Botulism (Latin, botulinus, "sausage") (pronounced //) is, in humans, a rare and sometimes fatal paralytic illness. Foodborne botulism is an intoxication caused by consuming food contaminated with the botulinum toxin; it is not passed on from person to person when the skin is intact. Infant botulism is a toxico-infection where the gastro-intestinal tract is colonized by spores prior to the protective intestinal bacterial flora having developed and wound botulism is found most often among substance abusers when spores enter a wound under the skin, and, in the absence of oxygen are activated and release toxin.
The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine, sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus. (The "digestive system" is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion).
In an adult male human, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is 5 metres (20 ft) long in a live subject, or up to 9 metres (30 ft) without the effect of muscle tone, and consists of the upper and lower GI tracts. The tract may also be divided into foregut, midgut, and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment of the tract.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine) and appearing red or pink. Gram-positive organisms are able to retain the crystal violet stain because of their thick peptidoglycan layer, which is superficial to the cell membrane. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which may have a thick or thin peptidoglycan layer that is located between two cell membranes.
Plasma membrane, PG layer and cell wall are three distinct structures. For example, plant cells have rigid cell walls in addition to an outer plasma membrane, and animal cells have only plasma membranes. Thus, cell walls are responsible for structural support and rigidity that plant cells need to survive—as they are not motile organisms, and their survival depends on strong, rigid structures. Animal cells and gram-positive cells (to a certain degree) are amorphous and can change shape, since the outer plasma membrane consists of a dynamic lipid bilayer without the constraints of an additional outer cell wall (which would hinder survival in animal cells).
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.