Question:

Who is the powerful rival to the Zhou Dynasty in Southern China?

Answer:

Zhou dynasty, which reigned China for the longest period came to power after the Shang dynasty. The Qin Dynasty were their rivals.

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China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities (乡土, xiangtu, 'localism') of the Chinese people.

Often used as the geographical dividing line between northern and southern China is the Huai River–Qin Mountains line. This line approximates the 0°C January Isotherm (contour line) and the 800 millimetres (31 in) isohyet in China.

E Qin

Chinese historiography
Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Linguistic history
Art history
Economic history
Education history
Science and technology history
Legal history
Media history
Military history
Naval history

The Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046–256 BC; Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade–Giles: Chou1 Ch'ao2 [tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji (Chinese: ) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou.

Chinese historiography
Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Linguistic history
Art history
Economic history
Education history
Science and technology history
Legal history
Media history
Military history
Naval history

The Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin Dynasty (Chinese: 殷代; pinyin: Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia Dynasty and followed by the Zhou Dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Classic of History, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 BC to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 BC to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 BC to 1046 BC.

Dynasty Qi

According to legend the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (Chinese: 九鼎; pinyin: Jĭu Dĭng) were created following the foundation of the Xia Dynasty (c. 2200 BCE) by Yu the Great, using tribute metal presented by the governors of the Nine Provinces of ancient China.

At the time of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) tripod cauldrons came to symbolize the power and authority of the ruling dynasty with strict regulations imposed as to their use. Members of the gentry scholarly shì (士) class were permitted to use one or three cauldrons, zhū hóu (诸侯/諸侯), the rulers of vassal states seven, dàifu (大夫) or ministers of state five whilst only the Son of Heaven (天子), the sovereign, was entitled to use nine. The use of the nine tripod cauldrons to offer ritual sacrifices to the ancestors from heaven and earth was a major ceremonial occasion so that by natural progression the ding came to symbolize national political power and later to be regarded as a National Treasure. Sources state that two years after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty at the hands of what would become the Qin Dynasty the nine tripod cauldrons were taken from the Zhou royal palace and moved westward to the Qin capital at Xianyang. However, by the time Qin Shi Huang had eliminated the other six Warring States to become the first emperor of China in 221 BCE, the whereabouts of the nine tripod cauldrons were unknown. Sima Qian records in his Records of the Grand Historian that they were lost in the Si River (泗水) near Pencheng (彭城) to where Qin Shi Huang later dispatched a thousand men to search for the cauldrons but to no avail.

Yan may refer to:

Any of several Yan states in Chinese history named with the character "燕" including:

Environment

Ancient Chinese States (simplified Chinese: 诸侯; traditional Chinese: 諸侯; pinyin: Zhūhóu) were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE. In many cases these were vassal states characterized by tribute paid to the ruling Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BCE). Known as Zhuhou (諸侯/诸侯), independent states or fiefdoms would again emerge during later dynasties as a political expedient when required.

According to the sinocentric viewpoint and the Mandate of Heaven, China was the center of the world and the incumbent emperor its only ruler; all other would-be potentates and rulers were merely vassals of the Middle Kingdom or Zhōngguó (中国/中国). As a result, from the earliest times the Chinese viewed the world as a series of concentric spheres of influence emanating outward from their capital. Within the closest circle lay the vassal states who pledged allegiance to the Zhou ruler. Apart from Zhou itself which occupied territory around its capital, each state bore the suffix Guó (国/国) meaning state or nation. Of the 150 or so states, some were little more than a small fortified town or city whilst others possessed a capital as well as other urban areas and controlled significant amounts of territory.

Asia

The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age.

Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent propagates the use of the chariot. Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age. World population begins to rise steadily, reaching some 50 million towards 1000 BC.

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