" with the arrival of War Eagle III.
Auburn's third eagle arrived in Auburn in November 1960 after being captured by a cotton farmer in Curry Station, Talladega County, Alabama who found the bird caught between two rows of cotton. The eagle was sent to Auburn by the Talladega County Agent along with a load of turkeys. It was first taken to the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity house where it refused a cold chicken leg but made fast work of a live chicken. After a short stay in one of the Wildlife Department's animal pens, the eagle was moved into a cage built by the Auburn's Delta Chapter of Alpha Phi Omega fraternity. This would begin a 40-year period where Alpha Phi Omega was the bird's primary caretaker.
Jon Bowden, a fraternity brother who had previously worked with hawks in Colorado and Missouri, volunteered to serve as the bird's trainer. Formally named War Eagle III, Jon nicknamed the bird "Tiger." In April 1961, Jon and Tiger made their first appearance as trainer and mascot on the baseball diamond. Auburn was playing the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets and was trailing 10-13 in the eighth inning, but rallied in the ninth and scored 4 runs to win the game.
The students were receptive to the new mascot and expressed a concern for a larger cage to house War Eagle III. In 1964, on the morning of the football game against Tennessee, War Eagle III was seen by his trainer, A. Elwyn Hamer Jr., sitting on the ground next to his perch. He had sprung the clip on his leash and escaped. After several days of searching, the bird was found shot to death in a wooded area near Birmingham, Alabama, where the game was being played.
The Birmingham Downtown Action Committee found another golden eagle in the Jackson, Mississippi zoo and presented it to the Auburn student body in October 1964. This became War Eagle IV, also called "Tiger." She lived in a large aviary—until torn down in 2003 the second largest single-bird enclosure in the country—that had been funded and constructed by the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity and named for A. Elwyn Hamer Jr., War Eagle III's first trainer who had been killed in a plane crash in December 1965.
Throughout the years, the fraternity provided care and training for the mascot. On the morning of the 1980 Iron Bowl against Alabama in Birmingham, she was found dead by her trainers, Tim Thomason, Charlie Jacks, Bob Ingram, and her former trainer Bill Watts, having died of natural causes at age 22, after having served as Auburn's mascot for 16 years. A marker in memory of War Eagle IV is located on the Auburn University campus near the former site of the aviary.
Through the efforts of War Eagle IV's trainers and with the financial support of the Birmingham Downtown Action, an immature golden eagle was located soon after the death of War Eagle IV and brought to Auburn from Wyoming. The bird arrived in Auburn on March 3, 1981 and was taken to the Veterinary School where she was kept for a short period in order to be examined for any signs of shock from travel. She was then transferred to a small cage until the annual "A Day" football game when she was presented to the University by the Birmingham Downtown Action Committee on May 9, 1981.
The bird was under the stewardship of the U.S. Government under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act and was on loan to the Auburn University Veterinary School. She was officially named War Eagle V, and nicknamed "Tiger" as was tradition. She was approximately two years old at her arrival and was very active on campus. She attended many university functions, Alumni meetings, schools, hospitals, the 1985 Boy Scouts of America National Jamboree, and the 1986 National Order of the Arrow Conference.
On September 4, 1986, War Eagle V died of a ruptured spleen at the age of 8 and a half years old. War Eagle V was taken to Auburn's veterinary school the night before by her trainer, Jim McAlarney, who noticed that she was not behaving normally. McAlarney spent the night at the veterinary school while veterinarians made a futile effort to save the bird's life.
The eagle trainers began working soon after the unexpected death of War Eagle V to find a new golden eagle. The Auburn University Alumni Association and many Auburn alumni contributed to the effort and a new eagle was located at the Tennessee Valley Authority Raptor Rehabilitation Facility in Land Between The Lakes, Kentucky. Trainers made the trip to the facility to receive Auburn's new mascot. The bird originally came from St. Louis, Missouri, where she was seized by Federal agents as part of an illegal breeding operation and brought to Kentucky. Like War Eagle V, she was under the stewardship of the U.S. Government under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act and was on loan to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. She arrived in Auburn on October 8, 1986 at an age of six years old. Like the two eagles before her, she was cared for by the members of Alpha Phi Omega and nicknamed Tiger.
During the 2000 football season, War Eagle VI began a tradition of performing a free flight before a home football game. War Eagle VI, and later other eagles kept by in the Southeastern Raptor Rehabilitation Center in Auburn, flew around the stadium before landing on the field as the crowd chanted "War Eagle".
In 2000, day-to-day care of War Eagle VI was turned over to the Southeastern Raptor Rehabilitation Center, ending the 40 year program of care by Alpha Phi Omega. Shortly thereafter, the bird was moved from the Hamer Aviary to the Southeastern Raptor Rehabilitation center. The Hamer Aviary was torn down in the summer of 2003. On February 8, 2002, War Eagle VI flew in Rice–Eccles Stadium as part of the opening ceremonies of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City. War Eagle VI was featured the next day on NBC's Today Show.
In the summer of 2003, allegations of improper care of the birds by the Southeastern Raptor Rehabilitation Center were leveled by the university administration and by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Many of the birds were suffering from diseases and malnourishment. After all investigations were concluded, War Eagle VI was allowed to fly again prior to Auburn home games. Currently, the Southeastern Raptor Rehabilitation Center uses three birds, Spirit, a bald eagle, Nova a golden eagle, and the aforementioned War Eagle VI (Tiger).
War Eagle VI's presence continues to be used as a wildlife educational tool.
On November 11, 2006, War Eagle VI was officially retired in a pregame ceremony before the Georgia game. During halftime of the same game, her successor, Nova, was named War Eagle VII. In her final game as War Eagle VI, Auburn defeated Arkansas State 27-0, finalizing the team's record under War Eagle VI at 174-69-4. She saw two undefeated Auburn seasons, four SEC titles, and six SEC Western Division crowns.
Nova, Auburn's six-year-old golden eagle, was officially named War Eagle VII on November 11, 2006. He was born in the Montgomery Zoo in 1999 and moved to Auburn at six months of age. Prior to being named War Eagle VII, Nova had already participated in pre-game flights and conservation exhibits throughout the southeast.
War Eagle was named the #4 mascot in a poll by Foxsports.
"War Eagle" is the name of the university's official fight song. It is played before and after games, as well as immediately after Auburn scores by the Auburn University Marching Band. (Auburn plays "Glory, Glory, to Ole Auburn" after an extra point.) In addition, the Samford Carillon, located in the clock tower of Samford Hall, rings the fight song every day at noon.
"War Eagle" was written in 1954 and 1955 by New York songwriters Robert Allen and Al Stillman. The "Auburn Victory March" had been the fight song for decades. The Jordan Vocational High School Band of Columbus, Georgia, under the direction of Bob Barr first performed the song during Auburn's 1955 season-opener versus Chattanooga.
Auburn University currently does not hold ownership of the copyright for "War Eagle". The university did not renew it and the copyright is currently held by the estate of Robert Allen. Therefore, companies selling products with "War Eagle" being played must acquire licensing from the estate as well as Auburn University. There is a movement within the university to regain the ownership of the song.][
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Aubie is Auburn University's tiger mascot. Aubie has very animated characteristics such as his strut walk, quick turns, and exaggerated pointing. His style is to mix tiger and human traits such as using props, riding a moped, leading the band, and performing clownish pranks. Aubie made his debut in 1979 and is a popular beloved character among Auburn fans and one of the more animated mascots in the country.
Aubie has won a record seven mascot national championships (his latest coming in 2012), more than any other mascot in the United States. Aubie was among the first three college mascots inducted to the Mascot Hall of Fame, inducted on August 15, 2006.
Aubie's existence began as a cartoon character that first appeared on the Auburn/Hardin-Simmons football program cover on October 3, 1959. Birmingham Post-Herald artist Phil Neel created the cartoon Tiger who continued to appear on Auburn program covers for 18 years. Aubie's look changed through the years. In 1962, he began to stand upright and the next year, 1963, wore clothes for the first time—a blue tie and straw hat. Aubie's appearances on game programs proved to be somewhat of a good luck charm for head football coach Ralph "Shug" Jordan's teams. The Tigers were victorious in the first nine games Aubie graced the cover and in his first six years, Auburn posted a 23-2-1 home record. Auburn's home record during the eighteen years Aubie served as Cover Tiger was 63-16-2. Aubie's regular appearance on the game program cover ended on October 23, 1976, when Auburn beat Florida State, 31-19, but Aubie returned to Auburn’s cover in the Iron Bowl against Alabama on November 30, 1991, Auburn's last home game at Birmingham's Legion Field.
In 1979, Aubie came to life at the Southeastern Conference basketball tournament. James Lloyd, Auburn spirit director for the Student Government Association, with help from the Auburn Alumni Association, contacted Brooks-Van Horn Costumes in New York, N.Y. The Company was provided with copies of the 1961 Auburn-Alabama and 1962 Auburn-Georgia Tech game programs to use for reference in creating a costume of the cartoon character. The firm, which also provided costumes for Walt Disney, designed and produced a Tiger costume for $1,350. Individual contributions from various Auburn clubs, alumni and friends helped pay for the first costume.
Aubie was introduced at the Birmingham–Jefferson Civic Center on February 28, 1979, and helped lead first-year Auburn coach Sonny Smith's team to an upset of Vanderbilt in his first appearance as a live Tiger mascot. The following day, Aubie returned to the arena and the Tigers beat Georgia in the longest game in SEC tournament history, four overtimes. Before the weekend was complete, Aubie helped lead the ninth-place team in the regular season to the semifinals of the tournament.
Aubie has claimed seven national titles for himself and was inducted into the first class of collegiate mascots in the Mascot Hall of fame. No collegiate mascot has won as many UCA National Mascot Championships as Aubie has. Aubie won his first Universal Cheerleaders Association mascot national championship in 1991 and has won an unmatched seven overall.
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Old Abe (May 1861 – March 26, 1881), a female bald eagle, was the mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the American Civil War. Later, her image was adopted as the eagle appearing on a globe in Case Corporation's logo and as the screaming eagle on the insignia of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division.
Old Abe was captured by Ahgamahwegezhig or “Chief Sky". He was the son of Ah-mous (translated either as “The Little Bee” or “Thunder of Bees”), who was an influential leader of the Lac du Flambeau Ojibwe.
In spring of 1861, Chief Sky set up a hunting and fishing camp near the South Fork of the Flambeau River, within the present day Chequamegon National Forest, east of Park Falls, Wisconsin. Here, he noticed a treetop nest, with two fledgling eagles, and to capture them, cut down the tree. One eaglet died from the fall, and the other became the young Indian's pet. That summer, Chief Sky and his father canoed down the Chippewa River on a trading expedition. At Jim Falls, Wisconsin, they encountered Daniel McCann, who lived nearby in Eagle Point. The Indians sold the eagle to McCann in exchange for a bushel of corn.
In August 1861, John C. Perkins, assisted by Seth Pierce, Frank McGuire, Thomas G. Butler and Victor Wolf, recruited a company of volunteers from Eau Claire and Chippewa Counties. This company was called the "Eau Claire Badgers". Soon after its formation, McCann offered to sell the eagle to the Badgers, for $2.50. In his "History of Old Abe", published in 1865, Joseph O. Barrett, who helped McCann bring the eagle to Eau Claire, gave a description of the transaction, which can be paraphrased as:
"Will you buy my eagle," said McCann, "only two dollars and a half?"
"Here, boys, let's put in twenty five cents apiece," answered Frank McGuire, who began to collect quarters.
He also solicited a contribution from a civilian, S. M. Jeffers, but was rebuffed. When the soldiers heard of this, they accosted Jeffers, and gave him three lusty groans. When he understood that they were protesting against his reluctance to help buy the eagle, Jeffers laughed, paid for the bird with a Quarter Eagle and presented her to the Company. After that, he had cheers instead of groans. The quarters were returned to the donors.
Captain Perkins named the eagle after President Abraham Lincoln, his quartermaster, Francis L. Billings, made a special perch on which to carry the bird into battle, and a young soldier, James McGinnis, volunteered to take care of her.
On September 3, 1861, the Badgers embarked, aboard the steamer "Stella Whipple", on a trip down the Chippewa to the Mississippi and up the Wisconsin River to Madison, Wisconsin. They arrived on the 6th and were immediately mustered into service as Company C of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment. They became the regimental color company and were given the name "Eagle Company". The regiment also became the "Eagle Regiment". After a few weeks of training at Camp Randall, it began to play an important role in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
On October, 12, the regiment left for St. Louis, Missouri, where the eagle got loose and flew out of sight. Fortunately, a policeman soon returned him. On the following day, the regiment left by rail to Fredericktown, Missouri, and on October 20, 1861, took part in the battle of Fredericktown. Subsequently, they were assigned guard duty until March 4, 1862, when they relocated to Point Pleasant, near New Madrid, Missouri, where they became part of General John Pope's Army of the Mississippi. From this base, during March and April, they participated in the battle of Island Number Ten, which ended with a major victory that opened the Mississippi to Union forces down to Fort Pillow, just above Memphis Thousands of Confederate prisoners were taken, along with valuable supplies.
In May 1862, the 8th participated in General Henry Halleck's Siege of Corinth, whose objective was to secure a critical rail junction of the Mobile & Ohio and Memphis & Charleston railroads. On May 9, 1862, during the approach to Corinth, the Eagle Company experienced its first serious combat at the battle of Farmington, Mississippi, during which Old Abe Spread his wings and screamed. Here, Captain Perkins died and was replaced by the newly promoted Captain Victor Wolf. On May 29, after a skirmish at defensive works before Corinth, the Confederates withdrew during the night. The next day, the regiment marched into the city. That day, James McGinnis became sick with a fatal illness and was replaced as eagle bearer by Thomas J. Hill, who served until David McLain took over on August 18.
On August 22, after being bivouacked in summer quarters, the regiment arrived in Tuscumbia, Alabama, which is in the northwest corner of the state a few miles from the Mississippi border. By this time, General Ulysses S. Grant had taken over Halleck's responsibilities in northern Mississippi. The 8th Wisconsin was still part of the Army of the Mississippi, but General William Rosecrans had replaced Pope as commander. The regiment was in the second brigade of General David S. Stanley's second division, which was led by Colonel Joseph A. Mower. Pope's army was assigned to hold 20 miles of rail from Corinth east to Iuka, where the 8th Wisconsin was stationed. On September 13, 1862, the Confederate Army of the West under General Sterling Price appeared at Iuka and forced the regiment back to Farmington.
Shortly thereafter, forces under Rosecrans and General Edward Ord attempted to capture Price's army, which awaited, at Iuka, the arrival of massive reinforcements from General Earl Van Dorn's Army of West Tennessee. On September 19, during the battle of Iuka, a fresh north wind caused an acoustic shadow that prevented Ord from hearing the battle. Consequently, he was unaware of it, and his troops stood idle while fighting raged a few miles away. Nevertheless, the Army of the Cumberland forced Price to withdraw during the night. He soon linked up with Van Dorn in Ripley.
On October 3 and 4, the combined Confederate armies launched a full scale assault on Corinth, which was repulsed by troops under Rosecrans. During heavy fighting in this Second Battle of Corinth, 21 soldiers of the 8th Wisconsin died, and 60 were wounded. Colonel Mower was wounded in the neck and briefly captured.
Newspaper accounts of this battle claimed that Old Abe soared over the front lines. According to David McLain, these stories are exaggerated:
… a bullet cut the cord that held the eagle to his perch. About the same time that the cord was cut, Old Abe was shot through one wing, cutting out three quill feathers, but not drawing blood, and the bearer (McLain) was shot through the left shoulder of his blouse and right leg of his pants.
… (The eagle) flew about 50 feet down the line, must have been what caused the newspapers to come out the next week with great headlines telling about the eagle of the 8th Wisconsin getting away after a rebel bullet cut his cord and soaring, over the lines of both armies, and back to his perch, which is not so.
He was quite excited always in battle and he'd spread his wings and scream but never flew over the lines of either army.
On November 2, 1862, the regiment moved to Grand Junction, Tennessee, where it joined forces being assembled for General Grant's first attempt to take the strategic river city of Vicksburg. From this base, Grant moved down the Mississippi Central Railroad in conjunction with General William Tecumseh Sherman, who launched a simultaneous advance north of the city. Confederates attempted to defend the railroad's Tallahatchie River bridge near Abbeville, but retreated when they learned of a flanking maneuver by Grant. Skirmishes were fought along the railroad to Oxford, and the Confederates were pushed south past Water Valley, but after the battle of Coffeeville, managed to stall the Federal advance at Oakland.
During this push, the 8th Wisconsin, with Old Abe, was in the thick of the fighting. In Oxford, the regiment was accosted by a southern girl who scornfully exclaimed: "Oh! See that Yankee Buzzard.", enraging the men, drawing a verbal response from the 8th's ranks that caused her to retreat hastily to her house. This was a name by which southern civilians and soldiers referred to Old Abe. Under orders from their officers, Confederate troops made numerous attempts to kill or capture the eagle, but they never succeeded.
On December 20, while Grant was stalled, General Van Dorn led a successful cavalry raid on the Union supply base at Holly Springs. After destroying the supplies, Van Dorn and General Nathan Bedford Forest moved north into Tennessee tearing up railroad and telegraph lines. With his infrastructure disrupted, and with Sherman's advance turned back at Chickasaw Bayou, Grant was forced to end the campaign and retire to Memphis.
At the time of Van Dorn's raid, the Wisconsin regiment was stationed in Holly Springs on guard duty. Its troops, were surprised, overwhelmed, captured, and immediately paroled. Consequently, their commander, Colonel Murphy, was dismissed. He was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Robbins, who was promoted to Colonel. On December 28, when the regiment had moved to La Grange, Tennessee, David McLain turned over his job as eagle bearer to Ed Homeston.
In March 1863, the regiment went to Helena, Arkansas, where it became part of Grant's plan to cross the Mississippi south of Vicksburg. His objectives were to separate Vicksburg from Confederate units under General Joseph E. Johnston and to prevent supplies from reaching the city on the Southern Railroad.
From Helena, the regiment went to Young's Point, Louisiana, where they joined the second brigade of the third division of Sherman's XV Corps, under the command of Brigadier General Mower, who had been promoted on November 29, 1862. Here, on April 13, 1863, a promotion to Lieutenant Colonel went to Major John Wayles Jefferson. He had been with the regiment since it was formed, and as the grandson of Sally Hemings, is believed to have been also a grandson of Thomas Jefferson.
On May 2, Sherman's corps crossed the river at Grand Gulf and proceeded toward Raymond, Mississippi, which the XVII Corps under General James B. McPherson occupied on May 12. Sherman bypassed Raymond and advanced on Jackson, which he and McPherson took on May 14, and from which Johnston had withdrawn. After Sherman appointed Mower as military governor of Jackson, Union troops burned part of the town, destroyed numerous factories, and cut the railroad connections with Vicksburg. Grant's objectives were further consolidated when his army prevailed at the battle of Champion Hill on May 16 and at the battle of Big Black River Bridge on May 17. On May 22, the regiment participated in Grant's all out assault on Vicksburg. When this operation failed, Grant reluctantly settled into a siege.
During the siege, the 8th Wisconsin left Vicksburg to participate in an expedition to Mechanicsburg, Mississippi, where Benjamin Hilliker was severely wounded on June 4, 1863. They then returned to Young's Point where they blocked Confederates from escaping westward from Vicksburg. From this encampment, Sherman despatched them as part of a force assigned to drive General John G. Walker's Confederates from Richmond, Louisiana. This objective was accomplished by the battle of Richmond, on June 15, after which the 8th returned to Youngs Point.
On July 12, 1863, the regiment returned to Vicksburg, shortly after its surrender on July 4. Subsequently, the regiment camped in various places near Vicksburg, from which they joined several mop-up operations. During this period, in September, Ed Homeston resigned his position as eagle bearer, John Burkhardt took charge of Old Abe, and Colonel Robbins was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Jefferson. Under his command, the regiment joined McPherson's expedition to Canton, from October 14 to 20, and participated in expeditions toward Pocahontas, Arkansas against General Nathan Bedford Forest. From February 3, 1864, until March 5, they took part in Sherman's Meridian expedition against an important railroad center and arsenal in eastern Mississippi.
In the following letter to Governor Edward Salomon, General William T. Sherman summarized the activities of the Eighth Wisconsin during the Vicksburg campaign:
H 15 A C,
Sept. 21st, 1863
To His Excellency, the Governor of Wisconsin:
Sir Lt. Col. Jefferson, of the Eighth Wisconsin, is about to start for his home on a short leave of absence, during the period of rest allowed us by the lull of military events in this quarter. I avail myself of the opportunity to express to you my personal and official approbation of the entire regiment since I have had the honor to count it as one of my command. The Eighth Wisconsin has ever done its whole duty, in the camp, on the march and in battle. It has shared with us all the honors and success of our conquest of Mississippi and has displayed peculiar courage and gallantry at Jackson, May 14th, and throughout the siege of Vicksburg.
It also, under the leadership of Gen.Mower, cleared the west bank of the river, driving the enemy out of Richmond, La., and bore patiently and manfully the deadly sickness of Young's Point, till the fall of Vicksburg admitted of its recall to join us on this higher and more healthy ground. I am glad to report that the men are fast recovering from the sickness caused by that exposure, and I hope it will share with us our future labors and honors. If within your power, I hope you will fill its thinned ranks, and then I will promise all I can to ensure its return to your State, bearing a full share of honor and fame in the establishment of our General Government on a basis so firm, that no internal or external power can shake it during this generation.
With great respect, etc.,
W. T. SHERMAN,
Sherman was not the only general who had a high regard for the 8th Wisconsin and Old Abe. In the words of David McLain:
I have frequently seen Generals Grant, Sherman, McPherson, Rosecrans, Blair, Logan, and others, when they were passing our regiment, raise their hats as they passed Old Abe, which always brought a cheer from the regiment and then the eagle would spread his wings …
In early 1864, many soldiers in the 8th Wisconsin became eligible for veteran furlough. However, General Sherman made a special request that they join General A. J. Smith's forces who had been assigned to the Red River Campaign, along with troops from the Army of the Gulf, under General Nathaniel P. Banks, and Admiral David Dixon Porter's Mississippi River Squadron. After agreeing to Sherman's request, the regiment joined the Right Wing of the XVI Corps, under the command of General Mower. On March 10, 1864, the contingent began a voyage from Vicksburg down the Mississippi and up the Red River to Simmesport, Louisiana, where they disembarked on March 12. Two days later, Mower's command surprised and captured Fort DeRussy, which opened the river up to Alexandria.
After arriving there on March 16, the troops from Vicksburg settled down to wait for Banks to arrive and to assess opposing forces under General Richard Taylor, who was the son of President Zachary Taylor. While waiting, General Mower assembled a task force, with which he proceeded twenty five miles to Henderson's hill on Bayou Rapides. Here, he encountered Confederate defenses. After leaving a blocking force to engage the defenders at the front, he made a detour of 15 miles to get to their rear, where he arrived around midnight on the cold and rainy night of March 21. On the way, a courier from General Taylor was captured and provided the countersign. This enabled Mower's forces, including the 8th Wisconsin, to overcome the defenses without a shot being fired. In addition to 262 prisoners, 4 guns and 400 horses were taken.
This success made it possible for Smith's army to move quickly upriver to Grand Ecore, where it prepared to support forces of General Banks, which were advancing on Shreveport. On April 8, Banks was routed by Taylor at the battle of Mansfield. This was a decisive victory, for it stopped the Union advance and turned the campaign into a general retreat.
That evening, retreating units under Banks reached Pleasant Hill nearly simultaneously with Smith's XVII and XVI Corps, which included the 8th Wisconsin. These reinforcements enabled the Union to win the next day's battle of Pleasant Hill, but Banks immediately ordered a retreat to Grand Ecore, and from there, to Alexandria. During this retreat, the regiment fought rear guard actions at Natchitoches, Monett's Ferry, and Cloutierville.
After Smith's forces arrived in Alexandria on April 26, they were temporarily deployed to prevent attacks during Joseph Bailey's attempts to get Porter's squadron over the rapids there, with the aid of Bailey's Dam and two small wing dams upstream. After this task was completed, Banks resumed his retreat on May 13, leaving Alexandria in flames.
On May 16, Union forces reached Mansura where Taylor's army attempted to prevent them from reaching river transportation. After heavy fighting, the Confederates fell back, and the Union troops marched toward Simmesport, where Bailey was building a bridge over the Atchafalaya River that would allow them to reach transport ships. On the 18th, Banks learned that Taylor’s force was deployed near Yellow Bayou and arranged for Mower to stop the Confederates. After several hours of see-saw action, the ground cover caught fire and forced both sides to retire. The next day, Smith's army embarked and reached Vicksburg on the 24th.
In early June 1864, General Smith ordered Mower to launch a forceful demonstration to deter interference with Mississippi river traffic near Lake Village, Arkansas. This town is named for its location on Lake Chicot, an oxbow lake formed from the Mississippi. On the evening of June 5, Mower disembarked and camped near Sunnyside Landing. The next morning, as he marched along the south side of the lake, Confederates, led by General Colton Greene, fought a delaying action at Ditch Bayou and then withdrew. The Union troops advanced to Lake Village, camped there overnight, and the next day, boarded transports that took them to Memphis. At Ditch Bayou, the regiment lost 3 killed and 16 wounded.
On June 19,1864, 240 reenlisted veterans left Memphis on furlough, with their eagle. They arrived at Chicago on the 21st. The next day, flags were displayed along the streets of Madison, the bells of the city were rung, and a national salute was fired. At the Capitol, crowds of citizens assembled to greet the veterans and Old Abe. Here, they were addressed by several dignitaries, including General Lucius Fairchild, Colonel Jefferson and Chauncey Abbott, who was a former mayor of Madison.
A few days later, on June 26, 56 veterans of Company C arrived at Eau Claire, with the eagle, and were greeted with booming cannons, martial music, patriotic songs, and an abundant feast. Citizens of Chippewa Falls, constructed a huge wigwam. Here, according to Reverend Joseph O. Barrett, who spoke at the celebration, a great feast was served to Old Abe and the soldiers on July 4, 1864. Afterwards, a procession circled through the streets, headed by a band, the eagle and the veterans.
In August 1864, the veterans and Old Abe returned from furlough to Memphis. During their absence, the regiment had been active in northern Mississippi. Following Forrest's victory over a large Union force at Brice's Crossroads, on June 10, 1864, Sherman vowed to track him down with forces under "two officers at Memphis who will fight all the time, A. J. Smith and J. A. Mower." A month later, Mower's four brigades overtook Forrest near Tupelo, Mississippi, repulsed a series of attacks, and inflicted hundreds of casualties, including the slight wounding of Forrest himself. On August 13, 1864, the day after Mower had been promoted to Major General, the regiment, including the returned troops, participated in another defeat of Forrest's command at Hurricane Creek, Mississippi This was Old Abe's last battle.
September 16, 1864, marked the end of the three years for which original members of the 8th Wisconsin had enlisted. Consequently, the veterans headed north with the eagle, whom the regiment had agreed to give to the state of Wisconsin. On September 21, they reached Chicago, where John Burkhardt resigned as eagle bearer and turned Old Abe over to John H. Hill, who had been disabled by a wound at Corinth. He was the brother of Thomas J. Hill who had also served as eagle bearer. The next day, Hill bore the eagle into Madison at the head of 70 veterans, of which 26 were from Company C. Here, on the 26th, Captain Victor Wolf presented Old Abe to Governor James T. Lewis, who handed the eagle, with its perch, to Quartermaster General N. F. Lund.
After Wisconsin took possession of Old Abe, state officials classified him as a “War Relic” and created an “Eagle Department” in the Capitol building, which included a two room “apartment,” a custom bathtub for the eagle, and a caretaker. Later John Hill served in this capacity.
Old Abe became a nationally known celebrity, whose presence at events was requested by individuals and organizations from the state and the country. Old Abe appeared at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the 1880 Grand Army of the Republic National Convention. Other events were fundraisers for charities, which included: the 1865 Northwest Sanitary Fair in Illinois, Soldiers' Home Fair, Soldier's Orphan's Home, Harvey Hospital, and Ladies Aid Society of Chippewa Falls.
In February 1881, a small fire broke out in the basement of the Capitol. After Old Abe raised an alarm, the fire was quickly put out. However, the eagle inhaled a large amount of thick black smoke, and about a month later, lost strength and began to decline. On March 26 1881, in spite of the efforts of numerous doctors, Old Abe died in the arms of caretaker George Gilles.
On September 17, 1881, Old Abe’s stuffed remains were placed in a glass display case located in the rotunda of the Capitol. Four years later, Old Abe was moved, within the Capitol, from the rotunda to the G.A.R. Memorial Hall. In 1900, his remains were transferred to the new building of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. However, pressure from veterans convinced Governor Robert M. Lafollette to return Old Abe to the Capitol building in 1903. That year, President Theodore Roosevelt viewed the remains and expressed his pleasure at being able to see the eagle he had studied in school as a child. In 1904, Old Abe’s remains and the glass case were destroyed in a fire that razed the Capitol building.
Since 1915, a replica of Old Abe has presided over the Wisconsin State Assembly Chamber in the Capitol, and another is on display at the Wisconsin Veterans Museum in Madison. A stone sculpture of the eagle is at the top of the Camp Randall Arch.
In 1865, Jerome Case incorporated Old Abe into the trademark of the J. I. Case agricultural equipment manufacturing company of Racine, Wisconsin. This trademark was retired in 1969.
The insignia of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division is a depiction of Old Abe. Wisconsin was the territory of the original 101st Division after World War I, and the insignia's design is based on Civil War traditions of the state. The black shield derives from black hats worn by members of the Iron Brigade. This was a famous Civil War unit composed of western regiments, which included three from Wisconsin, but not the 8th regiment.
Old Abe is the mascot of Eau Claire Memorial High School, whose athletic teams are known as "Old Abes", and of Racine Case High School, whose teams are "Eagles".
Eagle is a common name for some members of the bird family Accipitridae; it belongs to several genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the more than sixty species of eagles occur in Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just eleven species can be found – two species (the Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle) in the United States and Canada, nine species in Central America and South America, and three species in Australia.
Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with a heavy head and beak. Even the smallest eagles, like the Booted Eagle (Aquila pennata) (which is comparable in size to a Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) or Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis)), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures. The smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar Serpent Eagle (Spilornis klossi), at 450 g (1 lb) and 40 cm (16 in). The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong muscular legs, and powerful talons. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are extremely powerful, having up to 3.6 times human acuity for the martial eagle, which enables them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily attributed to their extremely large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light. The female of all species of eagle known is larger than the male.
Eagles normally build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. The dominant chick tends to be the female, as they are bigger than the male. The parents take no action to stop the killing.
Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world. The type of prey varies from genus to genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former often capture various animals, especially other water birds, and are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds. The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus, Terathopius and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes that are found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are often the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking almost any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich Spizaetus genus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest. These eagles often target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are often unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart. The Bald Eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg (15 lb) mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey considerably heavier than themselves; such prey is too heavy to fly with and thus it is either eaten at the site of the kill or taken in pieces back to a perch or nest. Golden and Crowned Eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg (66 lb) and a Martial Eagle even killed a 37 kg (82 lb) duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the predating eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne and Clay Sutton, described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus (in this case the Bald and Golden Eagles as compared to other North American raptors):
They have at least one singular characteristic. It has been observed that most birds of prey look back over their shoulders before striking prey (or shortly thereafter); predation is after all a two-edged sword. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles.
Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger. It is regularly debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in total length, body mass or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species. For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the very large Harpy and Philippine Eagles, have relatively short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through dense forested habitats. On the other hand, eagles in the genus Aquila are found almost strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, and have relatively long wings for their size.
Here are lists of the top five eagles going on weight, length and, lastly, wingspan. Unless otherwise noted via reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World (Ferguson-Lees, et al.), in which only measurements that could be personally verified by the authors were listed.
Major new research into eagle taxonomy suggests that the important genera Aquila and Hieraaetus are not composed of nearest relatives, and it is likely that a reclassification of these genera will soon take place, with some species being moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus.
The modern English term for the bird is derived from Latin: by way of French: . The origin of is unknown, but it is believed to possibly derive from either (meaning dark-colored, swarthy, or blackish) as a reference to the plumage of eagles or from (meaning north wind).
Old English used the term , related to Scandinavia's ørn / örn. It is similar to other Indo-European terms for "bird" or "eagle", including Greek: (), Russian: (), and Welsh: . The Albanian word for eagle is , deriving from the root .
In Britain before 1678, eagle referred specifically to the Golden Eagle, with the other native species, the White-tailed Eagle, being known as erne. The modern name "Golden Eagle" for aquila chrysaetos was introduced by naturalist John Ray.][
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped the animal and often depicted eagles in their art.
Despite modern and historic Native American practices of giving eagle feathers to non-indigenous people and also members of other tribes who have been deemed worthy, current United States eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual reasons. In Canada, poaching of eagle feathers for the booming U.S. market has sometimes resulted in the arrests of First Nations person for the crime.
In Hindu religion, Garuda is a lesser Hindu divinity, usually the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu. is depicted as having the golden body of a strong man with a white face, red wings, and an eagle's beak and with a crown on his head. This ancient deity was said to be massive, large enough to block out the sun.
The eagle is also the patron animal of Zeus. In particular, Zeus was said to have taken the form of an eagle in order to abduct Ganymede, and there are numerous artistic depictions of the Eagle Zeus bearing Ganymede aloft, from Classical times up to the present (see illustrations in the Ganymede (mythology) page.)
The Eagle is also the symbol of Libby, Montana which was recently named "The City of Eagles"
Eagles have been used by many nations as a national symbol.
The coat of arms of Albania has a black double-headed eagle. Furthermore the eagle gives Albania its name ( in Albanian Shqiperia meaning Land of the eagles) and Albanians call themselves shqipetar or shqipe meaning eagles.
The national coat of arms of Armenia has a gold eagle and a lion supporting a shield. The coat of arms combines new and old symbols. The eagle and lion are ancient Armenian symbols dating from the first Armenian kingdoms that existed prior to Christ. It combines the Persian lion and the Roman eagle, befitting for a culture and country that straddled the crossing space between those two empires and cultures.
The current coat of arms was adopted on April 19, 1992, by the Armenian Supreme Council decision.The eagle supports the shield on the left side of the coat of arms, while the lion on the right side. The eagle was the symbol of the Artaxiad Dynasty and later on the symbol of the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia. It holds the Artaxiad Dynasty's branch of the shield.
Both of these animals were chosen because of their power, courage, patience, wisdom, and nobility in animal kingdom.
The current coat of arms of Austria, albeit without the broken chains, has been in use by the Republic of Austria since 1919. Between 1934 and the German annexation in 1938 Austria used a different coat of arms, which consisted of a double-headed eagle.The establishment of the Second Republic in 1945 saw the return of the original (First Republic) arms, with broken chains added to symbolise Austria's liberation.The Eagle: Austria's sovereignty (introduced 1919).
The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation:they are Bohemia,Moravia,Silesia. The arms of Bohemia show a silver double-tailed lion on a red background1. The Bohemian Lion is repeated in the lower-left-hand side of the coat of arms. The Moravian red-and-silver chequered eagle is shown on a blue background. Since the days of the Habsburg Monarchy until 1918, the Moravian Eagle was chequered in the red-and-gold colours of the Habsburg dynasty. The arms of Silesia are a black eagle with the so-called "clover stalk" in her breast on a golden background, although only a small south-eastern part of the historical region (Czech Silesia) belongs to the Czech Republic.
The coat of arms of Egypt is a golden eagle looking towards the viewer's left. It is taking from the golden Eagle of Saladin founded on Saladin Citadel of Cairo.
The "Eagle of Saladin" holds a scroll on which the name of the state appears in Arabic script, Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah ("Arab Republic of Egypt"). The eagle carries on its breast a shield with the flag's colors — but with a vertical instead of a horizontal configuration. When appearing on the national flag, the eagle is rendered entirely in gold and white. During the union with Syria in the United Arab Republic (1958–1961), and in the ten years afterwards when Egypt retained the union's official name, the two green stars of the union's flag appeared in the white band of the eagle's shield. Between 1972–1984 the eagle was replaced by the golden hawk of Qureish, as part of the symbolism of the Federation of Arab Republics.
The eagle as a symbol of Saladin is disputed by archeologists. The symbol of an eagle was found on the west wall of the Cairo Citadel (constructed by Saladin), and so is assumed by many to be his personal symbol. There is, however, little proof to defend this. It was subsequently adopted as a symbol of Arab nationalism by Iraq, Palestine, and Yemen (and formerly by Libya).
The coat of arms of Germany has a black eagle(the Bundesadler "Federal Eagle", formerly Reichsadler "Imperial Eagle") on a yellow shield (Or, an eagle displayed sable). It is a re-introduction of the coat of arms of the Weimar Republic (in use 1919–1935) adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1950. The current official design is due to Tobias Schwab (1887–1967) and was introduced in 1928.
The German Empire of 1871-1918 had re-introduced the medieval coat of arms of the Holy Roman Emperors, in use during the 13th and 14th centuries (a black single-headed eagle on a golden background), before the emperors adopted the double-headed eagle, beginning with Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1433. The single-headed Prussian Eagle (on a white background, Argent, an eagle displayed sable) was used as an escutcheon to represent the Prussian Kings as dynasts of the German Empire. The Weimar Republic introduced a version in which the escutcheon and other monarchical symbols were removed.
The coat of arms of Ghana has two golden eagles holding it.The first part, on the upper left shows a sword used by chiefs, and a staff, used by the linguist (known as an okyeame in Akan), at ceremonies. It is a symbol for the regional governments of Ghana. The area to the right shows a representation of a castle on the sea, the presidential palace on the Gulf of Guinea, symbolizes the national government. The third part of the shield shows a cacao tree, which embodies the agricultural wealth of Ghana. The fourth and last field - on the lower right - shows a gold mine, which stands for the richness of industrial minerals and natural resources in Ghana. Upon the shield there are beads with the national colors red, green, and gold, which the flag of Ghana also bears. Above that, there is a black five-pointed star with a golden border, symbol for the lodestar of Ghanaians and the freedom of Africa. Holding the coat of arms and seal are two golden Tawny eagles, which have black stars on a band of the national colors hanging around the neck. They are perched on a motto ribbon, which bears the national motto of Ghana: Freedom and Justice.
The coat of arms of Iceland has a silver-edged, red cross on blue shield . This alludes to the design of the Icelandic flag. The supporters are the four protectors of Iceland (landvættir) standing on a pahoehoe lava block.The bull (Griðungur) is the protector of southwestern Iceland, the eagle or griffin (Gammur) protects northwestern Iceland, the dragon (Dreki) the northeastern part and the Rock-giant (Bergrisi) is the protector of southeastern Iceland. Great respect was given to these creatures of Iceland, so much that there was a law during the time of the Vikings that no ship should bear grimacing symbols (most often dragonheads on the bow of the ship) when approaching Iceland. This was so the protectors would not be provoked unnecessarily.
The coat of arms of Indonesia has an eagle-like garuda carrying a shield on its neck and a banner on its feet.The National emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila. The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the Garuda with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The shield's five emblems represent Pancasila, the five principles of Indonesia's national ideology. The Garuda claws gripping a white ribbon scroll inscribed with the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika written in black text, which can be loosely translated as "Unity in Diversity". Garuda Pancasila was designed by Sultan Hamid II from Pontianak, supervised by Sukarno, and was adopted as the national emblem on 11 February 1950.
The coat of arms of Iraq or state emblem of Iraq is a golden black eagle looking towards the viewer's left side. The eagle is the Eagle of Saladin associated with 20th-century pan-Arabism, bearing a shield of the Iraqi flag, and holding a scroll below with the Arabic words جمهورية العراق (Jumhuriyat Al-`Iraq or "Republic of Iraq").
The coat of arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. The coat of arms depicts a Mexican Golden Eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a snake. To the people of Tenochtitlan this would have strong religious connotations, but to the Europeans, it would come to symbolize the triumph of good over evil.
The coat of arms of Moldova consists of a stylized eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a branch in its claws.According to the author[who?] of the coat of arms, the eagle symbolizes the Latin origin of the people. The chest of the eagle is protected by a shield that bears the traditional insigns of Moldavia: an aurochs head with the sun among its horns. It also contains two rhombi (the ears), a five-petal flower and a moon in a crescent phase. Everything on the shield has one of the three traditional colours: red, yellow, blue.
The coat of arms of Montenegro represents the two-headed eagle in flight which is a symbol of Byzantine and ultimately Roman origin. It symbolises dual authority, such as that over the church and state.
The coat of arms of Nigeria has a black shield with two wavy silver bands that come together, like the letter Y. These represent the two main rivers flowing through Nigeria: the Benue River and the Niger River, Nigeria's main inland waterways, which form a confluence at Lokoja. The black shield represents Nigeria's fertile soil, while the two horses or chargers on each side represent dignity and pride. The eagle represents strength, while the green and white bands on the top of the shield represent the rich agricultural land of the inspiring country. The yellow flowers at the base (incorrectly shown as red in the image) are Costus Spectabilis, Nigeria's national flower. This flower was chosen for inclusion in the coat of arms as it is found all over Nigeria. On the band around the base is Nigeria's national motto since 1978, "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress", formerly "Peace, Unity, Freedom".
The coat of arms of Palestine has the golden Eagle of Saladin.The emblem used by the Palestinian National Authority and the state of Palestine features the Pan-Arab colours of the Palestinian flag on a shield carried by the Eagle of Saladin. Below it flies a scroll with the Arabic text "فلسطين", "Palestine".
The coat of arms of Panama has a harpy eagle.The center section contains the Isthmus of Panama. The chief or top part of the coat of arms comprises two quarters. The top left over a field of silver a sword and a rifle. In 1904, the arms were made official by Law 64 of 4 June 1904 signed by the President of Assembly Dr Genaro Ortega, and sanctioned by the President the Republic, Dr Manuel Amador Guerrero.
The official description of the heraldic design is as follows:
"It rests on a green field, symbol of the vegetation; it is of pointed form and it is intervened as far as the division. The center shows the Isthmus with its seas and sky, in which the moon begins to rise above the waves and the sun begins to hide behind the mountain, marking thereby the solemn hour of the declaration of our independence. The head is divided in two quarters: in the one of the right hand, in the silver field, a sword and a gun are hung meant as abandonment for always to the civil wars, causes of our ruin; in the one of the left-hand side, and on field of gules, a crossed shovel and a grub hoe are shown shining, to symbolize the work "
"The end of the coat of arms also is divided in two quarters: the one of the right-hand side, in blue field, shows a cornucopia, emblem of the wealth; and the one of the left-hand side, in field of silver, the winged wheel, symbol of the progress. Behind the shield and covering it with his opened wings, is the eagle, emblem of the sovereignty, the head turned towards the left, and takes in the tip a silver tape, which hangs from right to left. On the tape the following motto is printed "Pro Mundi Beneficio "
"On the eagle, in arc form, nine gold stars go in representation of the provinces in which the Republic is divided. Like decorative accessories, to each side of the coat of arms two gathered national flags go on the other hand below"
For thirty-seven years the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Panama was not changed until the Constitution of 1941 was promulgated. The National Assembly dictated in March of this year Law 28 on the Coat of Arms, in which the following reforms were introduced: the saber and the gun are meant as attitude of alert in defense of our sovereignty, in the place of "abandonment to mean good bye to the civil wars ". 311 projects appeared to change the motto and the Jury named to make the selection decided for: "Solo Dios sobre Nosotros" (Only God Above Us). Nevertheless, the National Assembly when approving the Law 28 already referred to, rejected it and preferred the one of "Justice, Honor and Freedom ". Five years later, in 1946, Panama returned to the old symbol with the well-known motto of "Pro Mundi Beneficio ".
The formal adoption and regulation of the use of the national flag, anthem and coat of arms were decreed by law 34 of 1949.
Law 34 of 1949 stated, as noted above, that an eagle was to be on the top of the coat of arms. However, it did not specify what species of eagle, even though in most schools the Harpy Eagle was the eagle species on top of the coat of arms. Law 18 of 2002 made the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) the national bird; and to specify what species of eagle was to be on the coat of arms, on May 17, 2006, law 50 was approved by the national Assembly to modify law 18 of 2002, and add that the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) was the species of eagle that appears on the coat of arms of the Republic of Panama.
The coat of arms of the Philippines has the bald eagle of the United States as a symbol of its colonial past, but the Monkey-eating Eagle is the de jure National Bird of the country.
The coat of arms of Poland has a White Eagle (Polish: Orzeł Biały) is the national coat of arms of Poland. It is a stylized white eagle with a golden beak and talons, and wearing a golden crown, in a red shield.
The coat of arms of Romania has a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak and a mace and a sword in its claws.The coat of arms of Romania was adopted in the Romanian Parliament on 10 September 1992 as a representative coat of arms for Romania. It is based on the Lesser Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Romania (used between 1922 and 1947), redesigned by Victor Dima. As a central element it shows a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak and a mace and a sword in its claws. It also consists of the three colors: red, yellow, and blue, which represent the colors of the national flag.
The coat of arms of Russia has a gold double-headed eagle.The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire, as restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis. Though modified more than once since the reign of Ivan III (1462–1505), the current coat of arms is directly derived from its mediaeval original. The general chromatic layout corresponds to the early fifteenth century standard. The shape of the eagle can be traced back to the reign of Peter the Great (1682–1725), although the eagle charge on the present coat of arms is golden rather than the traditional, imperial black.
The coat of arms of Serbia has a white bicephalic eagle of the House of Nemanjić since 2004, the official coat of arms of the Republic of Serbia. It is closely based on the family arms of the Obrenović dynasty, adopted in 1882. The coat of arms was altered in 2010, retaining the same basic elements but modifying the design. However, the change has been highly criticized by the public and some officials, citing the cost of replacing the emblem with such a minor alteration as unjustifiably high.
The national symbol or coat of arms of Syria (Arabic: شعار سوريا) includes the Hawk of Qureish, which holds a shield of the national flag (in vertical form), and a scroll with the words "Syrian Arab Republic" (in Arabic الجمهورية العربية السورية).
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. The phrase is used both for the physical seal itself (which is kept by the United States Secretary of State), and more generally for the design impressed upon it. The Great Seal was first used publicly in 1782.
The obverse of the great seal is used as the national coat of arms of the United States. It is officially used on documents such as United States passports, military insignia, embassy placards, and various flags. As a coat of arms, the design has official colors; the physical Great Seal itself, as affixed to paper, is monochrome.
Since 1935, both sides of the Great Seal have appeared on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. The Seal of the President of the United States is directly based on the Great Seal, and its elements are used in numerous government agency and state seals.
The design on the obverse (or front) of the seal is the coat of arms of the United States. The shield, though sometimes drawn incorrectly, has two main differences from the American flag. First, it has no stars on the blue chief (though other arms based on it do: the chief of the arms of the United States Senate may show 13 or 50, and the shield of the 9/11 Commission has, sometimes, 50 mullets on the chief). Second, unlike the American flag, the outermost stripes are white, not red; so as not to violate the heraldic rule of tincture.
The supporter of the shield is a bald eagle with its wings outstretched (or "displayed," in heraldic terms). From the eagle's perspective, it holds a bundle of 13 arrows in its left talon, (referring to the 13 original states), and an olive branch in its right talon, together symbolizing that the United States has "a strong desire for peace, but will always be ready for war." (see Olive Branch Petition). Although not specified by law, the olive branch is usually depicted with 13 leaves and 13 olives, again representing the 13 original states. The eagle has its head turned towards the olive branch, said to symbolize a preference for peace. In its beak, the eagle clutches a scroll with the motto E pluribus unum ("Out of Many, One"). Over its head there appears a "glory" with 13 mullets (stars) on a blue field. In the current (and several previous) dies of the great seal, the 13 stars above the eagle are arranged in rows of 1-4-3-4-1, forming a six-pointed star.
The 1782 resolution of Congress adopting the arms, still in force, legally blazoned the shield as "Paleways of 13 pieces, argent and gules; a chief, azure." As the designers recognized, this is a technically incorrect blazon under traditional English heraldic rules, since in English practice a vertically striped shield would be described as "paly", not "paleways", and it could not be striped of an uneven number. A more technically proper blazon would have been argent, six pallets gules... (six red stripes on a white field), but the phrase used was chosen to preserve the reference to the 13 original states.
The coat of arms of Yemendepicts a golden eagle with a scroll between its claws. On the scroll is written the name of the country in Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية or Al-Jumhuriyyah Al-Yamaniyah ("The Yemeni Republic"). The chest of the eagle contains a shield that depicts a coffee plant and the Marib Dam, that are below four blue and three wavy stripes. The flagstaffs on the right and left of the eagle hold the Flag of Yemen.
The coat of arms of Zambia was adopted on 24 October 1964 when the Republic of Zambia reached its independence. This coat of arms is adapted from the arms of the Colony of Northern Rhodesia which dates to 1927. The eagle of liberty African Fish Eagle represents the conquest of freedom and nation's hope for the future. The pick and hoe represent the country's economic backbone: agriculture and mining, as well as the characteristics that have influenced Zambia's evolution and nature. The shield is a representation of Victoria Fallswith white water cascading over black rock. The Victoria Falls represents the Zambezi river, from which Zambia takes its name. The coat of arms also has emblems of Zambia's natural resources: minerals and mining, agriculture and wildlife. The shield is supported by two figures which represent the common man and woman of the nation. The country's motto is "One Zambia, One Nation which emphasises the need for unity in a country of over 60 ethnic groups.
The wavy black and white vertical lines also were present in the shield of the coat of arms of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1954-1963.
"Hooray for Auburn!" (sometimes Hurrah for Auburn! or simply Hooray!) is the fight song of Auburn High School in Auburn, Alabama, USA. The melody and basic wording of "Hooray for Auburn" have been adopted for use in the fight songs of many schools in the United States, including Hoover High School ("Hooray for Hoover") and Prattville High School ("Hooray for Prattville").
The lyrics to "Hooray for Auburn" are as follows:
When used by other schools, the lyrics are generally modified by changing the word "Auburn" to something else, such as the school name or mascot.
The basic lyrical structure of "Hooray for Auburn" comes from a cheer that was common in the mid-twentieth century. One of the earliest published versions of the cheer is in Lucile Hasley's 1953 book The Mouse Hunter. In 1961, Auburn High School Band director Tommy Goff wrote music for these lyrics after hearing the cheer used by the Auburn High cheerleaders at a junior varsity football game. The song began being used as the Auburn High School fight song later that year. Around 1963, LaFayette High School in LaFayette, Alabama began using the music as their fight song and soon after several other schools in eastern Alabama adopted "Hooray!".
The following schools use or have used a variation of "Hooray for Auburn!" as a fight song:
A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same military unit. Battle cries are not necessarily articulate, although they often aim to invoke patriotic or religious sentiment. Their purpose is a combination of arousing aggression and esprit de corps on one's own side and causing intimidation on the hostile side. Battle cries are a universal form of display behaviour (i.e., threat display) aiming at competitive advantage, ideally by overstating one's own aggressive potential to a point where the enemy prefers to avoid confrontation altogether and opts to flee. In order to overstate one's potential for aggression, battle cries need to be as loud as possible, and have historically often been amplified by acoustic devices such as horns, drums, conches, carnyxes, bagpipes, bugles, etc. (see also martial music).
Battle cries are closely related to other behavioral patterns of human aggression, such as war dances and taunting, performed during the "warming up" phase preceding the escalation of physical violence. From the Middle Ages, many cries appeared on standards and were adopted as mottoes, an example being the motto "Dieu et mon droit" ("God and my right") of the English kings. It is said that this was Edward III's rallying cry during the Battle of Crécy. The word "slogan" originally derives from sluagh-gairm or sluagh-ghairm (sluagh = "people", "army", and gairm = "call", "proclamation"), the Scottish Gaelic word for "gathering-cry" and in times of war for "battle-cry". The Gaelic word was borrowed into English as slughorn, sluggorne, "slogum", and slogan.
Auburn University has several notable traditions, many related to its varsity teams, the Auburn Tigers.
Auburn University has a creed, an alma mater, and a fight song.
Auburn Tigers is the name given to Auburn University athletic teams. The University is a member of the Southeastern Conference and competes in NCAA Division I, fielding 19 varsity teams in 13 sports:
War Eagle is a battle cry, yell, or motto of Auburn University and supporters of Auburn University sports teams, especially the Auburn Tigers football team. War Eagle is a common term of endearment, greeting, or salutation among the Auburn Family (e.g., students, alumni, fans). It is also the title of the university's fight song and the name of the university's golden eagles. It is incorrect to say the War Eagle battle cry in the plural, as in "War Eagles".
The widespread use of "War Eagle" by Auburn devotees has often led to outside confusion as to Auburn's official mascot. However, the official mascot of Auburn University is Aubie the Tiger, and all Auburn athletic teams, men's and women's, are nicknamed the Tigers. Auburn has never referred to any of its athletic teams as the "Eagles" or "War Eagles." The university's official response to the confusion between the Tigers mascot and the War Eagle battle cry is, "We are the Tigers who say 'War Eagle'." Eagle