An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, chiefly caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental or physical stimulation. They may or may not be carbonated, and generally contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants, and many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts and amino acids. They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels. There are many brands and varieties of energy drinks.
Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Soft drinks such as cola, may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Four Loko, contain caffeine and other stimulants and are marketed as energy drinks, although such drinks are banned in some American states.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
Venom Energy is an energy drink brand produced and distributed by Dr Pepper Snapple Group of Plano, Texas. It is one of the few energy drinks that uses a thick aluminum bottle. Venom Energy was released in 2002 in a more typical beverage container and was relaunched in the new aluminum bottle and with a new taste in early 2008.
In 2008, Venom Energy entered into a partnership with the Arena Football League to promote the product during the 2008 playoffs on ESPN and ABC. In addition, Cincinnati Bengals wide receiver Terrell Owens is now a spokesman for the brand. The company also sponsors the Andretti Autosport IndyCar Series team with driver Marco Andretti, Pavel Datsyuk of the Detroit Red Wings, Max Talbot of the Pittsburgh Penguins and Milan Lucic of the Boston Bruins, all from the NHL as well as Jordan Farmar of the New Jersey Nets (NBA) and Lance Berkman of the St. Louis Cardinals (MLB).
Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink containing a dose of the stimulant drug caffeine in a small amount of liquid. Whereas most energy drinks are generally sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in 50ml bottles. Energy shots can contain the same total amount of caffeine, vitamins or other functional ingredients as their larger versions, and may be considered concentrated forms of energy drinks. "Micro shot" energy drinks also exist, containing only 1-5 teaspoons of liquid.
Similar to energy drinks, energy shots contain caffeine, vitamins, and herbs such as guarana, ginseng or ginkgo biloba, taurine, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine or glucuronolactone. Some energy shots contain sugar; however, many brands also offer artificially-sweetened 'diet' versions. Some decaf varieties are also offered. The central ingredient in most energy shots is caffeine, the same stimulant found in coffee or tea. Vitamin based energy shots contain numerous additional vitamins and supplements for sustenance, sustainment, and overall health. 5-Hour contains vitamin levels thousands of times higher than the recommended RDA, according to a 2010 test by ConsumerLab.com. Some energy shots include electrolytes, and others include a selection of vitamins.