Why do church bells go off every hour?


They go off every hour and the number of rings is the number of hours. It's quite handy if you don't have your watch.

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A clock face or dial is the part of an analog clock (or watch) that displays the time through the use of a fixed-numbered dial or dials and moving hands. In its most basic form, recognized throughout the world, the periphery of the dial is numbered 1 through 12 indicating the hours in a 12-hour cycle, and a short hour hand makes two revolutions in a day. A longer minute hand makes one revolution every hour. The face may also include a seconds hand which makes one revolution per minute. The term is less commonly used for the time display on digital clocks and watches. A second type of clock face is the 24-hour analog dial, widely used in military and other organizations that use 24-hour time. This is similar to the 12-hour dial above, except it has hours numbered 1–24 around the outside, and the hour hand makes only one revolution per day. Some special-purpose clocks, such as timers and sporting event clocks, are designed for measuring periods less than one hour. Clocks can indicate the hour with Roman numerals or Hindu–Arabic numerals, or with non-numeric indicator marks. The two numbering systems have also been used in combination, with the prior indicating the hour and the later the minute. Longcase clocks (also known as grandfather clocks) typically use Roman numerals for the hours. Clocks using only Arabic numerals first began to appear in the mid-18th century. The periphery of a clock's face, where the numbers and other graduations appear, is often called the chapter ring. The clock face is so familiar that, particularly in the case of watches, the numbers are often omitted and replaced with undifferentiated hour marks. Occasionally markings of any sort are dispensed with, and the time is read by the angles of the hands. The face of the Movado "Museum Watch" is known for a single dot at the 12 o'clock position. It is customary to display clocks and watches at 10:10; almost all advertising shows them this way. Most modern clocks have the numbers 1 through 12 printed at equally spaced intervals around the periphery of the face with the 12 at the top, indicating the hour, and on many models, sixty dots or lines evenly spaced in a ring around the outside of the dial, indicating minutes and seconds. The time is read by observing the placement of several "hands" which emanate from the centre of the dial: All the hands continuously rotate around the dial in a 'clockwise' direction - in the direction of increasing numbers. In the example picture, showing a two handed clock, the minute hand is on "14" minutes and the hour hand is moving from '12' to '1' - this indicates a time of 12:14. Clocks existed before clock faces. The first mechanical clocks, built in 13th century Europe, were striking clocks: their purpose was to ring bells upon the canonical hours, to call the public to prayer.][ These were erected as tower clocks in public places, to ensure that the bells were audible. It was not until these mechanical clocks were in place that their creators realized that their wheels could be used to drive an indicator on a dial on the outside of the tower, where it could be widely seen. Before the late 14th century, a fixed hand (often a carving shaped like a hand) indicated the hour by pointing to numbers on a rotating dial; after this time the current convention of a rotating hand on a fixed dial was adopted. Minute hands (so named because they indicated the small or minute divisions of the hour) only came into regular use around 1690, after the invention of the pendulum and anchor escapement increased the precision of time-telling enough to justify it. St John the Evangelist, Groombridge, Kent, has a fine example of a clock with only an hour hand. In some precision clocks a third hand, which rotated once a minute, was added in a separate subdial. This was called the 'second-minute' hand (because it measured the secondary minute divisions of the hour), which was shortened to 'second' hand. The convention of the hands moving clockwise evolved in imitation of the sundial. In the Northern hemisphere, where the clock face originated, the shadow of the gnomon on a horizontal sundial moves clockwise during the day. This was also why noon or 12 o'clock was conventionally located at the top of the dial. During the French Revolution in 1793, in connection with its Republican calendar, France attempted to introduce a decimal time system. This had 10 decimal hours in the day, 100 decimal minutes per hour, and 100 decimal seconds per minute. Therefore the decimal hour was more than twice as long (144 min) as the present hour, the decimal minute was slightly longer than the present minute (86 seconds) and the decimal second was slightly shorter (0.86 sec) than the present second. Clocks were manufactured with this alternate face, usually combined with traditional hour markings. However, it didn't catch on, and France discontinued the mandatory use of decimal time on 7 April 1795, although some French cities used decimal time until 1801. Until the last quarter of the 17th century hour markings were etched into metal faces and the recesses filled with black wax. Subsequently, higher contrast and improved readability was achieved with white enamel plaques painted with black numbers. Initially, the numbers were printed on small, individual plaques mounted on a brass substructure. This was not a stylistic decision, rather enamel production technology had not yet achieved the ability to create large pieces of enamel. The "13 piece face" was an early attempt to create an entirely white enamel face. As the name suggests, it was composed of 13 enamel plaques: 12 numbered wedges fitted around a circle. The first single piece enamel faces, not unlike those in production today, began to appear c. 1735.
Analog watch (sometimes spelled analogue watch) is an example of a retronym. It was coined to distinguish analogue watches, which had simply been called "watches", from newer digital watches; see watch and clock. The name refers to the design of the display, regardless of the timekeeping technology used within the watch. A digital watch is one in which the time is displayed as a series of digits, e.g. "13:37". An analog watch is one in which the display is not digital, but is indicated (typically) by the continuous motion of two or three rotating pointers or hands pointing to numbers arrayed on a circular dial (the hour hand's movement being analogous to the path of the Sun across the sky). An analog watch can be used to locate north and south. The Sun appears to move in the sky over a 24 hour period while the hour hand of a 12-hour clock face takes twelve hours to complete one rotation. In the northern hemisphere, if the watch is rotated so that the hour hand points toward the Sun, the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate south. For this method to work in the southern hemisphere, the 12 is pointed toward the Sun and the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate north. During daylight saving time, the same method can be employed using 1 o'clock instead of 12. There are relatively minor inaccuracies due to the difference between local time and zone time, and due to the equation of time. The method functions less well as one gets closer to the equator.
Clocks and watches with a 24-hour analog dial have an hour hand that makes one complete revolution, 360°, in a day (24 hours per revolution). The more familiar 12-hour analog dial has an hour hand that makes two complete revolutions in a day (12 hours per revolution). Twenty-four-hour analog clocks and watches are used today by pilots, scientists, and the military, and are sometimes preferred because of the unambiguous representation of a whole day at a time. Note that this definition refers to the use of a complete circular dial to represent a 24-hour day. Using the numbers from 0 to 23 (or 1 to 24) to mark the day is the 24-hour clock system. Sundials use 24-hour analog dials—the shadow traces a path that repeats approximately once per day. Many sundials are marked with the Double-XII or Double-12 system, in which the numbers I to XII (or 1 to 12) are used twice, once for the morning hours, and once for the afternoon and evening hours. So VI (or 6) appears twice on many dials, once near sunrise and once near sunset. [1] Modern 24-hour analog dials—other than sundials—are almost always marked with 24 numbers or hour marks around the edge, using the 24-hour clock system. These dials do not need to indicate AM or PM. The ancient Egyptians divided the day into 24 hours. There are diagrams of circles divided into 24 sections in the astronomical ceiling in the tomb of Senemut. Sundials use some or all of the 24 hour dial, because they show the position of the sun in the sky. Sometimes, for aesthetic rather than practical reasons, all the 24 hour marks are shown. Medieval clocks often used the 24-hour analog dial, influenced by the widespread example of the astrolabe. In Northern Europe, the Double-XII system was preferred: two sets of the Roman numerals I to XII were used, one on the left side for the night and morning hours, and another set on the right side of the dial to represent the afternoon and evening hours. In Italy, the numbers from 1 to 24 (I to XXIV in Roman numerals) were used, leading to the widespread use of the 24 hour system in that country. On Italian clocks, though, the I was often shown at the right side of the dial, rather than the top. This probably reflects the influence of the Italian timekeeping system, which started counting the hours of the day at sunset or twilight. In northern Europe, the Double XII system was gradually superseded during the 14th and 15th centuries by the single XII (12-hour system), leading to the widespread adoption of the 12-hour dial for popular use. The 24-hour analog dial continued to be used, but primarily by technicians, astronomers, scientists, and clockmakers. John Harrison, Thomas Tompion, and Mudge built a number of clocks with 24 hour analog dials, particularly when building astronomical and nautical instruments. 24 hour dials were also used on sidereal clocks, such as on this example by Charles Frodsham: Sidereal time by Charles Frodsham The famous Big Ben clock in London has a 24 hour dial as part of the mechanism, although it is not visible from the outside. In the 20th century, the 24 hour analog dial was adopted by radio amateurs, pilots, submariners, and for military use. 24-hour analog watches and clocks are still being manufactured today, and are sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. A famous brand is the Glycine Airman watch. Other manufacturers who make 24-hour analog watches include Breitling, Raketa, Vostok, Fortis, Poljot, Swatch, and many others. Glycine Airman Swatch 24-hour watch 24-hour chronograph by Hamilton The major variation in the design of 24-hour analog dials is the location of midnight and noon. Although always opposite each other, 180° apart, noon is sometimes at the top, sometimes at the bottom. A few rare variants place noon and midnight at the right and left sides. There is no ambiguity if the 24-hour numbering is used. In the United States, the government and military commonly use 24-hour clocks having noon at the bottom; the variant with noon at the top is far less common. A common use for the 24-hour analog method of representing time is for showing the way the time of day depends on one's location. A globe, map, or disk can be used. The Willis World Clock, in the London Science Museum George Orwell uses the 12-hour and 24-hour dials to symbolize the old and new worlds in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. The 12-hour dial is a relic of pre-revolutionary society, used to represent the desirable past; the 24-hour dial and time system is the compulsory standard imposed by the Party, and represents both conformity and the undesirable nature of the new world. This theme is famously set in the opening line: In the 1927 film Metropolis, the opening scene shows both a 24-hour analog clock and a 10-hour (metric) analog clock, one above the other. Both are used to convey the impression of an alien and highly efficient society. In Jules Verne Science Fiction masterpiece,"20000 Leagues Under the Sea", Captain Nemo remarks that the clocks in the Nautilus use a 24-hour dial "Now, look at that clock: it's electric, it runs with an accuracy rivaling the finest chronometers. I've had it divided into twenty–four hours like Italian clocks, since neither day nor night, sun nor moon, exist for me, but only this artificial light that I import into the depths of the seas! See, right now it's ten o'clock in the morning." (See Project Gutenberg).
A striking clock is a clock that sounds the hours audibly on a bell or gong. In 12 hour striking, used most commonly in striking clocks today, the clock strikes once at one a.m., twice at two a.m., continuing in this way up to twelve times at 12 noon, then starts again, striking once at one p.m., twice at two p.m., up to twelve times at 12 midnight. The striking feature of clocks was originally more important than their clock faces; the earliest clocks struck the hours, but had no dials to enable the time to be read. The development of mechanical clocks in Europe was motivated by the need to ring bells upon the canonical hours to call the community to prayer. The earliest known mechanical clocks were large striking clocks installed in towers in monasteries or public squares, so that their bells could be heard far away. Though an early striking clock in Syria was a 12 hour clock, many early clocks struck up to 24 strokes, particularly in Italy, where the 24 hour clock, keeping Italian hours, was widely used in the 14th and 15th centuries. As the modern 12 hour clock became more widespread, particularly in Great Britain and Northern Europe, 12 hour striking became more widespread and eventually became the standard. A typical striking clock will have two gear trains, because a striking clock must add a striking train that operates the mechanism that rings the bell in addition to the timekeeping train that measures the passage of time. The most basic sort of striking clock simply sounds a bell once every hour. This sort of striking clock is called a passing strike clock. It is far simpler to create such a clock; all that must be done is to attach a cam to a shaft that rotates once an hour; the cam raises and then lets fall a hammer that strikes the bell. Originating before the mechanical clock itself, in water clocks, such clocks were the earliest striking clocks; they rang once for each canonical hour, and were used as reminders to summon monks or nuns to their prayers. This sort of striking is still found in some skeleton clocks. It does not require a separate gear train to arm and release the single stroke sounded. The Tang Dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk and inventor Yi Xing (683–727) created a rotating celestial globe that was given motive power by hydraulics of a turning waterwheel (acting as a large escapement), in the tradition of Zhang Heng (78–139). This featured two wooden gear jacks on its horizon surface with a drum and a bell, the bell being struck automatically every hour and the drum being struck automatically every quarter hour. It is recorded that Confucian students in the year 730 were required to write an essay on this device in order to pass the Imperial examinations. The use of clock jacks to sound the hours were used in later clock towers of Song Dynasty China, such as those designed by Zhang Sixun and Su Song in the 10th and 11th centuries, respectively. A striking clock outside of China was the clock tower near the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria, which struck once every hour. It was constructed by the Arab engineer al-Kaysarani in 1154.][ The Florentine writer Dante Alighieri made a reference to the gear works of striking clocks in 1319. The most famous original striking clock tower still standing is possibly the one in St Mark's Clocktower in St Mark's Square, Venice. The St Mark's Clock was assembled in 1493, by the famous clockmaker Gian Carlo Rainieri from Reggio Emilia, where his father Gian Paolo Rainieri had already constructed another famous device in 1481. In 1497, Simone Campanato moulded the great bell (h. 1,56 m., diameter m. 1,27), which was put on the top of the tower where it's alternatively beaten by the Due Mori (Two Moors), two bronze statues (h. 2,60) handling a hammer. During the great wave of tower clock building in 14th century Europe, around the time of the invention of the mechanical clock itself, striking clocks were built that struck the bell multiple times, to count out the hours. The clock of the Beata Vergine (later San Gottardo) in Milan, built around 1330, was one of the earliest recorded that struck the hours. In 1335, Galvano Fiamma wrote: The astronomical clock designed by Richard of Wallingford in 1327 and built around 1354, also struck 24 hours. Some rare clocks use a form of striking known as "Roman Striking" invented by Joseph Knibb, in which a large bell or lower tone is sounded to represent "five", and a small bell or high tone is sounded to represent "one". For example, four o'clock would be sounded as a high tone followed by a low tone, whereas the hour of eleven o'clock would be sounded by two low tones followed by a high tone. The purpose is to conserve the power of the striking train. For example, "VII" would be a total of three strikes instead of seven, and "XII" would be four strikes instead of twelve. Clocks using this type of striking usually represent four o'clock on the dial with an "IV" rather than the more common "IIII", so that the Roman numerals correspond with the sequence of strikes on the high and low bells. One small table clock of this type sold from the George Daniels collection at Sotheby's on 6 November 2012 for £1,273,250. Two mechanisms have been devised by clockmakers to enable striking clocks to correctly count out the hours. The earlier, what appeared in the first striking clocks in the 14th century, is called "countwheel striking". This uses a wheel that contains notches on its side, spaced by unequal, increasing arc segments. This countwheel governs the rotation of the striking train. When the striking train is released by the timekeeping train, a lever is lifted from a notch on the countwheel; the uneven notches allow the striking train to move only far enough to sound the correct number of times, after which the lever falls back into the next notch and stops the striking train from turning further. The countwheel has the disadvantage of being entirely independent of the timekeeping train; if the striking train winds down, or for some other reason the clock fails to strike, the countwheel will become out of synch with the time shown by the hands, and must be resynchronized by manually releasing the striking train until it moves around to the correct position. In the late seventeenth century, rack striking was invented. Rack striking is so called because it is regulated by a rack and snail mechanism. The distance a rack is allowed to fall is determined by a snail-shaped cam, thereby regulating the number of times the bell is allowed to sound. The rack and snail was invented by British clergyman Edward Barlow in 1676. The snail-shaped cam is a part of the timekeeping train that revolves every twelve hours; often, the snail is attached to the center wheel that drives the hour hand of the clock. Like the countwheel, the cam stops the striking train when the appropriate count has been reached. The diameter of the cam is largest at the one o'clock position, permitting the rack to move only a short distance, after which the striking train is stopped; it is smallest at the 12 o'clock position, which allows the rack to move the farthest. Because it is linked to the timekeeping train, rack striking seldom becomes desynchronized from the hands. Rack striking also made possible the repeating clock, which can be made to repeat the last hour struck by pressing a button. Rack striking became the standard mechanism used in striking clocks down to the present. All hour striking mechanisms have these parts. The letters below refer to the diagram at left. Clocks that have more elaborate functions than just striking the hours, such as chiming the quarter hours, or playing tunes, are called "chiming clocks" by clockmakers. The additional functions are usually run by a second complete striking mechanism separate from the (hour) striking train, called the "chiming train". These clocks have three weights or mainsprings, to power the timing train, striking train, and chiming train. This describes how the rack and snail striking mechanism works. The labels refer to the drawing above. The release lever (L) holds the rack (M) up when the clock is not striking. On the shaft of the minute hand (not shown), which rotates once per hour, there is a projection. As the change of the hour approaches, this projection slowly lifts the release lever, allowing the rack to fall until its point rests on the snail (N). The amount the rack can fall, and thus the number of strikes, is determined by the position of the snail. Exactly on the hour the striking train (G, H, K) is released and begins to turn. As it turns, the pins (G) repeatedly lift the hammer (F) and allow it to drop, ringing the gong (E). The gear ratios are arranged so that the gear wheel (H) makes one revolution each strike. A small pin (S) on this wheel engages the rack teeth, lifting the rack up by one tooth each turn. When the rack reaches the end of its teeth it stops the striking train from turning. So the number of strikes is equal to the number of teeth of the rack which are used, which depends on the position of the snail. Specialized types of striking clocks: Some quartz clocks also contain speakers and sound chips that electronically imitate the sounds of a chiming or striking clock. Other quartz striking clocks use electrical power to strike bells or gongs.
A repeater is a complication in a mechanical watch or clock that audibly chimes the hours and often minutes at the press of a button. There are many types of repeater, from the simple repeater which merely strikes the number of hours, to the minute repeater which chimes the time down to the minute, using separate tones for hours, quarter hours, and minutes. They originated before widespread artificial illumination, to allow the time to be determined in the dark, and were also used by the visually impaired. Now they are mostly valued as expensive novelties by watch and clock enthusiasts. Repeaters should not be confused with striking clocks or watches, which do not strike on demand, but merely at regular intervals. The repeating clock was invented by the English cleric and inventor, the Reverend Edward Barlow in 1676. His innovation was the rack and snail striking mechanism, which could be made to repeat easily and became the standard mechanism used in both clock and watch repeaters ever since. The best kind of repeating clocks were expensive to make; a separate train of wheels had to be added to the striking mechanism, to activate it one pulled a cord whereupon it would strike the hours and quarters, or even the hours and five minute divisions (five minute repeating). During the nineteenth century such clocks gradually went out of use. Due to cheap imports from France, Germany and America English clockmaking went into decline and with the advent of gas lighting repeating clocks became an unnecessary luxury. Both Edward Barlow and Daniel Quare claimed the invention of the repeating watch, just before 1700. Both applied for a patent on it, which was decided in favor of Quare in 1687. Repeater watches were much harder to make than repeater clocks; fitting the bells, wire gongs and complicated striking works into a pocketwatch movement was a feat of fine watchmaking. So repeating watches were expensive luxuries and status symbols. Whereas repeating watches made in the eighteenth century struck a bell mounted in the back of the case, during the nineteenth century wire gongs were invariably employed as they took up less space. These appear to have been invented by the Swiss around 1800. Another type of repeating watch made during the period 1750–1820 was the dumb repeating watch, these had the two hammers for hours and quarters striking blocks within the case which made a dull sounding thud which could be felt in the hand. Generally, repeating watches strike the hours and quarters, although the best London made eighteenth century repeating mechanisms (motions) were made using the Stockten system, named after the original inventor Matthew Stockten (known also as Stockton, Stockdon or Stogden) who worked for the famous makers Daniel Quare and George Graham. These were made to strike the hours, quarters and half quarters (7.5 mins). From around 1750 watches this system was modified to repeat the hours, quarters and minutes (the minute repeater), the famous London maker John Ellicott appears to have been the first to produce these in numbers. During the nineteenth century following the improvements made by A.L. Breguet, the minute repeating mechanism became much more common but still to be found only in the best watches as it was expensive to make. Repeating watches, as luxuries, survived the introduction of electric lighting and luminous watch dials in the early 1900s, and repeaters are still found in the most expensive complicated watches, although such mechanical exercises are made by the Swiss for purely commercial reasons as their purpose is in the present day completely redundant. The rack and snail striking mechanism used in repeaters is described in detail in the striking clock article. Repeater clocks often had a cord with a button on the end protruding from the side of the clock. Pulling the cord actuated the repeater mechanism. This was called a pull repeater. Repeating carriage clocks have a button on the top to activate them. Early watch repeater mechanisms were actuated by pushing and depressing the pendant (the top) of the watch. Later ones are activated by pushing a slide along the side of the case. This winds a separate spring to power the repeater. Releasing the slide releases the spring, and its force as it unwinds moves the repeater mechanism through its chiming sequence. A problem with very early repeaters was that the slide could be released before it was fully cocked, causing the repeater to only chime part of its sequence. Around 1720 French watchmaker Abraham Breguet invented a reliable 'all-or-nothing' mechanism that prevented this, making watch repeaters considerably more reliable and popular. The first repeaters had a single bell mounted in the back of the case, on which 2 hammers would strike. This bell was made of "Bell metal", a mixture of copper and tin. The later gongs are made of long hardened steel wires that are coiled inside the watch case. Tiny hammers actuated by the repeater mechanism strike them to make the chiming sounds. Some of the complex repeaters, such as the minute repeater, need to produce three different sounds, to distinguish hours, quarter hours, and minutes in the striking sequence. Since it is difficult to fit three bulky wire gongs into a watch movement, virtually all repeaters use two gongs, made from the two ends of a single length of wire supported in the middle, and if a third sound is needed it is made by striking the two gongs rapidly in sequence, first the high tone and then the low: "ding-dong". The repeaters have a mechanism that allows the pace of the repeater strikes to be changed. The owner of a repeater watch can ask a watchmaker to change the pace, making it faster or slower. According to the book "Etablissage et Repassage des Montres à Répétition" by John Huguenin (page 39 of the original edition), "a minute repeater with an average speed takes about twenty seconds to strike 12 hours, three quarters and fourteen minutes". The term "repeater", without qualifiers, usually means an hour repeater. On pressing the lever or button, the repeater strikes the number of hours that have passed since 12 o'clock on a gong. This is the only type of repeater that needs a single gong. No distinction is usually made between AM and PM, so whether the time shown is 2:00 am, 2:17 am, 2:59 am, or 2:59 pm, the repeater will chime twice. The quarter repeater strikes the number of hours, and then the number of quarter hours since the last hour. The mechanism uses 2 chimes of different tones. The low tone usually signals the hours, and the high tone the quarter hours. As an example, if the time is 2:45, the quarter repeater sounds 2 low tones and after a short pause 3 high ones: "dong, dong, ding, ding, ding". Alternatively, some use a pair of tones to distinguish the quarter hours: "dong, dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding-dong" The half-quarter repeater can sound the time to half a quarter hour, or 7½ minutes. It strikes hours and then quarter hours, like the quarter repeater, then it uses a single tone in order to signal if more than half of the current quarter hour has passed. For example, if the time is 3:41 the mechanism will strike 3 low tones ("dong") to represent 3 hours, then 2 sequence tones ("ding-dong") to represent 2 quarter hours, then one high tone ("ding") to indicate that more than half of the third quarter hour has passed. First made in 1710 by Samuel Watson, the five minute repeater strikes the hours and then the number of five-minute periods since the hour. The mechanism uses a low tone for the hours and a high tone for the minutes. For example, 2:25 would be struck as: "dong, dong, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding". The minute repeater works like the quarter repeater, with the addition that, after the hours and quarter hours are sounded, the number of minutes since the last quarter hour are sounded. This requires three different sounds to distinguish hours, quarters, and minutes. Often the hours are signaled by a low tone, the quarters are signaled by a sequence of two tones ("ding-dong"), and the minutes by a high tone. For example, if the time is 2:49 then the minute repeater will sound 2 low tones representing 2 hours, 3 sequence tones representing 45 minutes, and 4 high tones representing 4 minutes: "dong, dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding, ding, ding, ding".. The decimal repeater works like the minute repeater, but instead of chiming the quarter hours followed by minutes, it sounds the number of ten-minute intervals after the last hour and then the minutes. For example, if the time is 2:49 then the decimal repeater will sound 2 low tones representing 2 hours, 4 sequence tones representing 40 minutes, and 9 high tones representing 9 minutes: "dong, dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding-dong, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding". These repeaters, although first made more than 250 years ago, are very rare. A grande sonnerie is a quarter striking mechanism combined with a repeater. On each quarter hour, it sounds the hours and then the quarters on two gongs. In addition it can strike the hours at the push of a button. Used by the visually impaired and to tell the time quietly in meetings and concerts, 'dumb' repeater watches did not chime audibly, but instead produced vibrations. Instead of a gong, the hammer struck the hours on a solid metal block attached to the case, producing a dull 'thud' that could be felt in the hand. A student of the Ecole Technique de la Vallée de Joux created a mechanical ten minute repeater in the 1930s. Conceived of as clock for the blind—before talking clocks, and patented (3,925,777) in 1974, this electronic repeater called the Audocron was manufactured in the U.S. When touched it chimed out the hour, then in a higher tone - the tens of minutes, followed by the minutes in the original tone. There was a 1.5 seconds space between the groups. About 18,000 were made in the U.S. and sold worldwide. Minute Repeater Ébauche, dial side. Minute Repeater Ebauche, back side Minute repeater gong, about 2 in. diameter Gong support point, showing hollowing to lower tone. Audocron, silver plated version Close-up of a minute repeating pocket watch movement showing placement of the gong and hammers, manufactured by the Gallet family in 1905. Closeup of a quarter repeater movement, dial side (with dial removed)
Grande sonnerie (French, meaning 'grand strike') is a complication in a mechanical watch or clock which combines a quarter striking mechanism with a repeater. On the quarter-hour, it strikes the number of hours audibly on a gong, and then the number of quarter-hours since the hour on a second gong. In addition it can strike the hours on demand, at the push of a button. The term is sometimes used erroneously for a mere quarter striking mechanism. It is more complex than the petite sonnerie, which merely strikes the hours on the hour and the quarter hours on the quarter, with no repeater function.
The blagovest is a type of peal in Russian Orthodox bell ringing. Its name means Annunciation or Good News, and is the call to prayer rung before the beginning of divine services, as well as during the services. The rules of ringing and the bell used are specified by the rules of the Orthodox divine liturgy. The blagovest consists of the ringing of a single bell. A blagovest is rung with a large bell, therefore the category of large bells are called blagovestniks.
Time Music

William Christopher Handy (November 16, 1873 – March 28, 1958) was a blues composer and musician. He was widely known as the "Father of the Blues".

Handy remains among the most influential of American songwriters. Though he was one of many musicians who played the distinctively American form of music known as the blues, he is credited with giving it its contemporary form. While Handy was not the first to publish music in the blues form, he took the blues from a regional music style with a limited audience to one of the dominant national forces in American music.

Bells Measurement

A ship's bell is used to indicate the time aboard a ship and hence to regulate the sailors' duty watches. The bell itself is usually made of brass or bronze and normally has the ship's name engraved or cast on it. The ship's cook (or his staff) traditionally has the job of shining the ship's bell.

Unlike civil clock bells, the strikes of the bell do not accord to the number of the hour. Instead, there are eight bells, one for each half-hour of a four-hour watch. In the age of sailing, watches were timed with a 30-minute hourglass. Bells would be struck every time the glass was turned, and in a pattern of pairs for easier counting, with any odd bells at the end of the sequence.

Hospitality Recreation

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