The Government of New York is the governmental structure of the state of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. As in all 50 states, it is composed of three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The head of the executive branch of the government of New York is the Governor. The Legislature consists of the Senate and the Assembly. The judicial branch consists of the New York State Court of Appeals and lower courts.
Head of state (German: Staatsoberhaupt), or chief of state (French: chef d'état), is a term used in constitutional law, international law, political science, and diplomatic protocol when referring to the official who holds the highest ranked position in a sovereign state and has the vested or implied powers to act as the chief public representative of a state. Heads of state in most countries are natural persons holding an office; however, in four United Nations member states the head of state position is held by a body of persons: the Federal Council of Switzerland, the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Co-Princes of Andorra and the Captains Regent of San Marino.
The term head of state is often used differentiating it from the term head of government, e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list. For instance, in parliamentary systems like the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Federal Republic of Germany; the Monarch and the President are recognized as their respective heads of state, while the Prime Minister and the Chancellor are recognized as the heads of government. However, in republics with a presidential system, as in the United States and the Federative Republic of Brazil, their presidents are recognized as being both heads of state and heads of government. The latter is also generally true in absolute monarchies and sometimes as well in other forms of authoritarian government.
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. New York is the 27th-most extensive, the third-most populous, and the seventh-most densely populated of the 50 United States. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Ontario to the west and north, and Quebec to the north. The state of New York is often referred to as New York State, so as to distinguish it from New York City.
New York City, with a Census-estimated population of over 8.3 million in 2012, is the most populous city in the United States. Alone, it makes up over 40 percent of the population of New York State. It is known for its status as a center for finance and culture and for its status as the largest gateway for immigration to the United States. New York City attracts considerably more foreign visitors than any other US city. Both the state and city were named for the 17th century Duke of York, future King James II of England.
Local government is a form of public administration which in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions.
The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common names for local government entities include state, province, region, department, county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire and village.
Michael Balboni (born May 12, 1959) was the Deputy Secretary for Public Safety for the State of New York, who was the senior homeland security and law enforcement official in New York Governor David Paterson's administration. He was appointed to that cabinet-level position by former Democratic Governor Eliot Spitzer in January 2007.
Balboni previously served as a Republican representing the 17th Assembly District in the State Assembly for eight years until being elected to represent the 7th Senate District in the State Senate in 1997. As chair of the Senate Committee on Veterans, Homeland Security and Military Affairs, he spoke out for New York's need to receive additional Homeland Security funds.
Anthony Nanula is a political leader and businessman in Buffalo, New York. He has served as a state senator and city comptroller.
Nanula, a local businessman, was elected in a 1994 special election to serve in the State Senate, succeeding Anthony Masiello who resigned from the Senate to become Buffalo's mayor. Nanula, who self funded his campaign, was elected to be state senator for parts of Buffalo and Tonawanda and all of Niagara Falls and Grand Island. He was reelected to the State Senate three times. During his Senate career he flirted with a statewide bid for lieutenant governor in 1998, but decided against the Democratic primary for the post. He did indicate that he was interested in running for state comptroller if the position became available.
State governments in the United States are those republics formed by citizens in the jurisdiction thereof as provided by the United States Constitution, with the original 13 states forming the first Articles of Confederation, and later the aforementioned Constitution. Within the U.S. constitution are provisions as to the formation of new states within the Union.