Who was the running back at alabama before mark ingram?


In 2007, the two running backs for Alabama prior to Mark Ingram were Demetrius Goode and Jonathan Lowe. Thanks!

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Mark Ingram, Jr. (born December 21, 1989) is an American football running back for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the University of Alabama, won the Heisman Trophy, and was a member of a national championship team. The New Orleans Saints chose him in the first round of the 2011 NFL Draft. During his sophomore college season in 2009, Ingram won the first Heisman Trophy ever awarded to an Alabama Crimson Tide player, set the Crimson Tide's single-season rushing record with 1,658 yards, was recognized as a unanimous All-American, and helped lead the Tide to an undefeated 14–0 season and the 2010 BCS National Championship. Ingram was born in Hackensack, New Jersey, the son of former NFL wide receiver Mark Ingram, Sr. He attended Grand Blanc Community High School in Grand Blanc, Michigan during his freshman, sophomore and junior years, and then Flint Southwestern Academy in Flint, Michigan for his senior year. He was a four-year starter on his high schools' football teams, running for 2,546 yards and 38 touchdowns in his final two seasons. He was Saginaw Valley MVP, Area Player of the Year, and an All-State selection as a senior. Ingram also played defensively as a cornerback, totaling 84 tackles and eight interceptions his senior year. ranked Ingram as a four-star "athlete"—a designation used for football recruits who have the potential to play multiple positions. In addition to football, he ran track and was a two-time all-state selection. Ingram received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Alabama, where he played for coach Nick Saban's Alabama Crimson Tide football team from 2008 to 2010. Ingram played behind Glen Coffee his freshman year, and he was selected to the 2008 SEC All-Freshman Team. His team-high 12 touchdowns also set the Alabama freshman school record. In the season opener of the 2009–10 season (Chick-fil-A College Kickoff: #5 Alabama vs #7 Virginia Tech), Ingram was the player of the game with 150 rushing yards, a rushing touchdown, and a receiving touchdown. On October 17, 2009, in a game against South Carolina, Ingram ran for a career-high 246 yards. He was named SEC Offensive Player of the Week. In the 2009 SEC Championship Game versus the undefeated and top-ranked Florida Gators, Ingram rushed for 113 yards and three touchdowns, while also catching two passes for 76 receiving yards to combine for 189 all-purpose yards. In the game, Ingram also surpassed Bobby Humphrey's single-season rushing record for the Crimson Tide, reaching 1,542 rushing yards for the season. On December 12, Ingram won the Heisman Trophy in the closest vote in the award's 75-year history. Ingram was Alabama's first Heisman winner, the third consecutive sophomore to win the award, and the first running back to win the award since Reggie Bush. At the time Ingram was nine days shy of his twentieth birthday, making him the youngest player to win the Heisman. Ingram was recognized as a unanimous first-team All-American, having received first-team honors from the Associated Press, American Football Coaches Association, Football Writers Association of America, Sporting News, and Walter Camp Football Foundation. On January 7, 2010 Alabama defeated Texas 37–21 to win the BCS National Championship. Ingram received honors as Offensive MVP after rushing for 116 yards and 2 touchdowns on 22 carries. For the 2009 season, Ingram rushed for 1,658 yards and 17 touchdowns. He also had 334 receiving yards with 3 touchdowns. Ingram was ruled out for the season opener after undergoing minor knee surgery the week prior to the opening game against San Jose State. Sophomore running back Trent Richardson filled in for Ingram for the first two games, after it was announced that the junior was not likely to play against Penn State on September 11. He eventually made his season debut in a road game against Duke, rushing for 151 yards on nine carries, including two touchdowns in the first quarter, as Alabama routed the Blue Devils 62–13. After a 3–0 start, Alabama traveled to Fayetteville to face the Arkansas Razorbacks in the conference opener for the Crimson Tide. Ingram and the Alabama offense came back from a 20–7 third quarter deficit to take a 24–20 lead with just over three minutes remaining, when Ingram capped a short, 12-yard drive with a one yard touchdown run. Ingram finished with 157 yards on 21 attempts and two touchdowns. He did not break 100 yards again during the regular season. On October 9, Alabama suffered their first loss since the 2009 Sugar Bowl when the team fell 35–21 to South Carolina in Williams-Brice Stadium. Ingram was held to a season-low 41 yards on 11 carries in the loss. Ingram finished his junior season with 875 yards on 158 carries with 13 touchdowns, with an additional 282 yards receiving and a touchdown. On January 6, 2011, Ingram announced he would forego his senior season and enter the 2011 NFL Draft. At the time of the announcement, he was projected as a first round pick. The New Orleans Saints selected Ingram with the 28th pick in the 2011 NFL Draft—the same pick number used to draft his father Mark Ingram, Sr. Ingram was the first running back drafted in 2011; since the 1970 AFL-NFL merger, this was the latest pick used for the first running back chosen in an NFL draft. The Saints acquired the pick from the New England Patriots, trading their second-round selection (#56 overall) and their first-round selection in 2012 to do so. As Alabama head coach Nick Saban is part of Patriots head coach Bill Belichick's coaching tree, the Patriots were widely assumed to be interested in drafting Ingram themselves. On July 28, 2011, Ingram decided on the number #28 in honor of his and his father's draft pick number. The next day Ingram agreed with the Saints on a four year contract, with three years guaranteed and a fifth year option. The contract is worth $7.41 million, with a $3.89 million signing bonus. On August 12, 2011, Ingram scored his first touchdown as a Saint on a 14-yard run in a preseason game against the San Francisco 49ers. On September 25, 2011, Ingram scored his first touchdown in regular season play as a Saint on a tough 13-yard run against the Houston Texans. On October 23, 2011, late in the game on Sunday night in a runaway win against the Indianapolis Colts Ingram injured his heel. It was considered a 'day-to-day' injury at first, but Ingram was unable to practice the entire week and missed the following game versus the winless St. Louis Rams which ended in a 31-21 loss for the Saints.
Trenton Jamond "Trent" Richardson (born July 10, 1990) is an American football running back for the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the University of Alabama, was recognized as an All-American, and was a member of two BCS National Championship teams. The Cleveland Browns selected him with the third overall pick of the 2012 NFL Draft, and he was rated as the best running back prospect since Adrian Peterson. Richardson was born in Pensacola, Florida. He attended Escambia High School in Pensacola, here he finished his senior season with 2,090 yards on 228 carries scoring 25 touchdowns. In a game against Milton High School in September 2008, Richardson rushed for 419 yards on 29 carries and scored six touchdowns, a performance that earned him a selection as the first ESPN RISE National Football Player of the Week. As a junior, Richardson also reached the 400-yard plateau, as he ran for 407 yards in his opening game against Tate High School. He finished his junior season (8 games) with 1,390 yards and 13 touchdowns, and received FSWA All-State 5A second team honors. He sat out his sophomore year due to an injury. He made the FSWA 5A All-State First Team as a senior, and was named 5A Florida Player of the Year and a finalist for the 2008 Mr. Football. Richardson also received consensus All-American honors and was named to the Orlando Sentinel′s All Southern Team (Florida). Richardson is frequently compared to Emmitt Smith, who also starred at Escambia (1987 graduate), but his physique and running style are more similar to Earl Campbell. Richardson also drew comparisons to Michael Turner and O.J. Simpson. Considered a five-star recruit by, Richardson was listed as the No. 2 running back prospect in the nation (behind only Bryce Brown). He chose Alabama over Florida, Florida State, and LSU, among others. Sources: Richardson accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Alabama, where he played for coach Nick Saban's Alabama Crimson Tide football team from 2009 to 2011. In his first year at Alabama, Richardson stepped in quickly for the departed Glen Coffee, and shared time at the tailback position with Roy Upchurch and Mark Ingram, Jr. When recruited, Crimson Tide coach Nick Saban called Richardson, "the real key to the class," and "an outstanding player at a position that a young player can contribute next year." Richardson was named SEC Freshman of the Week for Week 2 and Week 4. Richardson was also named to the 2009 SEC All-Freshman team alongside Barrett Jones and Nico Johnson. He also contributed significantly in the 2010 BCS National Championship with 109 yards rushing and 2 touchdowns. For the season he had 145 carries for 751 yards rushing and 8 touchdowns. He also had 126 yards receiving on the season. Richardson started the first two games of the season with Mark Ingram sitting out due to an injury. In the season opener, he had 10 carries for 66 yards and 2 touchdowns. He also had 3 receptions for 46 yards. The following week against Penn State, he ran for a career-high 144 yards on 22 carries and a touchdown. He also had 4 catches for 46 yards. Trent was named Co-SEC Offensive Player of the Week for his efforts. For the season he had 112 carries for 700 yards rushing and 6 touchdowns and 266 yards receiving and 4 touchdowns. Richardson also had 634 kick return yards with a touchdown on the year. With the departure of Mark Ingram to the NFL, Richardson took over the starting role at running back. During the season Trent ran for over 100 yards in nine games. He tied Shaun Alexander with six consecutive 100 yard rushing games. He scored two or more touchdowns in seven games. He set a career high against Ole Miss running for 183 yards and four touchdowns. In the Iron Bowl, Trent ran for a new career high of 203 yards. He won the Doak Walker Award becoming the first player from Alabama to win. He finished third in the Heisman Trophy voting behind eventual winner Robert Griffin III and Andrew Luck. In the 2012 BCS National Championship Game, Richardson rushed for 96 yards and a touchdown to secure his second national championship with the Crimson Tide. For the season Richardson had 1,679 rushing yards, breaking Mark Ingram's record for most rushing yards in a season, and 21 rushing touchdowns. His 21 rushing touchdowns was also an SEC running back record. He also had 338 receiving yards with three touchdowns, making his season total touchdowns 24 which tied Shaun Alexanders SEC record. On January 12, 2012, Richardson declared for the 2012 NFL Draft, thus forgoing his final year of collegiate eligibility. At the time of his announcement, he was projected as a first round pick and the top running back prospect in the draft. Entering his junior season, Richardson was widely regarded as the best running back available in the 2012 NFL Draft, projected to go as high as the No. 4 pick. His strong performance on the field, replacing Mark Ingram, solidified his status. In October 2011, Sports Illustrated′s Tony Pauline ranked him as the No. 3 prospect on his midseason draft board, noting his "outstanding combination of quickness, power and speed." After undergoing a minor knee surgery in February 2012, Richardson did not participate in drills at the 2012 NFL Combine. He later also decided to skip workouts at the Alabama Pro Day on March 7. Richardson held his own Pro Day on March 27. In March 2012, Richardson was widely projected to be a top-6 draft choice, with the Cleveland Browns, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, and St. Louis Rams rumored to be most interested in selecting him. Former Colts vice chairman Bill Polian called him one of the "three sure-thing players" in the 2012 draft. Richardson was eventually selected third overall by the Cleveland Browns, after they had traded picks with the Minnesota Vikings to prevent the Tampa Bay Buccaneers from doing the same transaction. Richardson was the highest selected running back since Reggie Bush went second overall in 2006. The Browns had not selected a running back in the first round since William Green in 2002. On July 23, Richardson and the Cleveland Browns agreed to a four-year, $20.4 million contract (fully guaranteed) with a $13.6 million signing bonus. On August 9, 2012, Richardson underwent arthroscopic surgery to remove some cartilage fragments in his left knee. Richardson missed the entire preseason, but returned for the season opener. In his debut against the Philadelphia Eagles, he rushed for 39 yards on 19 carries, being limited in his touches after having just come off the disabled list. The following week, in a 24-34 loss against the Cincinnati Bengals, he rushed for 109 yards and a TD on 19 carries. He also had 4 receptions for 36 yards and a receiving TD. He was the first Browns rookie ever to rush for over 100 yards and score rushing and receiving touchdowns all in the same game. During Week 13 against the Kansas City Chiefs, Richardson rushed for 42 yards and 2 TDs, tying Jim Brown's franchise rookie record of 9 touchdowns. After his rookie season, it was revealed that he had been playing with 2 or 3 broken ribs since Week 6. Richardson has two daughters: Taliyah, 6, and Elevera, 4. Richardson's first son was born October 5, 2012. On April 13, 2012, he took leukemia survivor Courtney Alvis to her senior prom at Hueytown High School. On March 23, 2013, Richardson was sued by two women who stated that he, his girlfriend Sevina Fatu and two other women assaulted them after a Browns victory on December 6, 2012. He was voted No. 71 out of the top 100 in the NFL by fellow players in 2013.
The 2011 Capital One Bowl was the sixty-fifth edition of the college football bowl game, and was played at the Citrus Bowl in Orlando, Florida. The game was played on January 1, 2011 and matched the Alabama Crimson Tide from the Southeastern Conference (SEC) with the Michigan State Spartans from the Big Ten Conference. Televised by ESPN, Alabama won by a final score of 49–7. The defending National Champions Alabama Crimson Tide entered the game with a 9–3 record. The Tide were led by All-American wide receiver Julio Jones who set school records in catches with 75 and yards with 1,084 this season. 2009 Heisman Trophy winner Mark Ingram had been held to less than 100 yards rushing for eight straight games. Alabama's strength had been in their defense which led the SEC giving up 14.1 points and 296.0 yards per game as well as forcing 21 interceptions. Alabama made its second appearance in the Bowl Game. They defeated Ohio State 24–17 in the 1995 game when it was known as the CompUSA Florida Citrus Bowl. Michigan State was one of the surprises of the 2010 season and narrowly missed out on a BCS Bowl berth. The 11–1 Spartans won a share of the Big Ten Championship for the first time in 20 years. Although they finished 9th in the final BCS standings they would not be allowed to be selected to a BCS Bowl due to a rule that three teams from the same conference cannot all appear in BCS Bowl games. State was led by tailback Edwin Baker, who ranked third in the Big Ten with 1,187 yards rushing. The Spartans played without leading wide receiver B. J. Cunningham, who broke his foot in practice prior to the bowl. Michigan State made its third appearance in the game, having defeated Florida in 2000 and losing to Georgia in 2009. Alabama scored touchdowns on their first four offensive possessions. Mark Ingram scored first on a one-yard touchdown run to cap a 13-play, 79-yard drive on Alabama's first possession. After a Robert Lester interception of a Kirk Cousins pass on the Spartans' opening drive, the Tide scored on the ensuing possession on an eight-yard Trent Richardson touchdown run early in the second quarter. Alabama extended their lead to 28–0 at the half following touchdown runs of six and 35 yards by Ingram and Julio Jones. After holding Michigan State to a three-and-out to open the third quarter, Alabama scored its fifth touchdown in six offensive possessions after Marquis Maze scored on a 37-yard reception from Greg McElroy. Up by 35 points late in the third, the Tide pulled many of their starters that resulted in many players seeing action from deep in the depth chart. Third-string back Eddie Lacy extended the lead to 49–0 with touchdown runs of twelve yards in the third and 62 yards in the fourth quarter. The Spartans scored their only points late in the fourth on a 49-yard Bennie Fowler touchdown reception from Keith Nichol to bring the final score to 49–7. For his performance which included two sacks, a tackle for loss and a forced fumble, Alabama linebacker Courtney Upshaw was named the game's Most Valuable Player. This was the first ever meeting between the two schools. Michigan State head coach Mark Dantonio was an assistant coach for Alabama head coach Nick Saban when Saban coached at State from 1995-1999. Somewhat ignominiously, Michigan State was forced into the unusual circumstance of punting on 4th and goal in the second quarter due to a disastrous fumble.
Glenwood Razeem Coffee, Jr (born May 1, 1987) is a former American football running back for the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League. He was selected by the 49ers in the third round of the 2009 NFL Draft and played one season before retiring in 2010. He played college football at Alabama. In Coffee's freshman season, he showed up in all twelve games. On September 17, he rushed for a season-high 75 yards on 15 attempts in a 37–14 win over South Carolina. He did not see significant action throughout the remainder of the season, as he was a backup to starter Kenneth Darby while sharing time with Jimmy Johns. In Alabama's homecoming game versus Utah State, he scored his first collegiate touchdown on a 9–yard reception from John Parker Wilson. In his freshman season, he rushed for a 179 yards on 48 attempts. He also caught eight passes for 91 yards, including one touchdown. After redshirting his sophomore season on campus, Coffee returned in the 2007 season under new head coach Nick Saban. In that season, he split time as the starting running back with freshman Terry Grant. In the season opener versus Western Carolina, Coffee rushed nine times for 76 yards and one touchdown in a 52–6 victory. In the season's homecoming game, he had his first 100-yard rushing game in a 30–24 win over Houston. In total, he rushed for 121 yards on 30 attempts and one touchdown, as well as catching one pass for six yards. However, he did not accumulate any statistics in four of Alabama's final five games. Alabama earned an appearance in the 2007 Independence Bowl versus Colorado. Coffee carried the ball 19 times for 72 yards in a 30–24 win. Coffee finished his redshirt sophomore season with 545 yards on 129 carries, scoring four touchdowns. He also caught 18 passes for 142 yards. In the 2008 season, Coffee was named the starter in all 14 games, though shared time with two other running backs, Roy Upchurch and Mark Ingram, Jr. Coffee's first 100-yard rushing performance came in the fourth game of the season in a 49–14 rout of Arkansas. He carried the ball ten times for 162 yards and two touchdowns, including his career-long run of 87 yards. In the following game, Coffee again scored twice in a 41–30 upset over #3 Georgia, finishing the game with 23 carries for 86 yards. Coffee's career best game came in the following week in a 17–14 win over Kentucky, as he ran for 218 yards on 25 attempts, including a 78-yard touchdown run in the first quarter. His 218 yards was the most by an Alabama running back since Shaun Alexander in 1996. Alabama clinched a berth in the 2008 SEC Championship Game with a 27–21 overtime victory over LSU, in which Coffee rushed for 126 yards and one touchdown. In the annual Iron Bowl, he ran for his fourth 100+ yard game in a 36–0 rout of rival Auburn with 144 yards and one touchdown. After rushing for 112 yards in the SEC Championship game loss to Florida, Coffee was held to his season low in the 2009 Sugar Bowl against Utah. The Utes defense held Coffee to 36 yards on 13 attempts in a 31–17 Utah victory. In his best statistical season at Alabama, Coffee ran for 1,383 yards and ten touchdowns, while averaging 5.9 yards per carry. With his season's performance, Coffee was named to the Associated Press All-SEC first team. On January 9, 2009 Coffee announced he would forgo his Senior year and declare for the 2009 NFL Draft. He was represented by Todd Crannell of Q2 Sports & Entertainment. Coffee was drafted in the third round of the 2009 NFL Draft by the San Francisco 49ers. He had a promising rookie season, seeing time as a back up to Pro Bowl running back Frank Gore. After attending OTAs, minicamp, and two weeks of training camp, Coffee abruptly announced on August 13 that he would retire just before the start of the 2010 NFL preseason. Head coach Mike Singletary stated that sixth round draft pick Anthony Dixon and veteran Michael Robinson would compete for the number 2 running back spot and that Coffee's departure would not be a distraction to the team. However on August 16, the 49ers signed free agent veteran Brian Westbrook as the backup running back to a one year deal. The 49ers could move to recoup $621,000 of Coffee's $828,000 signing bonus. Coffee planned to return to the University of Alabama to finish his degree in consumer affairs, with an eye towards graduate school. Coffee has confirmed that the reason he retired was that his heart was never in football and that he believes God wants him to take another path. Coffee subsequently enlisted in the U.S. Army in February 2013 to become a paratrooper. He hopes to become a Green Beret. Coffee's brother, Matt, plays fullback for the University of South Carolina.
Gregory Vincent McElroy, Jr. (born May 10, 1988) is an American football quarterback for the New York Jets of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Jets in the seventh round of the 2011 NFL Draft. He played college football at Alabama. During his high school career, McElroy won several awards including being named an EA Sports All-American and winning a Texas 5A state championship for Southlake Carroll. He was the starting quarterback for the Crimson Tide football team. As a junior, he led the Crimson Tide to an undefeated 14–0 season, which included the 2009 SEC Championship and BCS National Championship. McElroy was born in Los Angeles, California to Greg and Jami McElroy. In 1998, when he was 10 years old, his father was hired by the Dallas Cowboys to oversee sales and marketing for the franchise, and the family moved to Southlake, Texas. As a former football player at the University of Hawaii, Greg Sr. helped coach his son's Pee Wee football team. McElroy attended Carroll Senior High School in Southlake, playing under head coach Todd Dodge. During his sophomore and junior seasons, McElroy played behind Chase Daniel, who later was in contention for the Heisman Trophy while playing for the Missouri Tigers. In his first season as a starter in 2005, McElroy passed for 4,636 yards, 56 touchdowns, and nine interceptions en route to a 16–0 season, which included the Texas 5A state championship For his efforts as a senior, McElroy was named the Texas 5A Player of the Year and an EA Sports All-American. McElroy's 56 touchdown passes ranks first all-time in the Texas 5A classification, and second all-time in Texas high school football history, behind only Graham Harrell's 67 touchdowns in 2003. His 4,646 yards passing currently ranks fifth all-time in Texas. McElroy had full-scholarship offers from several Division I football schools, eventually committing to Texas Tech. However, he later changed his commitment, accepting an offer from the Alabama Crimson Tide. In his first season, McElroy was redshirted by head coach Mike Shula. McElroy is a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. On December 7, 2010, McElroy was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a National Football Foundation scholar/athlete. After his redshirt freshman year, McElroy saw limited playing time behind second-year starting quarterback John Parker Wilson. He played part of a game versus Western Carolina, throwing his first collegiate touchdown pass in the third quarter to tight end Nick Walker. He again saw late playing time verus rival Tennessee, in a 41–17 rout. In the 2008 season, McElroy again saw limited action. He did make six appearances late in games during the regular season. McElroy threw his first pass of the season in a 41–7 win over Western Kentucky, completing 4 of 6 passes for 61 yards. In the following game versus Arkansas, McElroy threw his first career interception early in the 4th quarter, which Razorback freshman cornerback Ramon Broadway returned to the Alabama 34-yard line. His first touchdown pass of the season came in a 36–0 rout of in-state rival Auburn in the annual Iron Bowl. His 34-yard strike to redshirt freshman Marquis Maze was the final score of the game. In Alabama's 2009 A-Day game, McElroy played impressively and was expected to be the starting quarterback for the 2009 season. It was confirmed that he would start on opening day when the depth chart was released on August 31. His first start came in the 2009 Chick-fil-A College Kickoff, when the #5 Crimson Tide faced #7 Virginia Tech Hokies. With a slow start, in which McElroy completed just two of his first 10 passes including an interception, the Tide were down 16–17 at halftime. However, he led the Crimson Tide to 18 points in the final quarter, including a 22-yard touchdown pass to Mark Ingram, as Alabama downed the Hokies 34–24. For their performances, both he and Ingram shared the SEC Offensive Player of the Week award. The following week, McElroy completed 14 consecutive passes—a school record—en route to a 40–14 win over Florida International. He followed up the performance as he set another school record for passing efficiency in a single game, as he completed 13 of 15 passes (86.7%) in a 53–7 rout of North Texas. McElroy was given his first conference start in a SEC matchup against Arkansas on September 26. His first touchdown came in the second quarter out of the wildcat formation when he connected with Julio Jones on a 50-yard pass. He finished the game with a career-high 291 passing yards and three touchdowns, while completing 17 of 24 passes in a 35–7 rout of the Razorbacks. The following week, he made his first start on the road against the Kentucky Wildcats at Commonwealth Stadium. With another slow start, Alabama eventually pulled away as McElroy completed a 3-yard pass for a touchdown to Colin Peek in the final minute of the first half. He finished the game with 148 yards and two touchdowns, as Alabama rolled to a 5–0 start with a 38–20 victory in Lexington. Alabama faced off against Ole Miss at Vaught-Hemingway Stadium in front of 62,657 fans, a record for the state of Mississippi. Another slow start kept the game close for Alabama, as the Crimson Tide led 3–0 midway through the first quarter. Alabama's only offensive touchdown finally came with under a minute in the second quarter, when running back Mark Ingram rushed for a 36-yard touchdown, en route to 22–3 victory. McElroy's worst performance of the season occurred on October 17, when Alabama hosted #22 South Carolina. He completed just half of his passes, including two interceptions. However, running back Mark Ingram helped Alabama to a 20–6 victory with his 246 rushing yards. In the Third Saturday in October versus Tennessee, the Volunteers defense shut down Alabama's offense, keeping them from scoring a touchdown. McElroy completed 18-of-29 for 120 yards as Alabama held on for a 12–10 victory with four Leigh Tiffin field goals. On November 7, he helped Alabama clinch their second straight SEC West title as the team faced #9 LSU. After failing to throw a touchdown in four consecutive games, McElroy threw a 21-yard touchdown pass to Darius Hanks in the third quarter. After trailing in the fourth quarter, he threw his second touchdown of the game, connecting with Julio Jones on a 73-yard pass. McElroy finished 19-for-34 for 276 yards, including two touchdowns and one interception in a 24–15 victory. As Alabama faced in-state rival Auburn on November 26, McElroy and the offense were in a 14–0 hole after the first quarter. With 5:31 left before halftime and trailing 14–7, he connected with tight end Colin Peek on a 33-yard pass to equalize before halftime. Entering the final 15 minutes, the Tide trailed Auburn, 21–20. He threw a 4-yard touchdown pass to Roy Upchurch with 1:24 remaining, with Alabama holding on for a 26–21 victory. McElroy and Alabama squared off against the #1-ranked Florida Gators in the 2009 SEC Championship Game, a rematch of the previous year's conference championship. Alabama got off to an early 9–0 lead in the first quarter, and still had the lead heading into halftime at 19–13. In the third quarter, he threw his lone touchdown of the game on a 17-yard high pass to Colin Peek to extend the lead to 26–13. Despite being a five point underdog heading into the game, McElroy and Alabama rolled over the Gators 32–13 and secured a spot in the 2010 BCS National Championship Game. McElroy finished 12-for-18 for 239 yards and a touchdown which earned him the game's MVP honors. McElroy led the Crimson Tide to the 2010 BCS National Championship Game versus the undefeated Big 12 Conference champions Texas Longhorns at the Rose Bowl. He was able to complete 6 of 11 pass attempts for 58 yards while being sacked five times and losing 27 yards. Ingram and freshman Trent Richardson carried Alabama to a 37–21 victory with 225 yards and four touchdowns rushing combined. After the Tide's victory, McElroy revealed that he had suffered two cracked ribs during the 2009 SEC Championship game, explaining the Tide's shift from a passing to pure rushing game. McElroy led the Alabama Crimson Tide to a 10–3 record including a 49–7 win over Michigan State in the 2011 Capital One Bowl. His senior season began with a 5–0 start that was capped off by a 31–6 defeat of the Florida Gators on October 2. Alabama had defeated Duke, 62–13, on September 18. After Alabama lost on the road to South Carolina, 35–21, on October 9, McElroy rallied the Crimson Tide to a 9–2 mark and a No. 9 ranking nationally heading into their grudge match with in-state rival Auburn in the annual Iron Bowl event. Along the way, he put up more numbers against SEC opposition that included Ole Miss (17-of-25, 219 yards passing, 2 TDs), Tennessee (21-of-32, 264 yards passing), and Mississippi State (12-of-18, 227 yards passing, 2 TDs) in blowout wins for Alabama. The regular season ended on a sour note on November 26 as McElroy led Alabama to a 24–7 halftime lead only to give out and narrowly fall behind in the 2nd half. Heisman Trophy winner Cam Newton rallied the Auburn Tigers to a 28–27 victory. McElroy went 27 for 37 for 377 yards and two touchdowns, giving him a career performance in the loss. In McElroy's final college game in the 49-7 win over Michigan State, he went 13 of 17 for 220 yards and a touchdown. He finished the season with a school record 2987 passing yards. McElroy graduated from Alabama in three years with a degree in business marketing, and is a graduate student in his second year. As an undergraduate he had a 3.85 GPA, receiving only one B, and applied for, but did not win, a Rhodes Scholarship in 2010. In September 2010, McElroy was named the 20th-smartest athlete in sports by Sporting News. During the NFL Combine in February 2011, McElroy scored a 43 out of 50 on the Wonderlic Test of intelligence. His score was originally reported as a 48, which would have tied the all-time high for a quarterback set by Tennessee Titans Ryan Fitzpatrick. McElroy was a late round draft selection despite his successes with Alabama. He was praised for his work ethic and accuracy, his ability to maneuver in the pocket and to recognize defensive formations and adjust to those formations. However, scouts had serious concerns about his arm strength which limited his value. McElroy was selected by the New York Jets in the 7th round with the 208th pick in the 2011 NFL Draft. He was expected to compete with fellow back-ups Mark Brunell, Kellen Clemens and Kevin O'Connell. He came to an agreement with the Jets on a four-year contract on July 29, 2011. McElroy made his preseason debut against the Houston Texans on August 15, 2011. Starter Mark Sanchez played one quarter before he was replaced by McElroy who played the rest of the game after second string back-up Mark Brunell was declared out with a finger injury. He completed 23 of his 39 pass attempts for 208 yards and a touchdown. He nearly led the Jets to victory however, rookie wide receiver Michael Campbell dropped the game-winning pass in the end zone. In his second preseason game against the Cincinnati Bengals, McElroy completed 6 of his 9 pass attempts for 59 yards and a touchdown in the Jets' 27–7 win over the Bengals. McElroy entered the Jets' preseason contest against the New York Giants with a little under seven minutes remaining in the third quarter. With the Jets leading 7–3, McElroy twice led the Jets on scoring drives. He completed 4 of his 5 pass attempts for 39 yards en route to a 17–3 victory. In the Jets' final preseason game against the Philadelphia Eagles, McElroy left midway through the second quarter with a thumb injury having completed 3 of his 6 pass attempts for 29 yards. McElroy dislocated the thumb and the team subsequently placed him on the injured reserve list, ending his season. McElroy returned in 2012 to play in the Jets' first preseason game against the Bengals. He completed 4 of his 6 pass attempts for 49 yards in the Jets' loss. He did not play the subsequent two games. He played in their preseason finale against the Philadelphia Eagles. McElroy would score the team's lone touchdown of the preseason on a six-yard pass to Terrance Ganaway. McElroy made his NFL debut on December 2, 2012 in the third quarter during the Jets' contest against the Arizona Cardinals, replacing incumbent Mark Sanchez who, prior to being benched by head coach Rex Ryan, had thrown three interceptions. Tim Tebow was inactive with a rib injury, leaving McElroy as the back-up to Sanchez. McElroy threw his first career touchdown pass to Jeff Cumberland on the first play of the fourth quarter en route to a 7–6 victory. McElroy finished the game completing 5 of his 7 passes for 29 yards and a touchdown while rushing for 5 yards on 4 attempts. He was named the starting quarterback on December 18, 2012, one day after the Jets' loss to the Tennessee Titans on December 17. In his first career start against the San Diego Chargers, McElroy completed 14 of 24 passes for 185 yards with an interception and lost a fumble. McElroy was also sacked 11 times, as the Jets lost 27–17. McElroy, who was expected to start the Jets' final game against the Buffalo Bills, was ruled out after revealing he had suffered concussion symptoms in the days preceding. McElroy stated that he informed his teammates of the symptoms he was suffering, though he hid it from staff until December 27.
The University of Alabama has 21 varsity sports teams. Both the male and female athletic teams are called the Crimson Tide. They participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Division I as a member of the Southeastern Conference (SEC) Western Division. In 2002, Sports Illustrated named Alabama the #26 best collegiate sports program in America. Athletics facilities on the campus include the 101,821-seat Bryant-Denny Stadium, named after football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and former University President George Denny, the 15,316-seat Coleman Coliseum, and the renovated Foster Auditorium, Sewell-Thomas Stadium, the Alabama Soccer Stadium, Sam Bailey Track and Field Stadium, and Ol' Colony Golf Complex, the Alabama Aquatic Center, and the Alabama Tennis Stadium. Alabama has won NCAA Division I national championships in the following varsity sports: Main rivalries for the program include those with Auburn University and the University of Tennessee. The rivalry with the Auburn Tigers is especially heated, as the two compete annually in nearly all sports. The annual football meeting, nicknamed the Iron Bowl, is considered among the most intense college football rivalries, as well as one of the top rivalries in all sports—behind the New York Yankees–Boston Red Sox baseball rivalry according to Sports Illustrated and ESPN. Other rivalries include those against Mississippi State University (baseball and basketball)- (Alabama-Mississippi State rivalry), Louisiana State University (football)- (Alabama-LSU rivalry), the University of Mississippi- (Alabama–Ole Miss rivalry), the University of Florida (softball), and the University of Georgia (gymnastics). University of Alabama law student William G. Little learned how to play American football while attending school in Andover, Massachusetts and began teaching the sport to fellow Alabama students in early 1892. Later in the year, the school formed an official team of 19 players, with Little as captain and E. B. Beaumont as head coach. Early newspaper accounts of Alabama football simply listed the team as the "varsity" or the "Crimson White" after the school colors. Headline writers then made popular the nickname "The Thin Red Line". It was not until 1907 that the name "Crimson Tide" was used to describe Alabama. The name was supposedly first used by Hugh Roberts, former sports editor of the Birmingham Age-Herald. Roberts coined the nickname to describe the 1907 Alabama-Auburn game, played in a sea of mud. Although Auburn was favored to win, Alabama played well in the red mud and held Auburn to a 6-6 tie. Since then, the program has won 23 Southeastern Conference (SEC) championships and accepted 15 national championships. In addition to the championships claimed by the university, Alabama has been recognized by the NCAA as National Champions for the 1945, 1962, 1966, 1967, and 1977 college football seasons. However, those championships are not claimed by Alabama. On January 9, 2012, Alabama finished the season ranked #2 and beat #1 LSU 21-0 in the BCS Championship game to take the BCS national title. Although the NCAA only lists the Crimson Tide as having 12 national championships, the claim of 14 includes six championships from the period before 1950 that were retroactively claimed by Alabama. The team has also made 58 bowl appearances throughout their history (an NCAA record), beginning with the 1926 Rose Bowl to, the most recent, the 2012 BCS National Championship Game. In those bowls, Alabama has a 33–22–3 record. Since 1913, Alabama has 98 first team All-Americans, 29 consensus. In 2009, Alabama also recorded their first Heisman Trophy winner, Mark Ingram, in the closest Heisman Trophy race. Alabama's men's basketball program has a respectable tradition with numerous SEC Championships and players becoming NBA stars and international professional players. In the conference, it trails only Kentucky in basketball wins, SEC tournament titles, and SEC regular season conference titles. The men's basketball program has risen in stature nationally, achieving a No. 1 national ranking briefly in 2002. The Crimson Tide has become a regular conference basketball contender much as it was in the '80s under the direction of Coach Wimp Sanderson. Under head coach and former point guard Mark Gottfried, the Tide advanced to postseason play for six consecutive years, culminating with the team's advancement into the Elite Eight of the NCAA Tournament for the first time in school history in 2004, where the team lost to eventual champion Connecticut in the Phoenix Regional Final. In January 2009, Head Coach Mark Gottfried resigned after eleven years at Alabama. Soon afterwards Anthony Grant was hired as the new Head Coach. Under his watch the Crimson Tide battled through a tough first year, finishing 17-15 and achieving a top-10 ranking in points allowed on defense. Grant's second season with the Tide resulted in the SEC Western Division Championship, finishing 12-4 in the SEC and an overall record of 25-12. They entered the 2011 NIT Tournament with a #1 seed and made it to the NIT Championship Game and finished as the runner-up. The Crimson Tide was unbeaten at home with a perfect 19-0 season, a school record. In 2012 the Crimson Tide was a participant in the NCAA Tournament and finished its season with a 21-12 record. Alabama's women's basketball team competes in Foster Auditorium. The team played its first game in 1974 and has since been a varsity sport. The team has had nine head coaches, including Rick Moody, who guided the club to the 1994 NCAA Women's Final Four. Kristy Curry was named head coach on May 11, 2013, replacing Wendell Hudson. The Crimson Tide has appeared in 10 post-season Tournaments for the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship, including an eight-year streak of consecutive appearances in the tournament stretching from 1992 to 1999. In 10 NCAA tournament appearances, Alabama has advanced to the "Sweet Sixteen" six times and the "Elite Eight" and the "Final Four" in 1994. The most successful season was 1996-1997 when the Tide finished in second place in the Southeastern Conference (10-2 record) and had a mid-season national ranking of #2 in polls by the AP and USA Today (November 12, 1996), and finished with a 25-7 overall record. The University of Alabama Women's Basketball program shares the national record with Duke University for the most total points for both teams when Alabama defeated Duke 121-120 (in four overtimes) in 1995 in the NCAA Tournament, a game that ESPN has declared as one of the best all-time women's basketball tournament games. Seven former players for the University of Alabama have made rosters of teams of the WNBA. Alabama has had an active player in the WNBA through every year of its existence. The current head coach for the Crimson Tide is Kristy Curry. The team played its first season of 1974–75 in Foster Auditorium, but moved to what is now Coleman Coliseum the following season. After Foster Auditorium was extensively renovated in a project that began in 2009, the Tide returned to their original home on February 13, 2011. Alabama has a long winning tradition in baseball. The Crimson Tide is second to LSU for the most SEC titles with 14 (including 13 regular season titles and one tournament title that was won in 1983, during an era in which the tournament decided the overall SEC title). Alabama is also second to the Tigers with seven SEC Tournament championships, including the 1983 one that decided the overall SEC title. Tide baseball teams have participated in the NCAA College World Series five times (1950, 1983, 1996, 1997, 1999), finishing second in 1983 (to Texas) and 1997 (to LSU). Home games are played at Sewell-Thomas Stadium, known as "The Joe" to Crimson Tide fans. They are currently coached by head coach Mitch Gaspard, an assistant for two different stints under his predecessor, Jim Wells, and assistant coaches Andy Phillips and Dax Norris, both of whom played for Crimson Tide College World Series teams in the 1990s. The Alabama softball team was started in 1997. They are currently coached by head coach Patrick Murphy and assistant coaches Alyson Habetz and Stephanie VanBrakle. They have won six Southeastern Conference championships (two regular seasons and four tournaments), made 13 consecutive NCAA tournaments (every year since 1999) and have advanced to the Women's College World Series 8 times, including back-to-back 3rd place finishes in the 2008 and 2009 series. On June 7, 2012, Alabama became the first team in SEC history to win the WCWS Championship defeating Oklahoma in three games. The team's current overall record stands at 708–224 (.759). Alabama has won the SEC Softball Tournament five times (1998, 2003, 2005, 2010 and 2012). Alabama's men's and women's golf teams have become two of the top programs in the nation since head coaches Jay Seawell (men) and Mic Potter (women) took over in the 2002 and 2006 respectively. They have combined to make the NCAA Tournament 13 out of 14 chances since they arrived, and have each lead their teams to a Southeastern Conference Championship. Overall the Crimson Tide golf teams have combined to make the NCAA Tournament 31 times, won the SEC Championship 3 times, and have had over 30 players honored as All-Americans. The men's golf program finished 6th in the nation in 2007 while being consistently ranked in the top three in the 2007–2008 season. The home course for the Tide has been the Ol' Colony Golf Complex since 2005. In 2012, the Crimson Tide has two of the best teams in the country with the women ranked #1, and men ranked #4, by Golf Week. The women's golf team won their first national title in 2012 while the men finished as the national runner-up. On June 2, 2013, the Alabama men's golf team won their first NCAA national title after defeating Illinois in title match. The women's gymnastics squad at The University of Alabama first competed in 1975. The squad did not have a winning season until the arrival of Sarah Patterson in 1979. In the intervening 33 years under Patterson and her husband David, the squad has won 6 national championships, 7 SEC championships, 26 regional titles, and 248 All-American honors. It has placed in the top 5 at the NCAA Championships 25 of the past 29 years and won national championships six times: in 1988, 1991, 1996, 2002, and most recently won back to back titles in 2011 and 2012. Alabama has also won 7 SEC Championships including 1988, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2009, and 2011. The gymnastics squad also hosts an annual fundraiser for breast cancer, where the crowd is encouraged to "Think Pink" and support the cause by turning out in pink clothing. As of the 2009 fundraiser, the effort had raised in excess of $750,000. Gymnastics meets have an average attendance of over 13,000 at Coleman Coliseum. Meets against the team's arch-rival, the University of Georgia Gymdogs, often sell out. Alabama holds seven of the eleven NCAA records for the largest gymnastics crowds of all time, including an attendance of 15,162 fans on January 20, 2006. Alabama's gymnastics team competes in Coleman Coliseum. The Crimson Tide's Men's Track and Field Program has produced numerous individual National Champions, including Calvin Smith, the former world record holder in the 100m dash, Jan Johnson (pole vault), Gary England (shot put), Jeff Woodard (high jump), William Wuycke (1000 yards and 1000 meters), Emmit King (100 meters), Keith Talley (55-meter and 100-meter hurdles), Andrew Owusu (long jump), Miguel Pate (long jump and NCAA national record), Mats Nilsson (javelin), David Kimani (3000 meters indoor and 5000 meters), Kirani James (400 meters), and the 4 X 100 meter Relay Team of Richard Beattie, Brad McQuaig, Eduardo Nava, and Clive Wright, and the Mile Relay Team of Joe Coombs, Darroll Gatson, Tony Husbands, and Ike Levin. Individual National Champions from the Crimson Tide Women's Track and Field Team have included Disa Gisladottir (high jump), Iris Gronfeldt (javelin), Lillie Leatherwood (400 meters), Liz McColgan (formerly, Lynch) (mile), Pauline Davis-Thompson (200 meters), Flora Hyacinth (triple jump). Many of the track and field athletes at the University of Alabama have been Olympians. Coach Dan Waters is the head coach for both the men's and women's track and field program, assuming the position in 2012. The University hosts the Alabama Relays and the Crimson Classic annually, which brings many of the top programs in the country to compete at the University's Sam Bailey Track and Field Stadium, built in 1975 with seating for 4500 fans. The renovation project occurring in 2012 is destined to make Alabama's track and field stadium among the best in the nation, with a track that is expected to be among the fastest in the nation due to its premier surface and wider curves. Women's soccer was a varsity sport from 1986 to 1988, and was revived in 1994. Former Head Coach Don Staley had been with the program since 1994, but stepped down at the end of the 2007 season. He was replaced with former Clemson University head coach Todd Bramble. The team has won the SEC West three times (1995, 97, 98) and participated in the NCAA Women's Soccer Championship in 1999 and 2011. In 2005, senior Libby Probst earned third team All America honors and the SEC Scholar-Athlete of the Year award after breaking almost every major offensive record in her career at "The Capstone". The team currently plays its home games at the Alabama Soccer Stadium. The Alabama women's volleyball is coached by Ed Allen, who was hired on January 10, 2011. The team has competed in the NCAA Women's Volleyball Championship in 2005, 2006, and 2007. The team won the SEC Western Division Championship in 2000 and 2004, and was the SEC Volleyball Tournament Runner-up in 2005. In 2000, the Alabama Volleyball team achieved the nation's best team-GPA among Division I Volleyball teams. Past coaches for Alabama Volleyball have included Stephanie Schleuder, Dorothy Franco-Reed, and Judy Green. The venue for the Crimson Tide's home volleyball games is Foster Auditorium. Men's and Women's tennis at the University of Alabama have built a tradition of excellence and enjoy competing in the Roberta Alison Baumgardner Indoor Tennis Facility, and the University of Alabama Tennis Stadium, which has won an award from USTA for being among the most excellent tennis facilities in the nation, and has been selected as the host site for regional tournaments by the NCAA in 2012 and 2013. In the 1960s, Roberta Alison became Alabama's first female athlete when she joined the men's team and occasionally played the #1 and #2 positions. She went on to win American Women's collegiate Championships in 1962 and 1963 for singles, and 1963 in doubles. Today the Alabama Tennis program hosts the Roberta Alison Fall Tennis Classic each year to honor her. Alabama men's tennis began in 1949 with the coach, Lee Shapiro. Through the years, additional coaches have developed Alabama's program, including C. de la Manardiere (1951-1953, 1956); Rafael de Valle (1954-1955 and 1958-1960); Dr. Eugene Lambert (coach) in 1957; Jason Morton (1961-1964); Earl Baumgardner (1965-1966); Bill Mallory in 1967; Dale Anderson (1968-1969); Bill McClain (1970-1977); Armistead Neely (1978-1982); Tommy Wade (1983-1988); John Kreis (1989-1994); Joey Rive (1995-1997); Adam Steinberg (1998-2002); Billy Pate (2003-2012), and the current head coach, George Husack, 2013. The Men's Tennis Team has been a participant in the NCAA tournament 17 times: 1989, 1990, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2013, as well as having 33 singles qualifying and 17 doubles qualifying for the NCAA Tournament. Alabama's All-Americans include Jeff Robinson (1976, 1977), Andy Solis (1984, 1985), Gregg Hahn (1985, 1986), John Stimpson (1990), Francisco Rodriquez (1998, 1999), Maxim Belski (2001), Clinton Ferriera (1986, 1989), Ellis Ferriera (1989, 1990, 1991), Rick Witsken (1991, 1993), and Juan Carlos Bianchi (1993). Additionally Stephen Mitchell went professionally, and Konstantinos Efraimoglou was an Olympian in tennis in 1992. Ellis Ferreira became the Champion at the 2000 Australian Open in men's doubles and 2001 Australian Open in mixed doubles. Davis Cup participants have included Juan Carlos Bianchi and Francisco Rodriguez. Alabama's women's tennis team began in 1975, although Roberta Alison competed individually through the men's team years earlier. Coaches for the Crimson Tide Women's tennis team include Jean Mills (1975-1978), Mark Heinrick (1979-1980), Lewis Lay in 1981, Peter Heffeman (1982-1984), Karin Gaiser (1985-1993), Jim Tressler (1994-1997), Michelle Morton in 1997, and the current coach, Jenny Mainz (1998-2013). Coach Jenny Mainz was named in 2013 as the National Coach of the Year after her team reached the Round of 16 and had a singles player and a doubles team to both reach the national semifinals. All-Americans for the Crimson Tide women's tennis team include Titia Wilmink (1993), Marouschka van Dijk (1993), Baili Camino (1997), Robin Stephenson (2005), Alexa Guarachi (2013), and current player Mary Anne Macfarlane (2012, 2013). The Crimson Tide Women's team has sent 17 qualifiers for the NCAA Singles Tournament and 12 doubles teams as of 2013. The Tide competed as a team in the NCAA Tournaments of 1993, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013, a year that produced the best results in program history with a Sweet 16 appearance. Notable seasons in the history of Alabama Tennis include 1972 (27-7 record for the men's team) 1976 (SEC Championship for the men's team) 1983 (20-4 record for the men's team, #14 national ranking, 2nd in the SEC) 1987 (20-8 record for the men's team, #19 national ranking) 1989 (18-8 record for the men's team, #11 national ranking) 1993 (19-5 record for the men's team, #9 national ranking, 3rd in SEC, NCAA Sweet Sixteen) 1993 (17-7 record for the women's team, #20 national ranking, 4th in the SEC) 2007 (22-8 record for the men's team, #14 national ranking, NCAA Sweet Sixteen) 2009 (21-8 record for the men's team, #16 national ranking) 2011 (16-7 record for the women's team, #28 national ranking, 4th in the SEC) 2012 (18-5 record for the women's team, #11 national ranking, 2nd in the SEC) 2013 (21-6 record for the women's team, #9 national ranking, NCAA Sweet Sixteen) Women's rowing is the most recent addition to Alabama's list of varsity athletics. Mal Moore announced the addition of Alabama's 21st varsity sport in October 2005. The women's rowing team became the newest varsity sport at The University of Alabama in Fall 2006. The team was added due to the NCAA's Title IX and allows for 20 full scholarships. Taking only girls who had previously rowed for the Alabama Crew Club (est. 1987) and other walk-ons, Head Coach Larry Davis built the program from the ground up. In the first year of competition (2006–2007), the Tide defeated the University of Cincinnati, Creighton University, and Murray State University and also won medals at the Head of the Chattahoochee and the Head of the South. The second year (2007–2008) of competition surprised many as the Varsity 8 went on to win silver medals at the prestigious Head of the Charles Regatta in Boston, MA and also the Southern Intercollegiate Rowing Association Championships in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Tide again medaled at the Chattanooga Head Race and the Head of the South and recorded several match race victories against Southern Methodist University, Creighton, Murray State, Drake University, and the University of North Carolina. The team also landed three boats in the top 10 of their categories at the Dad Vail Regatta in Philadelphia. Within two years, the team has had 25 athletes earn SEC Academic Honor Roll honors and 16 earn Collegiate Rowing Coaches Association Scholar-Athlete awards. For the 2007-2008 school year, Women's Rowing won the team service award by posting the most number of community service hours (over 1500) out of all women's sports at Alabama. Nationally, the Alabama women's rowing team has won both silver (in 2007) and bronze (in 2009) medals in the women's championship 8+ category at the Head of the Charles regatta in Boston. Additional varsity sports at the University include swimming and diving, and cross-country. The University supports both men's and women's programs in all of these sports. The school has had individual success in all of these sports, including Vladislav Polyakov winning national titles in the 200-meter men's breaststroke in 2005 and 2007. The University also has two cheerleading squads (The "Crimson Squad" and "White Squad") and a dance team known as the Crimson Cabaret who compete annually at the UCA/UDA College Nationals. The Cheerleading squad won 2011 College Cheerleading National Championship. The University of Alabama through University Recreation also fields a number of club sports of varying degrees of competitiveness, though most compete only with other teams from the southeastern part of the country. The club sports include men's soccer, rugby, wrestling, lacrosse, men's volleyball, ice hockey, team handball, water polo, men's rowing (crew), cricket, cycling, disc golf, racquetball, table tennis, triathlon, ultimate frisbee, wheelchair basketball, water skiing, and bass fishing. The Crimson Tide's Water Skiing Team, Racquetball Team, and Wheelchair Basketball teams have the distinction of being among the nation's best, with national championships achieved by each of these teams. Men's Ice Hockey team known as the Frozen Tide competes intercollegiately in Southeastern Collegiate Hockey Conference (SECHC) of the American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA) at the ACHA Division III level. Since 2006, Bama Hockey and the Frozen Tide has hosted sporting events for the Greater-Birmingham area at the Pelham Civic Center. The men's lacrosse team competes in the SouthEastern Lacrosse Conference of the Men's Collegiate Lacrosse Association at the Division I level. The team plays at the University Recreation Fields and is currently coached by Michael Walker. The team was founded by Steven Shipowitz in the early 1980s. The Crimson Tide made their first appearance in the SELC Tournament in 2012, losing to the Florida State Seminoles 22-9 in the quarterfinals. The team briefly played in the Atlantic Coast Lacrosse Association in 2001, hosting the league tournament that season. Founded in 1973, Alabama Rugby is the oldest ongoing club sport at the University of Alabama. Alabama rugby today competes in the Southeastern Collegiate Rugby Conference against its traditional SEC rivals. Alabama finished second in the west division of the conference in 2012. Alabama has student-athletes who have exceled in the classroom as well as on the field. The University of Alabama is eighth in the nation for the number of Academic-All Americans since 2000 from all universities in the United States. Among Division I BCS schools in the southeastern United States, the University of Alabama is at the top of the list with the greatest number of Academic All-Americans since the year 2000. Each of the University of Alabama's 21 varsity athletic teams scored significantly above the national standard of 925 in the NCAA's Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 2012. 14 Crimson Tide teams achieved scores equal to or above the national Division I average for the particular sport, and 2 teams achieved "perfect" APR scores, which placed them in the highest percentile in the nation.
The University of Alabama (UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System. Founded in 1831, UA is one of the oldest and the largest of the universities in Alabama. UA offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist, and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology, library and information studies, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages, and social work. The university is ranked first among public institutions and fourth out of all universities in the 2012-2013 enrollment of National Merit Scholars with 241 enrolled in the fall 2012 freshman class. As one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a vast cultural imprint on the state, region and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the American Civil War and the African-American Civil Rights Movement. The University of Alabama varsity football program (nicknamed the Crimson Tide), which was inaugurated in 1892, ranks as one of 10 winningest programs in US history. In a 1913 speech then-president George H. Denny extolled the university as the "capstone of the public school system in the state [of Alabama]," lending the university its current nickname, The Capstone. The official name of the institution is The University of Alabama, where the "the" is capitalized and officially a part of the name of the institution. The accepted abbreviation of the official name is UA. While it is not uncommon for "Tuscaloosa" to be appended to the university's name to distinguish it from sister UA System institutions UAB and UAH, this name—and accompanying abbreviation, UAT—is unofficial and not accepted. In 1818, Congress authorized the newly created Alabama Territory to set aside a township for the establishment of a "seminary of learning". When Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819, a second township was added to the land grant, bringing it to a total of 46,000 acres (186 km²). The General Assembly of Alabama established the seminary on December 18, 1820, named it "The University of the State of Alabama", and created a Board of Trustees to manage the construction and operation of the university. The board chose as the site of the campus a place which was then just outside the city limits of Tuscaloosa, the state capital at the time. The new campus was designed by William Nichols, also the architect of newly completed Alabama State Capitol building and Christ Episcopal Church. Influenced by Thomas Jefferson's plan at the University of Virginia, the Nichols-designed campus featured a 70-foot (21 m) wide, 70-foot (21 m) high domed Rotunda that served as the library and nucleus of the campus. The university's charter was presented to the first university president in the nave of Christ Episcopal Church. UA opened its doors to students on April 18, 1831, with the Reverend Alva Woods as President. An academy-style institution during the Antebellum period, the university emphasized the classics and the social and natural sciences. There were around 100 students per year at UA in the 1830s. However, as Alabama was a frontier state and a sizable amount of its territory was still in the hand of various Native American tribes until the 1840s, it lacked the infrastructure to adequately prepare students for the rigors of university education. Consequently, only a fraction of students who enrolled in the early years remained enrolled for long and even fewer graduated. Those who did graduate, however, often had distinguished careers in Alabama and national politics. Early graduates included Benjamin F. Porter and Alexander Meek. As the state and university matured, an active literary culture evolved on campus and in Tuscaloosa. UA had one of the largest libraries in the country on the eve of the Civil War with more than 7,000 volumes. There were several thriving literary societies, including the Erosophic and the Phi Beta Kappa societies, which frequently had lectures by such distinguished politicians and literary figures as United States Supreme Court Justice John A. Campbell, novelist William Gilmore Simms, and Professor Frederick Barnard (later president of Columbia University). Discipline and student behavior was a major issue at the university almost from the day it opened. Early presidents attempted to enforce strict rules regarding conduct. Students were prohibited from drinking, swearing, making unauthorized visits off-campus, or playing musical instruments outside of a one-hour time frame. Yet riots and gunfights were not an uncommon occurrence. To combat the severe discipline problem, president Landon Garland lobbied and received approval from the legislature in 1860 to transform the university into a military school. As such, many of the cadets who graduated from the school went on to serve as officers in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. As a consequence of that role, Union troops burned down the campus on April 4, 1865 (only 5 days before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House on 9 April), which was unrelated to Sherman's March to the Sea several months earlier and farther east, in Georgia. Despite a call to arms and defense by the student cadet corps, only four buildings survived the burning: the President's Mansion (1841), Gorgas House (1829), Little Round House (1860), and Old Observatory (1844). The university reopened in 1871 and in 1880, Congress granted the university 40,000 acres (162 km²) of coal land in partial compensation for $250,000 in war damages. The military structure was dropped approximately a decade after the school was officially opened to women in 1892 after much lobbying by Julia Tutwiler to the Board of Trustees. During World War II, UA was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. The first attempt to integrate the university occurred in 1956 when Autherine Lucy successfully enrolled on February 3 as a graduate student in library sciences after having secured a court order preventing the university from rejecting her application on the basis of race. In the face of violent protests against her attendance, Lucy was suspended (and later outright expelled) three days later by the board of trustees on the basis of being unable to provide a safe learning environment for her. The university was not successfully integrated until 1963 when Vivian Malone and James Hood registered for classes on June 11. Governor George Wallace made his infamous "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door", standing in the front entrance of Foster Auditorium in a symbolic attempt to stop Malone and Hood's enrollment. When confronted by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and federal marshals sent in by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Wallace stepped aside. President John F. Kennedy had called for the integration of the University of Alabama, as well. Although Hood dropped out of school after two months, he subsequently returned and, in 1997, received his PhD in philosophy. Malone persisted in her studies and became the first African American to graduate from the university. In 2000, the university granted her a doctorate of humane letters. Autherine Lucy's expulsion was rescinded in 1980, and she successfully re-enrolled and graduated with a master's degree in 1992. Later in his life, Wallace apologized for his opposition at that time to racial integration. In 2010, the university formally honored Lucy, Hood and Malone by rechristening the plaza in front of Foster Auditorium as Malone-Hood Plaza and erecting a clock tower – Autherine Lucy Clock Tower – in the plaza. On April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa was hit by a tornado with a rating of at least EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale. The tornado left a large path of complete destruction but spared the campus. Six students who lived on off-campus premises were confirmed dead by the university. Due to the infrastructural damage of the city (approx. 12% of the city) and the loss of life, the university cancelled the rest of the spring semester and postponed graduation. From a small campus of seven buildings in the wilderness on the main road between Tuscaloosa and Huntsville (now University Boulevard) in the 1830s, UA has grown to a massive 1,970-acre (800 ha) campus in the heart of Tuscaloosa today. There are 297 buildings on campus containing some 10,600,000 square feet (980,000 m2) of space. The school recently added 168 acres to its campus after purchasing the Bryce Hospital property in 2010. It also plans to acquire more land to accommodate the continuing growth of the enrollment. The university also maintains the University of Alabama Arboretum in eastern Tuscaloosa and the Dauphin Island Sea Lab on Dauphin Island, just off the Alabama gulf coast. According to Campus Squeeze's 20 Most Beautiful Colleges in the USA rankings, the University of Alabama's campus was ranked 17th among both public and private colleges. In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave the university a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "B+". The campus is anchored around the 22-acre (8.9 ha) Quad, which sits at the site of the original campus designed by William Nichols. The Quad is about the same size as that original campus and lies roughly at the geographic center of the modern campus (though recent asymmetrical expansion of the campus northward and eastward has shifted the exact geographic center away). It is cut in half by a line connecting the Gorgas Library on the north end and Denny Chimes, a campanile equipped with a 25-bell carillon, on the south. The west side of the Quad is filled by a grove of trees while the east side of the Quad is open field. Academic buildings are grouped into smaller clusters and quads surrounding the main Quad itself. Woods Quad, lying immediately north of the main Quad, was the center of the rebuilt post-Civil War campus before the center shifted back to the Quad. Woods Quad is home to Clark Hall, the home of the College of Arts & Sciences, and the homes of several of the fine arts and humanities departments. East of Quad, the buildings historically housed the natural science and math departments, before more modern facilities opened in the northeast of the campus. (Today, only the physics & astronomy, math, and psychology departments called the Quad home.) Engineering Row, the traditional home of the departments of the College of Engineering, is located to the northeast. Northwest of the Quad are buildings housing humanities and social sciences departments. To the west of the Quad lie the buildings of the colleges of commerce and education. Finally, the College of Communication and Information Sciences, the College of Human Environmental Sciences, and the School of Social Work flank the Quad to the south from west to east, respectively. As the university has grown more academic buildings have moved further out from the Quad. The Science and Engineering Complex on the northeast periphery of the campus will house many science and engineering departments. The facilities of the School of Law, the School of Music (a division of the College of Arts and Sciences), the College of Nursing, and the College of Community Health Sciences are located on the far eastern edges of campus. The College of Continuing Education is located in Parham Hall further south of the Quad. Further out from the Quad are more student support services and research facilities that are not vital to the day to day needs of students. The Ferguson Center, the student center on campus is located north of Woods Quads. One of the three main dining halls is located in "The Ferg". The other two dining halls are located closer to the dorms on the north and south sides of campus (Lakeside Dining Hall on the north and Burke Dining Hall on the south). Most residence halls are located on the north and south sides of campus. Commuter parking decks on located on the periphery of campus, as are student recreational facilities, such as the intramural fields and the Campus Recreation Center. Athletic facilities generally flank the far southern and far eastern edges of campus. Bryant-Denny Stadium is in the southwestern edge of the campus and Coleman Coliseum is in the southeastern edge of campus, near the law school. The entire campus has been served since 2007 by the CrimsonRide shuttle bus system. UA is home to several museums, cultural facilities and historical landmarks. The Alabama Museum of Natural History at Smith Hall exhibits Alabama's rich natural history. The oddest artifact there could be the Sylacauga meteorite, the largest known extraterrestrial object to strike a human being who survived. The Paul W. Bryant Museum houses memorabilia and exhibits on the history of UA athletic programs, most notably the tenure of football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant. Athletic trophies and awards are displayed at the Mal Moore Athletic Building near the Bryant Museum. The Sarah Moody Gallery of Art at Garland Hall hosts revolving exhibitions of contemporary art, including from the university's own permanent collection. The Ferguson Art Gallery at the Ferguson Center also hosts revolving art exhibitions. The Jones Archaeological Museum at Moundville exhibits the history of Mississippian culture in Alabama. Numerous historical landmarks dot the campus, including the President's Mansion, Denny Chimes, Foster Auditorium (a National Historical Landmark), the Gorgas–Manly Historic District, and Maxwell Observatory. Campus culture facilities include the Bert Man Jrs. Theater, the Marion Gallaway Theater, Morgan Auditorium, and the Frank M. Moody Music Building, which houses the Tuscaloosa Symphony Orchestra and the UA Opera Theatre, as well as three resident choirs. The University of Alabama is an autonomous institution within the University of Alabama System, which is governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama and headed by Chancellor of the University of Alabama. The board was created by the state legislature to govern the operations of the university. Its responsibilities include setting policy for the university, determining the mission and scope of the university, and assuming ultimate responsibility for the university to the public and the legislature. The board is self-perpetuating and currently composed of 15 members and two ex officio members. The makeup of the board is dictated by the Constitution of the State of Alabama, and requires that the board be made up of three members from the congressional district that contains the Tuscaloosa campus, and two members from every other congressional district in Alabama. Board members are elected by the board and are confirmed by the Alabama State Senate. Board members may serve three consecutive six-year terms. The President of the University of Alabama is the principal executive officer of the university and is appointed by the chancellor with approval of the Board of Trustees. The president reports directly to the chancellor, and is responsible for the daily operations of the university. The president's office is located on the third floor of the Rose Administration Building, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's Mansion on campus. Judy L. Bonner became the 28th university president in 2012. The university faculty numbers 1,175 and the staff numbers 3,513. 829 held the rank of assistant professor or higher. 922 faculty members were full-time. 527 were tenured with 244 on tenure track. 13.8% (114) were minorities and 34.7% (287) were women.][ There are 13 academic divisions at the University of Alabama (see the table). Eight of those divisions (A&S, C&BA, C&IS, Education, Engineering, HES, Nursing, and Social Work) grant undergraduate degrees. Degrees in those eight divisions at the master's, specialist, and doctoral level are awarded through the Graduate School. The law school offers J.D. and LL.M. degree programs. CHS provides advanced studies in medicine and related disciplines and operates a family practice residency program. Medical students are also trained in association with the University of Alabama School of Medicine, from which they receive their degree. The College of Continuing Studies provides correspondence courses and other types of distance education opportunities for non-traditional students. It operates a distance education facility in Gadsden. Founded in 1971 and merged into the College of Arts and Sciences in 1996, the New College program allows undergraduate students more flexibility in choosing their curriculum while completing a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Sciences degree. The program allows students to create a "depth study" in a particular field chosen by the student. The student completes approved independent studies alongside their normal coursework. The objective of New College is to inspire interdisciplinary learning at the undergraduate level. The Honors College is a non-degree granting division that encompasses all the university's honors programs. The University of Alabama System's financial endowment was valued at $995 million in the National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO) 2011 ranking, up 16.5% from its 2010 value. UA's portion of the system's endowment was valued at over $515 million in September 2008. In 2002, the university embarked on a $500 million capital campaign entitled "Our Students. Our Future." The focus of the campaign was stated to be "student scholarships, faculty support, campus facilities and priority needs" by adding $250 million to university endowment and an additional $250 to the non-endowed funds. The "quiet phase" (which lasted until 2006) of the campaign raised $299 million. In November 2007, the university announced that it had raised $428 million. The $500 million goal was surpassed in May 2008 and when the campaign officially concluded in 2009, it had raised $612 million. It was recently reported that The University of Alabama's 2010 financial endowment was valued at $631,947,260. The University of Alabama is a large, four-year primarily residential research university accredited by the South Association of Colleges and Schools. Full-time, four-year undergraduates comprise a large amount of the total university enrollment. The undergraduate instructional program emphasizes professional programs of study as well as the liberal arts, and there a high level of co-existence between the graduate and undergraduate program. The university has a "high level" of research activity (below the highest "very high level" classification) and has a "comprehensive doctoral" graduate instructional program in the liberal arts, humanities, social sciences and STEM fields, though it lacks health and veterinary sciences professional programs. UA conferred 6,003 degrees in academic year 2009–2010, including 4,284 bachelor's degrees, 1,339 master's degrees, 209 doctorates and 171 professional degrees. Latin honors are conferred on graduates completing a bachelor's degree for the first time (including at other universities) with an overall grade point average of at least 3.5. Cum laude honors are conferred to graduates with a GPA of 3.5 or greater and less than 3.7 (without rounding). Magna cum laude honors are conferred with a GPA of 3.7 or greater and less than 3.9. Summa cum laude honors are conferred with a GPA of 3.9 or higher. The university follows a standard academic calendar based on the semester system, which divides the academic year, starting in mid-August, into two 15-week semesters (fall and spring) and the summer. The fall semester ends in December and the spring term lasts from January to early May. The summer, which lasts from mid-May to August, is divided into a 3-week "mini-semester" in May and two four-week sessions in June and July, respectively. In fall 2012, the university had an enrollment of 33,602, consisting of 28,026 undergraduates, 4917 graduate students, and 659 professional degree students from all 67 Alabama counties and all 50 states. 96.8% of all students were US citizens or permanent residents and 3.2% were nonresident aliens. Students from 61 foreign countries comprised 2.6% of the student body. The five Alabama counties with the highest enrollment of students are Jefferson, Tuscaloosa, Madison, Shelby and Mobile, while the five states (beside Alabama) with the highest enrollment of students are Georgia, Florida, Texas, Tennessee and Virginia. In fall 2012, the university received 26,409 applications for first-time freshman enrollment, from which 14,019 applications were accepted and 6,371 freshmen enrolled. 22% of the incoming freshman class submitted SAT scores; the middle 50 percent of those who reported their SAT scored between 1490 and 1870 (500-620 Reading, 500–640 Math, 490–610 Writing). 75% submitted ACT sores; the middle 50 percent of those who reported their ACT scored between 22 and 30 (21–28 Math, 22–31 English, 6–8 Writing). 85% of incoming freshman had a high school GPA of 3.00 or higher. In fall 2012, 32% of undergraduates were enrolled in A&S, 22% in C&BA, 9% in C&IS, 8% in Education, 11% in Engineering, 10% in HES, 6% in Nursing, 1% in Social Work, and 1% in Continuity Education. The University of Alabama ranked 12th in the nation among public universities in the enrollment of National Merit Scholars in 2007. UA graduates include 15 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Goldwater Scholars, 12 Truman Scholars, 13 Hollings Scholars, two Javits Fellows, one Gates Scholar, one Portz Scholar, and one Udall Scholar.][ Numbers of UA graduates have been named to the USA Today All-USA College Academic Team. The University of Alabama has consistently ranked as a top 50 public university in the nation by the U.S. News & World Report and has a selectivity rating of "more selective". In the 2012 USNWR rankings, UA was 77th in the National Universities category (32nd among the public schools in the category). In 2012, the University of Alabama moved up in the state rankings from number 5 to number 4 only to be behind Auburn University, Samford University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. A ranking of colleges and universities by the Center for College Affordability and Productivity in the May 19, 2008 edition of Forbes magazine ranked the UA seventh in the nation among public universities and 42nd overall. Several of UA's colleges are ranked individually. In the 2011 USNWR ranking, the business school was ranked 57th (including a ranking of 27 for the accounting program) and the engineering school was ranked 98th. In March 2009, PRWeek magazine recognized the public relations program with an honorable mention in its award for PR Education Program of the Year 2009. In the 2013 USNWR law school rankings, the UA law school was ranked 21st. In the 2011 USNWR Best Graduate Schools rankings, the business school ranked 63rd, the education school ranked 63rd, and the engineering school ranked 113th. The University of Alabama has over 3 million volumes, not including uncataloged government documents, in its total collection, of which 2.5 million volumes are held by the University Libraries. Six separate libraries are part the University Libraries system. The Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library, which sits on the Main Quad, is the oldest and largest of the university libraries. Gorgas Library holds the university's collections in the humanities and social sciences, as well as the university's depository of US government documents. The library opened in 1939 as a four-story Greek Revival structure on the site of the original university Rotunda and was named after the long-time university librarian and wife of eighth university president Josiah Gorgas. A seven-story addition was built behind the library in the 1970s. The Angelo Bruno Business Library, located in the Business Quad, is named after the co-founder of the Bruno's grocery chain who gave the university $4 million to create a library focusing on commerce and business studies. Opened in 1994, the 64,000-square-foot (5,900 m2), three-story facility holds over 170,000 volumes. Bruno Library also houses the 9,500-square-foot (880 m2) Sloan Y. Bashinsky Sr. Computer Center. The Eric and Sarah Rodgers Library for Science and Engineering, located in the Science and Engineering Quad, is named after two popular, long-time professors of engineering and statistics, respectively. It opened in 1990, combining the Science Library collection in Lloyd Hall and the Engineering Library collection in the Mineral Industries Building (now known as HM Comer Hall). Rodgers Library was designed with help from IBM to incorporate the latest in informatics. McLure Education Library was founded in 1954 in a remodeled student union annex (across the street from the old Student Union, now Reese Phifer Hall) and named in 1974 after John Rankin McLure, the longtime Dean of the College of Education. The W.S. Hoole Special Collections Library, which holds the university's collection of rare and historical documents and books, is located in Mary Harmon Bryant Hall. The Library Annex holds seldom-used books and journals, as well as other volume which need special protection, that would otherwise take up valuable space in the libraries. Other libraries on campus are independent of the University Libraries. The 66,000-square-foot (6,100 m2) Bounds Law Library, located at the Law Center, holds more than 300,000 volumes. Established in 1978, the Health Sciences Library, located at the University Medical Center, serves students at the College of Community Health Sciences. Its 20,000-volume collection include clinical medicine, family practice, primary care, medical education, consumer health, and related health care topics. Located in Farah Hall (home of the Department of Geography) the Map Library and Place Names Research Center holds over 270,000 maps and 75,000 aerial photographs. The William E. Winter Reading Room of the College of Communication and Information Sciences is located in Reese Phifer Hall and holds over 10,000 volumes. The School of Social Work Reading Room is located in Little Hall and just around 200 volumes. UA is one of the 126 members of the Association of Research Libraries, which yearly compiles internal rankings. In 2011, the University of Alabama ranked 56th among all criteria, a marked improvement over a 2003 ranking of 97th. In the fall of 2011, the University of Alabama Trustees approved a resolution to expand Gorgas Library by 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2), doubling the seating capacity from 1,139 to 2,278. This expansion will also signal the beginning of the construction of an Academic Honors Plaza, between the library and Clark Hall. The plaza will include green-space, fountains, benches, and decorative lighting. In FY 2010, UA received $68.6 million in government research contracts and grants. The Alabama International Trade Center and the Center for Advanced Public Safety are two research centers at UA. The University of Alabama is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement amongst the member universities in the Southeastern conference. The SECU formed its mission to serve as a means to bolster collaborative academic endeavors of Southeastern Conference universities. Its goals include highlighting the endeavors and achievements of SEC faculty, students and its universities and advancing the academic reputation of SEC universities. In 2013, the University of Alabama participated in the SEC Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. The topic of the Symposium was titled, the "Impact of the Southeast in the World's Renewable Energy Future." With more than 30,000 students enrolled, the university has a substantial student life component. With enrollment increasing in the 2000s, faculty have been added to limit increases in student to instructor ratio. Student housing, and other facilities are being added to accommodate the growth. The board of trustees chose to locate the UA campus in a field a mile away from the center of the town of Tuscaloosa (a considerable distance in the early 19th century Alabama). The board consciously chose to make on-campus residence an integral part of the student experience at UA. Dormitories were among the first buildings erected at Alabama (the remains of one (Franklin Hall) is now the Mound on the Quad), and student residential life has been emphasized at UA ever since. Today nearly 30% of students live on campus, including over 90% of first-year freshmen. The Office of Housing and Residential Communities manages 18 housing communities for undergraduate students. Housing options range from traditional dormitories with community bathroom to suite-style dorms to full-amenity apartments. Housing is clustered for the most part on the northern and southern sides of campus, with the newest housing on the northern side of campus. Due the rapid increase in enrollment in recent years and freshman residence requirement, most housing on campus is reserved for freshmen, with housing given to upperclassmen where room is available. Most upperclassmen, and all graduate students, married students and students with family live off campus. The Student Government Association is the primary student advocacy organization at UA. The SGA is governed by the SGA Constitution and consists of a legislative branch, an executive branch and a judicial council. The legislative branch is composed of the Senate and the First Year Council. The Senate is composed of 50 members elected by proportional representation of the total student enrollment from each of the degree-granting colleges (i.e. all but Honors, Community Health Sciences, and Continuing Studies). The Senate is headed by a speaker that is chosen from among the membership of the Senate. The executive branch is composed of the Executive Council and the Executive Cabinet. The Executive Council is composed of the seven constitutional officers who are elected by the entirety of the student body and the appointed Chief of Staff while the Executive Cabinet is composed of non-constitutional appointed executive officers. The Executive Council is also empowered by the constitution to created with the assent of the Senate any number of appointed director positions to assist in the council in the fulfillment of its duties. The Judicial Council is composed of the Chief Justice, who is elected by the whole of the student body, and any number of appointed associate justices and judicial clerks. Other important student advocacy organizations include the Graduate Student Association, the Student Bar Association, and the Honors College Assembly. Since its founding in 1914, a secretive coalition of fraternities and sororities, commonly known as "The Machine", has wielded enormous influence over the Student Government Association. Occurrences of harassment, intimidation, and even criminal activities aimed at opposition candidates have been reported. Many figures in local, state, and national politics have come out of the SGA at the University of Alabama. Esquire devoted its April 1992 cover story to an exposé of The Machine. The controversy led to the university disbanding the SGA in 1993, which wasn't undone until 1996. Greek letter organizations (GLOs) first appeared at the university in 1847 when two men visiting from Yale University installed a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon. When DKE members began holding secret meetings in the old state capitol building that year, the administration strongly voiced its disapproval. Over a few more decades, 7 other fraternities appeared at UA: Alpha Delta Phi in 1850, Phi Gamma Delta in 1855, Sigma Alpha Epsilon in 1856 (this was the founding chapter), Kappa Sigma in 1870, Sigma Nu in 1874, Sigma Chi in 1876, and Phi Delta Theta in 1877. Anti-fraternity laws were imposed that year, but were lifted in 1890s. Women at the university founded the Zeta Chapter of Kappa Delta sorority in 1903. Alpha Delta Pi soon followed. In fall 2009, the university sanctioned 29 men's and 23 women's GLOs. Additionally, an unknown number of non-sanctioned GLOs also existed. Four governing boards oversee the operations of the university-sanctioned GLOs: the Interfraternity Council (IFC), the Panhellenic Association, the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the Unified Greek Council (UGC). In 2012, 23% of male undergraduates were in university-sanctioned fraternities, including 28% of male freshman. 33% of women undergraduates, including 43% of female freshman were in university-sanctioned sororities. The number of men in GLOs more than doubled from 2002 to 2009, with fifteen fraternities reporting active memberships of more than one hundred (where as recently as 2001 none reported memberships greater than 100). Following 2008 fall recruitment, almost all Panhellenic sororities participating through all rounds had potential new member class sizes of 80 or more; nearly all Panhellenic sororities also now have more than 200 total members. To accommodate growth in the student population since 2005, the university has sanctioned three new fraternities and two new sororities. Additionally, four new sorority houses will be added built behind the President's Mansion. Several honors societies are present at the University of Alabama. Some honor societies are national organizations with local chapter while other are local organizations. Numerous media outlets are operated by or in conjunction with the university. Student-produced media outlets are all managed by the Office of Student Media, itself controlled by the university-sanctioned Media Planning Board. However, all student publications are editorially independent of the university. The OSM oversees the production of one newspaper, one yearbook, three scholarly publications, and the student-run radio station. The Crimson White is the student-produced newspaper. Published four times a week during the academic year and weekly during the summer, the CW normally distributes 15,000 copies per publication. The CW received a 2010 Mark of Excellence Award for "Best All-Around Daily Student Newspaper at a Four-Year College or University" in the Southeast region by the Society of Professional Journalists. The CW won the Mark of Excellence Award again in 2011 and a Gold Crown Award from the Columbia Scholastic Press Association for its spring 2011 issues. The Crimson White was also inducted into the College Media Hall of Fame for its coverage of the April 2011 tornado that caused massive damage in Tuscaloosa. First published in 1892, Corolla is the official yearbook of the university. It is produced annually by students and is the oldest student-run publication on campus. The Black Warrior Review is the university's widely distributed and influential literary journal managed and published by graduate students (primarily from the English and Creative Writing departments). Founded in 1974, BWR publishes local, regional, and nationally known writers, poets, and visual artists. Since 1990, UA has also published the Marr's Field Journal, an undergraduate literary journal published by and composed of material from UA 's undergraduates. Like its "big brother," MFJ publishes fiction, poetry, and graphic art. The Southern Historian is a journal of Southern history written, edited, and produced entirely by graduate students in the Department of History. Southern Historian features articles on all aspects of Southern history, culture and book reviews in all fields of U.S. History. WVUA-FM, "90.7 The Capstone", formerly known as "New Rock 90.7", is one of the older college radio stations in the nation, tracing its roots back to 1940. It carries a variety of music programming and broadcasts the games of several of the university's sports teams. The University of Alabama's intercollegiate athletic teams are known as the Alabama Crimson Tide (this name can be shortened to Alabama, the Crimson Tide, or even the Tide). The nickname Crimson Tide originates from a 1907 football game versus Auburn University in Birmingham where, after a hard-fought game in torrential rain in which Auburn had been heavily favored to win, Alabama forced a tie. Writing about the game, one sportswriter described the offensive line as a "Crimson Tide", in reference to their jerseys, stained red from the wet dirt. Alabama competes in the Southeastern Conference (Western Division) of the NCAA's Division I. Alabama fields men's varsity teams in football, basketball, baseball, golf, cross country, swimming and diving, tennis, and track and field. Women's varsity teams are fielded in basketball, golf, cross country, gymnastics, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. The Athletic facilities on campus include the Bryant-Denny Stadium, named after legendary football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and former UA President George Denny, and the 14,619-seat Coleman Coliseum. Alabama maintains athletic rivalries with Auburn University and the University of Tennessee. The rivalry with Auburn is especially heated as it encompasses all sports. The annual Alabama-Auburn football game is nicknamed the Iron Bowl. While the rivalry with Tennessee is centered around football for the most part, there is no shortage of acrimony here, especially given the recent history between then-UT Coach Phillip Fulmer and his relationship to the Tide's most recent NCAA probation. There are also rivalries with Louisiana State University (football and baseball), University of Mississippi (football and men's basketball), Mississippi State University (football, men's basketball), University of Georgia (women's gymnastics), and the University of Florida (football, softball). The University of Alabama football program, started in 1892, has won 23 SEC titles and 15 national championships (including 9 awarded by the Associated Press and 8 by the Coaches Poll). The program has compiled 31 10-win seasons and 59 bowl appearances, winning 32 of them – all NCAA records. Alabama has produced 18 hall-of-famers, 97 All-Americans honored 105 times, and 1 Heisman trophy winner (Mark Ingram, Jr.). The Crimson Tide's current home venue, Bryant-Denny Stadium, opened in 1929 with a capacity of around 12,000. The most recent addition of the stadium was completed in 2010. An upper deck was added in the south end zone, completing the upper deck around the stadium. The current official capacity of the stadium is 101,821. The previous addition was the north end zone expansion, completed 2006. The Tide has also played many games, including the Iron Bowl against rival Auburn University, at Legion Field in Birmingham. Nearly synonymous with Alabama football is legendary coach Paul "Bear" Bryant whose record at the University of Alabama was 232–46–9. He led the Crimson Tide to 6 national titles in 1961, 1964, 1965, 1973, 1978, and 1979, which is tied with Notre Dame's legendary coach Knute Rockne. Additionally, the 1966 team was the only one in the country to finish with a perfect record, but poll voters denied the 12–0 Alabama team the three-peat as Michigan State and Notre Dame played each other to a 10–10 tie in what was considered the "Game of the Century" and subsequently split the national championship. On December 12, 2009, sophomore running back Mark Ingram was awarded the Heisman Trophy as college football's best player. In so being named, Ingram became the first Heisman Trophy winner for the University of Alabama. Alabama defeated Texas 37–21 in the BCS Championship game on January 7, 2010, capping a perfect season, an SEC Championship, and winning its first national championship in the BCS era. Alabama defeated Louisiana State University 21-0 on January 9, 2012 to win it's second BCS National Championship. Alabama won its third BCS National Championship in January 2013 defeating Notre Dame 42-14 becoming the first school to win three BCS Titles. The school's fight song is "Yea Alabama", written in 1926 by Lundy Sykes, then editor of the campus newspaper. Sykes composed the song in response to a contest by the Rammer Jammer to create a fight song following Alabama's first Rose Bowl victory. The song as it currently played by the Million Dollar Band during games (the form known to most people) is simply the chorus of the larger song. While the opening line of song is taken to be Yea Alabama, Crimson Tide!, the correct opening line is Yea, Alabama! Drown 'em Tide! The Alabama Alma Mater is set to the tune of Annie Lisle, a ballad written in the 1850s. The lyrics are usually credited as, "Helen Vickers, 1908", although it is not clear whether that was when it was written or if that was her graduating class. The University of Alabama has had a strong cultural and historical impact not only in Alabama but in the United States as a whole. In film, probably the most famous reference to the university is in the 1994 film Forrest Gump (adapted from a novel of the same name by alumnus Winston Groom), in which the title character, portrayed by actor Tom Hanks, attends the University of Alabama and plays football there under Bear Bryant. The 1995 film Crimson Tide, starring Denzel Washington and Gene Hackman, makes multiple references to the UA football program (as evident by the title). Numerous alumni have made references to their alma mater. Alumnus Joe Scarborough has broadcast his MSNBC morning show, The Morning Joe live from campus. Alumna Sela Ward's character on the show CSI:New York makes mention of her desire for "[the Alabama Crimson Tide] to win another BCS championship" in an episode. In music, multiple songs make reference to the university or the Crimson Tide, such as Steely Dan's song "Deacon Blues", Buddy Jewell's song "Sweet Southern Comfort", Trace Adkins' song "Ala-Freaking-Bama", and Tim McGraw's 2009 song, "Southern Voice".
Demetrius Goode Mark Ingram Alabama running back Jonathan Lowe Ingram Mark Ingram, Jr. Alabama Crimson Tide football team College football American football Mark Ingram

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