Indiana banned the sale of K2, so it is illegal to purchase.
K-2, Corporation was founded in 1961 by brothers Bill and Don Kirschner on Vashon Island, near Seattle, Washington in the United States. K2 is known for pioneering fiberglass ski technology, which made skis significantly lighter and more lively than their wood and metal contemporaries. Famous users of K2 skis include Seth Morrison, pro champion Spider Sabich, World Cup and Olympic champion Phil Mahre, and his twin brother Steve Mahre, World Champion and Olympic silver medalist.
In late 1969, the company's rapid growth required new capital and Bill Kirschner decided a well-financed partner was necessary. The company was acquired by the Cummins Engine Company of Columbus, Indiana. Then in November 1976, the company was acquired by a private group of Northwest investors. The group, called Sitca, purchased K2 and its subsidiary, Jansport.
In 1982, company management purchased all outstanding shares of Sitca Corporation from the group of Northwest investors. Management decided to concentrate all resources on the alpine ski market. It sold its Jansport subsidiary, distribution subsidiaries in Canada, France and Austria, and majority ownership of the Swiss distribution subsidiary
In September 1985, Anthony Industries, Inc. acquired 100 percent of the stock of Sitca Corporation. Anthony, an NYSE listed company, develops and manufactures products for leisure and recreational markets under many brand names.
In 1995, Anthony Industries sold off its Anthony Pools division to its rival, Sylvan Pools, and changed its name to K2, Inc. By 2000, board member Richard Heckmann had assumed control and embarked on a vigorous growth program. In order to remain financially competitive, K2 moved its manufacturing from Vashon Island to Seattle in 2001. On June 22, 2006, K2 announced it was moving its business office from Vashon Island to Seattle's Industrial District.  On April 25, 2007 Jarden Corporation announced a definitive agreement to acquire K2, Inc. for a cash and stock value per share of $15.50. Jarden is controlled by Martin Franklin, a British investor and triathlete.
It is important to note that while there is some overlap in the companies that K2 owns (e.g. K2 also owns Line, which compete directly with K2's self-branded skis), the separate companies retain control of their respective product lines. For all intents and purposes, they are completely different companies.
K2 (also known as Chhogori/Qogir, Ketu/Kechu, and Mount Godwin-Austen) is the second-highest mountain on Earth, after Mount Everest. It is located on the border between Baltistan, in the Gilgit–Baltistan (part of Kashmir under the administration of Pakistan), and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. With a peak elevation of 8,611 m (28,251 feet), K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram Range and the highest point in Pakistan.
K2 is known as the Savage Mountain due to the extreme difficulty of ascent and the second-highest fatality rate among the eight thousanders. For every four people who have reached the summit, one has died trying. It is more hazardous to reach K2 from the Chinese side; thus, it is mostly climbed from the Pakistani side. Unlike Annapurna, the mountain with the highest fatality-to-summit rate, K2 has never been climbed in winter.
The name K2 is derived from the notation used by the Great Trigonometric Survey. Thomas Montgomerie made the first survey of the Karakoram from Mount Haramukh, some 210 km (130 miles) to the south, and sketched the two most prominent peaks, labelling them K1 and K2.
The policy of the Great Trigonometric Survey was to use local names for mountains wherever possible and K1 was found to be known locally as Masherbrum. K2, however, appeared not to have acquired a local name, possibly due to its remoteness. The mountain is not visible from Askole, the last village to the south, or from the nearest habitation to the north, and is only fleetingly glimpsed from the end of the Baltoro Glacier, beyond which few local people would have ventured. The name Chogori, derived from two Balti words, chhogo ("big") and ri ("mountain") (شاہگوری) has been suggested as a local name, but evidence for its widespread use is scant. It may have been a compound name invented by Western explorers or simply a bemused reply to the question "What's that called?" It does, however, form the basis for the name Qogir (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Qiáogēlǐ Fēng) by which Chinese authorities officially refer to the peak. Other local names have been suggested including Lamba Pahar ("Tall Mountain" in Urdu) and Dapsang, but are not widely used.
Lacking a local name, the name Mount Godwin-Austen was suggested, in honor of Henry Godwin-Austen, an early explorer of the area, and while the name was rejected by the Royal Geographical Society it was used on several maps, and continues to be used occasionally.
The surveyor's mark, K2, therefore continues to be the name by which the mountain is commonly known. It is now also used in the Balti language, rendered as Kechu or Ketu (Urdu: ). The Italian climber Fosco Maraini argued in his account of the ascent of Gasherbrum IV that while the name of K2 owes its origin to chance, its clipped, impersonal nature is highly appropriate for so remote and challenging a mountain. He concluded that it was ...
K2 lies in the northwestern Karakoram Range. It is located in the Baltistan region of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. The Tarim sedimentary basin borders the range on the north and the Lesser Himalayas on the south. Melt waters from vast glaciers, such as those south and east of K2, feed agriculture in the valleys and contribute significantly to the regional fresh-water supply. The Karakoram Range lies along the southern edge of the Eurasian tectonic plate and is made up of ancient sedimentary rocks (more than 390 million years old). Those strata were folded and thrust-faulted, and granite masses were intruded, when the Indian plate collided with Eurasia, beginning more than 100 million years ago.
K2 is only ranked 22nd by topographic prominence, a measure of a mountain's independent stature, because it is part of the same extended area of uplift (including the Karakoram, the Tibetan Plateau, and the Himalaya) as Mount Everest, in that it is possible to follow a path from K2 to Everest that goes no lower than 4,594 metres (15,072 ft), at Mustang Lo. Many other peaks which are far lower than K2 are more independent in this sense.
K2 is notable for its local relief as well as its total height. It stands over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above much of the glacial valley bottoms at its base. It is a consistently steep pyramid, dropping quickly in almost all directions. The north side is the steepest: there it rises over 3,200 metres (10,500 ft) above the K2 (Qogir) Glacier in only 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) of horizontal distance. In most directions, it achieves over 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) of vertical relief in less than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft).
The mountain was first surveyed by a European survey team in 1856. Thomas Montgomerie was the member of the team who designated it "K2" for being the second peak of the Karakoram range. The other peaks were originally named K1, K3, K4 and K5, but were eventually renamed Masherbrum, Gasherbrum IV, Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I respectively. In 1892, Martin Conway led a British expedition that reached "Concordia" on the Baltoro Glacier.
The first serious attempt to climb K2 was undertaken in 1902 by Oscar Eckenstein, Aleister Crowley, Jules Jacot-Guillarmod, Heinrich Pfannl, Victor Wessely and Guy Knowles via the Northeast Ridge. In the early 1900s, modern transportation did not exist: It took "fourteen days just to reach the foot of the mountain". After five serious and costly attempts, the team reached 6,525 metres (21,407 ft)—although considering the difficulty of the challenge, and the lack of modern climbing equipment or weatherproof fabrics, Crowley's statement that "neither man nor beast was injured" highlights the pioneering spirit and bravery of the attempt. The failures were also attributed to sickness (Crowley was suffering the residual effects of malaria), a combination of questionable physical training, personality conflicts, and poor weather conditions—of 68 days spent on K2 (at the time, the record for the longest time spent at such an altitude) only eight provided clear weather.
The next expedition to K2, in 1909, led by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, reached an elevation of around 6,250 metres (20,510 ft) on the South East Spur, now known as the Abruzzi Spur (or Abruzzi Ridge). This would eventually become part of the standard route, but was abandoned at the time due to its steepness and difficulty. After trying and failing to find a feasible alternative route on the West Ridge or the North East Ridge, the Duke declared that K2 would never be climbed, and the team switched its attention to Chogolisa, where the Duke came within 150 metres (490 ft) of the summit before being driven back by a storm.
The next attempt on K2 was not made until 1938, when an American expedition led by Charles Houston made a reconnaissance of the mountain. They concluded that the Abruzzi Spur was the most practical route, and reached a height of around 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) before turning back due to diminishing supplies and the threat of bad weather. The following year an expedition led by Fritz Wiessner came within 200 metres (660 ft) of the summit, but ended in disaster when Dudley Wolfe, Pasang Kikuli, Pasang Kitar and Pintso disappeared high on the mountain.
Charles Houston returned to K2 to lead the 1953 American expedition. The expedition failed due to a storm that pinned the team down for ten days at 7,800 metres (25,600 ft), during which time Art Gilkey became critically ill. A desperate retreat followed, during which Pete Schoening saved almost the entire team during a mass fall, and Gilkey was killed, either in an avalanche or in a deliberate attempt to avoid burdening his companions. In spite of the failure and tragedy, the courage shown by the team has given the expedition iconic status in mountaineering history.
An Italian expedition finally succeeded in ascending to the summit of K2 via the Abruzzi Spur on 31 July 1954. The expedition was led by Ardito Desio, and the two climbers who reached the summit were Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni. The team included a Pakistani member, Colonel Muhammad Ata-ullah, who had been a part of the 1953 American expedition. Also on the expedition were Walter Bonatti and Pakistani Hunza porter Amir Mahdi, who both proved vital to the expedition's success in that they carried oxygen to 8,100 metres (26,600 ft) for Lacedelli and Compagnoni.
On 9 August 1977, 23 years after the Italian expedition, Ichiro Yoshizawa led the second successful ascent, with Ashraf Aman as the first native Pakistani climber. The Japanese expedition took the Abruzzi Spur, and used more than 1,500 porters.
The third ascent of K2 was in 1978, via a new route, the long and corniced Northeast Ridge. The top of the route traversed left across the East Face to avoid a vertical headwall and joined the uppermost part of the Abruzzi route. This ascent was made by an American team, led by James Whittaker; the summit party was Louis Reichardt, Jim Wickwire, John Roskelley, and Rick Ridgeway. Wickwire endured an overnight bivouac about 150 metres (490 ft) below the summit, one of the highest bivouacs in history. This ascent was emotional for the American team, as they saw themselves as completing a task that had been begun by the 1938 team forty years earlier.
Another notable Japanese ascent was that of the difficult North Ridge on the Chinese side of the peak in 1982. A team from the Mountaineering Association of Japan led by Isao Shinkai and Masatsugo Konishi put three members, Naoe Sakashita, Hiroshi Yoshino, and Yukihiro Yanagisawa, on the summit on 14 August. However Yanagisawa fell and died on the descent. Four other members of the team achieved the summit the next day.
The first climber to reach the summit of K2 twice was Czech climber Josef Rakoncaj. Rakoncaj was a member of the 1983 Italian expedition led by Francesco Santon, which made the second successful ascent of the North Ridge (31 July 1983). Three years later, on 5 July 1986, he reached the summit via the Abruzzi Spur (double with Broad Peak West Face solo) as a member of Agostino da Polenza's international expedition.
In 2004 the Spanish climber Carlos Soria Fontán became the oldest person ever to summit K2, at the age of 65.
The peak has now been climbed by almost all of its ridges. Although the summit of Everest is at a higher altitude, K2 is a much more difficult and dangerous climb, due in part to its more inclement weather and comparatively greater height from base to peak. The mountain is believed by many to be the world's most difficult and dangerous climb, hence its nickname "the Savage Mountain". It, and the surrounding peaks, have claimed more lives than any others. As of July 2010[update], only 302 people have completed the ascent, compared with over 2,700 individuals who have ascended the more popular target of Everest. At least 80 (as of September 2010) people have died attempting the climb. Notably, 13 climbers from several expeditions died in 1986 in the 1986 K2 Disaster, five of these in a severe storm.
There are a number of routes on K2, of somewhat different character, but they all share some key difficulties. First, is the extreme high altitude and resulting lack of oxygen: there is only one-third as much oxygen available to a climber on the summit of K2 as there is at sea level. Second is the propensity of the mountain to experience extreme storms of several days' duration, which have resulted in many of the deaths on the peak. Third is the steep, exposed, and committing nature of all routes on the mountain, which makes retreat more difficult, especially during a storm. Despite many attempts there have been no successful winter ascents. All major climbing routes lie on the Pakistani side, which is also where the base camp is located.
The standard route of ascent, used far more than any other route, is the Abruzzi Spur, located on the Pakistani side, first attempted by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi in 1909. This is the southeast ridge of the peak, rising above the Godwin Austen Glacier. The spur proper begins at an altitude of 5,400 metres (17,700 ft), where Advanced Base Camp is usually placed. The route follows an alternating series of rock ribs, snow/ice fields, and some technical rock climbing on two famous features, "House's Chimney" and the "Black Pyramid." Above the Black Pyramid, dangerously exposed and difficult to navigate slopes lead to the easily visible "Shoulder", and thence to the summit. The last major obstacle is a narrow couloir known as the "Bottleneck", which places climbers dangerously close to a wall of seracs which form an ice cliff to the east of the summit. It was partly due to the collapse of one of these seracs around 2001 that no climbers summitted the peak in 2002 and 2003.
On 1 August 2008, a number of climbers went missing when a serac in the Bottleneck snapped and broke their ropes. Survivors were seen from a helicopter, but rescue efforts were impeded by the high altitude. Eleven were never found, and presumed dead.
Almost opposite from the Abruzzi Spur is the North Ridge, which ascends the Chinese side of the peak. It is rarely climbed, partly due to very difficult access, involving crossing the Shaksgam River, which is a hazardous undertaking. In contrast to the crowds of climbers and trekkers at the Abruzzi basecamp, usually at most two teams are encamped below the North Ridge. This route, more technically difficult than the Abruzzi, ascends a long, steep, primarily rock ridge to high on the mountain—Camp IV, the "Eagle's Nest" at 7,900 metres (25,900 ft)—and then crosses a dangerously slide-prone hanging glacier by a leftward climbing traverse, to reach a snow couloir which accesses the summit.
Besides the original Japanese ascent, a notable ascent of the North Ridge was the one in 1990 by Greg Child, Greg Mortimer, and Steve Swenson, which was done alpine style above Camp 2, though using some fixed ropes already put in place by a Japanese team.
For most of its climbing history, K2 was not usually climbed with bottled oxygen, and small, relatively lightweight teams were the norm. However the 2004 season saw a great increase in the use of oxygen: 28 of 47 summiteers used oxygen in that year.
Acclimatisation is essential when climbing without oxygen to avoid some degree of altitude sickness. K2's summit is well above the altitude at which high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) can occur. In mountaineering, when ascending above an altitude of 8,000 metres (26,000 ft), the climber enters what is known as the death zone.
The West Face and upper slopes of K2
Climbing ladders on Abruzzi Spur
The north side of K2. The North Ridge is in the centre of the picture.
The major routes to have been climbed on the south side of the mountain. A: West Ridge; B: West Face; C: Southwest Pillar; D: South Face; E: South-southeast Spur; F: Abruzzi Spur
K2 juxtaposed with the 50 rupee note
The Pentax K1000 (originally marked the Asahi Pentax K1000) is an interchangeable lens, 35 mm film, single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, manufactured by Asahi Optical Co., Ltd. from 1976 to 1997, originally in Japan. The K1000's extraordinary longevity makes it a historically significant camera. The K1000's inexpensive simplicity was a great virtue and earned it an unrivaled popularity as a basic but sturdy workhorse. The Pentax K1000 eventually sold over three million units.
The K1000 is the simplest member of Asahi Optical's Pentax K-series SLRs, whose other members are the Pentax K2, KM, and KX, all introduced in 1975, and the K2 DMD (1976). All have the same basic body design, but with differing feature levels, internal electronics, and external controls and cosmetics.
It uses a horizontal travel, rubberized silk cloth focal plane shutter with a speed range of 1/1000 second to 1 second, along with Bulb and a flash X-sync of 1/60 second. It is 91.4 millimetres tall, 143 mm wide, and 48 mm deep, and weighs 620 grams. The body was finished in black leather with chrome trim only, although early production Pentax K1000 SE bodies had brown leather with chrome trim.
The introductory US list price for the K1000 body with SMC Pentax 55 mm f/2 lens was $299.50. In 1983, a K1000 with SMC Pentax-M 50 mm f/2 lens listed for $220; in 1988, the body only was $210, but $290 with SMC Pentax-A 50 mm f/2; in 1993, the body only was $263. The body was priced at $315 in 1994 and remained there until discontinued. Note that SLRs usually sold for 30 to 40 percent below list price.
The K1000 is an almost all metal, mechanically (springs, gears, levers) controlled, manual-focus SLR with manual exposure control. It is completely operable without batteries. Batteries are only required (one A76 or S76, or LR44 or SR44) for the light metering information system. This consists of a centre-the-needle exposure control system using a galvanometer needle pointer moving between vertically arranged +/– over/underexposure markers at the right side of the viewfinder to indicate the readings of the built-in full-scene averaging, cadmium sulfide (CdS) light meter versus the actual camera settings. The meter does not have a true on/off switch and the lens cap must be attached to the lens to prevent draining the K1000's battery when it is not in use.
The viewfinder also has a focusing screen with a microprism spot focusing aid. The Pentax K1000 SE substitutes a split image rangefinder plus microprism collar focusing screen. The K1000 SE is otherwise identical to the regular K1000, except that the SE's from the first few years of production used brown leather instead of black.
The K1000 is often sold with a version of the SMC Pentax 50 mm f/2 lens. The K1000 accepts all manual focus lenses with the Pentax K bayonet mount, introduced in 1975 with the Pentax K-series SLRs. This includes the K-A mount lenses introduced in 1983. Manual focus lenses made by Asahi Optical are the SMC Pentax, SMC Pentax-M and SMC Pentax-A types.
In addition, almost all lenses with the Pentax K-AF and K-AF2 autofocus lens mounts (introduced 1987 and 1991, respectively) also work in manual focus mode. The exceptions are Pentax's newest SMC-Pentax FA J (1997) and SMC-Pentax DA (2004) types, which lack an aperture control ring. They can be mounted onto the K1000, however have restricted functionality. Asahi Optical sold the Mount Adapter K to allow their older Takumar screw mount lenses (see below) to be used on K mount cameras (with limitations). In 2006, Pentax stated that it had manufactured more than 24 million lenses over fifty years that could provide at least some functionality on the K1000. The number of independently manufactured Pentax-compatible lenses is also huge, but indeterminate.
Except for having an enormous variety of lenses with the popular K mount to choose from, the K1000 has fewer features compared to higher level SLRs of the mid 1970s. The camera has a flash synchronization speed of 1/60th second, a sleeve-bushing equipped shutter and film advance mechanism, no self timer, no depth-of-field preview, no mirror lockup, no interchangeable focusing screens, no motor drive option, and no autoexposure. The K1000 is a completely manual camera.
The K1000 accepts any non-dedicated hot shoe mounted or PC terminal X-sync electronic flash for guide number manual or flash mounted sensor automatic exposure control. The Vivitar 283 (guide number 120, ASA 100/feet; 37, DIN 21/meters), favoured by many photographers for the same reasons as the K1000, has an even longer life span of 1974-2004. The K1000 is also old enough to use flash bulbs, with a maximum synchronization speed of 1/30th second.
Overall, the K1000 can be described as the reincarnation of the landmark Asahi (Honeywell in the USA) Pentax Spotmatic SLR of 1964 with open aperture metering in a K-series body.
Beginning in 1975, there was a complete overhaul of Asahi Optical's Pentax SLR line when the first of the Pentax K-series SLRs were introduced - the Pentax K2, KM and KX. The SMC Pentax K mount lenses were introduced at the same time. The Pentax K1000 and K2 DMD followed in 1976. The K2/K2 DMD was the top-of-the-line model with aperture priority; the KX, the full-featured manual mechanical model; the KM, the basic manual mechanical model. The 1000 in the K1000's name was a direct reference that its top shutter speed was superior to Asahi Optical's previous bottom-of-the-line Pentax Spotmatic SP 500 of 1971. The spartan viewfinder had 91% coverage.
The 1970s and 1980s were an era of intense competition between the major SLR brands: Pentax, Nikon, Canon, Minolta and Olympus. Between 1975 and 1985, there was a dramatic shift away from heavy all-metal manual mechanical camera bodies to much more compact bodies with integrated circuit (IC) electronic automation. In addition, because of rapid advances in electronics, the brands continually leap frogged each other with models having new or more automatic features. The industry was trying to expand to become more friendly to amateur photographers, and many cameras were advertised as being easy to use and carry.
After the introduction of the K-mount in 1975, there was another overhaul of Asahi Optical's Pentax line beginning in 1976 when the M-series SLRs and SMC Pentax-M lenses came out, starting with the aperture priority only Pentax ME and the all-manual Pentax MX. The ME introduced an entirely new chassis and was very compact: 82.5 mm height, 131 mm width, 49.5 mm depth and 460 g weight. The M-series remain among the smallest 35 mm film SLRs ever made, though they are much heavier than the plastic SLR bodies of the 1990s. Asahi Optical also redesigned their lenses to be more compact, although the SMC Pentax-M lenses generally kept the optical formulae of the SMC Pentax lenses.
The K1000 was the only K-series SLR to survive the M-series changeover. It also survived the dramatic electronic growth of the M-series in the wake of the 1976 introduction of the landmark Canon AE-1, the autofocus (AF) SLR camera revolution following the landmark Minolta Maxxum 7000 in 1985 and the point-and-shoot (P/S) revolution following the confluence of cheap microchip electronics, high speed film and small aperture zoom lenses circa 1990.
The K1000 gained a unique popularity and sold well for many years as its lack of features came to be regarded an important feature in and of itself. Its spartan nature, without autoexposure or autofocus, meant a sturdy and reliable camera for a low price. The K1000 became highly recommended for student photographers as it forced them to focus on basics of exposure and composition.
Production was not ended until 1997 when manufacturing costs of its older design and supply of its mechanical and electronic parts (especially precision analogue microgalvanometers for the light meter) finally became untenable. It was replaced by the highly computerized Pentax ZX-M (also called MZ-M) in 1998.
Production of the largely hand assembled camera was moved from Japan, first to Hong Kong in 1978 and then to China in 1990, to keep labor costs down. The "Asahi" name and "AOCo" logo was removed from the pentaprism cover to de-emphasize the company name in keeping with the rest of the "Pentax" line. The meter components changed as Asahi Optical searched for suitable supplies. The metal in the wind shaft was downgraded from steel. Cheaper plastic was substituted for the originally aluminum top and bottom plates and aluminum and steel film rewind assembly. Note that the use of lighter plastic lowered the weight of the Chinese-assembled K1000s to 525 g.
This article is about the financial investment strategy. It is similar to Straddle.
In finance, a strangle is an investment strategy involving the purchase or sale of particular option derivatives that allows the holder to profit based on how much the price of the underlying security moves, regardless of the direction of price movement.
In Strangle, the trader is betting on the volatility. He is hopping the price to be too volatile. The trader will buy (long) a call with strike price above the current price and a Put with strike price below the current price.
The strategy is viewed as a Long Call at strike price, K1, and a Long Put at K2. For the reverse, it would be a short call at K1 and a short put at K2. the reverse is for an investor betting that the market will remain stable between the two strike prices.
The Furness Railway 21 class (classified "K2" by Bob Rush) or "Larger Seagulls", were built a class of eight 4-4-0 steam locomotives designed by W. F. Pettigrew and built by Sharp, Stewart and Company of Glasgow for the Furness Railway. Six were built in 1896, and two more in 1900. They were built to supersede the 120 class on the heavier and more important trains. They had 6-foot-0-inch (1.829 m) diameter driving wheels with 18-by-24-inch (457 mm × 610 mm) cylinders.
The first six of 1896 were numbered 21, 22, 34, 35, 36 and 37 by the Furness Railway (works numbers were 4174–4179). In 1900, two extra engines were added to the class, Furness Railway numbers 124–125. (works numbers 4651–4652). In 1913, two engines, FR Nos. 34 and 37, were fitted with experimental Phoenix smokebox superheaters, however, these were removed the following year. At some point in time locomotives 21, 22, 34 and 35 were renumbered 44–47 respectively.
By 1923 and the grouping of the FR into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, all eight engines were still in service, and received LMS numbers, these being 10135–10142 (in order of their later numbers). They lasted until the late 1920s and early 1930s, performing secondary duties on the home turf, between Barrow-in-Furness and Whitehaven.
The six-wheeled tenders that this class used were also used by the Furness Railway D3 0-6-0 tender engines. They carried 2,500 imperial gallons (11,000 l; 3,000 US gal) of water and 3.5 long tons (3.6 tonnes) of coal, their weight being 28.25 long tons (28.70 tonnes).
In a book to accompany The Railway Series children's books, the author, the Reverend W. Awdry, describes the character Edward the Blue Engine as resembling a "Larger Seagull", whose origins had been obscured by later modifications (particularly to the cab and tender) applied after joining The Fat Controller's railway. It is likely that the Rev. Awdry used this explanation to cover for the earliest illustrators of the books, who were not particularly concerned over the accuracy or consistency of the locomotive illustrations.
Synthetic cannabis is a psychoactive designer drug derived from natural herbs sprayed with synthetic chemicals that, when consumed, allegedly mimic the effects of cannabis. It is best known by the brand names K2 and Spice, both of which have largely become genericized trademarks used to refer to any synthetic cannabis product. (It is also for this reason that synthetic cannabis is often referred to as spice product, due to the latter.) There is controversy among calling Spice and K2 synthetic cannabis and is considered by some to be a misnomer, because the ingredients contained in these products are mimics, not copies of THC.
Research on the safety of synthetic cannabis is only now becoming available. Initial studies are focused on the role of synthetic cannabis and psychosis. It seems likely that synthetic cannabis can precipitate psychosis and in some cases it is prolonged. These studies suggest that synthetic cannabinoid intoxication is associated with acute psychosis, worsening of previously stable psychotic disorders, and also may have the ability to trigger a chronic (long-term) psychotic disorder among vulnerable individuals such as those with a family history of mental illness.
When synthetic cannabis blends first went on sale in the early 2000s (decade), it was thought that they achieved an effect through a mixture of legal herbs. Laboratory analysis in 2008 showed that this is not the case, and that they in fact contain synthetic cannabinoids that act on the body in a similar way to cannabinoids naturally found in cannabis, such as THC. A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids, most often cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018, JWH-073, or HU-210, are used in an attempt to avoid the laws that make cannabis illegal, making synthetic cannabis a designer drug. It has been sold under various brand names, online, in head shops, and at some gas stations.
It is often marketed as "herbal incense"; however, some brands market their products as "herbal smoking blends". In either case, the products are usually smoked by users. Although synthetic cannabis does not produce positive results in drug tests for cannabis, it is possible to detect its metabolites in human urine. The synthetic cannabinoids contained in synthetic cannabis products have been made illegal in many European countries. On November 24, 2010, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration announced it would use emergency powers to ban many synthetic cannabinoids within a month. Prior to the announcement, several US states had already made them illegal under state law. In the US, as of March 1, 2011, five cannabinoids, JWH-018, JWH-073, CP-47,497, JWH-200, and cannabicyclohexanol have been placed on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (and are therefore illegal to possess or use in the US); the Drug Enforcement Administration claims that said action is "to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety." In July 2012, the Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act of 2012 was signed into law. It banned synthetic compounds commonly found in synthetic marijuana, placing them under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
According to the Psychonaut Web Mapping Research Project, synthetic cannabis products, sold under the brand name Spice, first appeared in Europe in 2004. The brand "Spice" was released in 2004 by the now-dormant company The Psyche Deli in London, UK. In 2006 the brand gained popularity. According to the Financial Times, the assets of The Psyche Deli rose from £65,000 in 2006 to £899,000 in 2007. The EMCDDA reported in 2009 that 'Spice' products were identified in 21 of the 30 participating countries. Because 'Spice' was the dominant brand until 2009, the competing brands that started to appear from 2008 on were also dubbed 'Spice'. Spice can, therefore, refer to both the brand 'Spice', as to all herbal blends with synthetic cannabinoids added.
A survey of readers of Mixmag in the UK in 2009 found that one in eight respondents had used synthetic cannabis, compared to 85% who had used cannabis.
In addition to K2 and Spice, other street names include Black Mamba (Turnera diffusa), Bombay Blue, Fake Weed, Genie, and Zohai. According to Partnership at Drugfree.org, other names also include Bliss, Blaze, JWH -018, -073, -250, Yucatan Fire, Skunk and Moon Rocks.
Synthetic cannabis is claimed by the manufacturers to contain a mixture of traditionally used medicinal herbs, each of which producing mild effects, with the overall blend resulting in the cannabis-like intoxication produced by the product. Herbs listed on the packaging of Spice include Canavalia maritima, Nymphaea caerulea, Scutellaria nana, Pedicularis densiflora, Leonotis leonurus, Zornia latifolia, Nelumbo nucifera, and Leonurus sibiricus. However, when the product was analyzed by laboratories in Germany and elsewhere, it was found that many of the characteristic "fingerprint" molecules expected to be present from the claimed plant ingredients were not present. There were also large amounts of synthetic tocopherol present. This suggested that the actual ingredients might not be the same as those listed on the packet, and a German government risk assessment of the product conducted in November 2008 concluded that it was unclear as to what the actual plant ingredients were, where the synthetic tocopherol had come from, and whether the subjective cannabis-like effects were actually produced by any of the claimed plant ingredients or instead caused by a synthetic cannabinoid drug.
In January 2009, researchers at the University of Freiburg in Germany announced that an active substance in Spice was an undisclosed analogue of the synthetic cannabinoid CP 47,497. Later that month, CP 47,497 along with its dimethylhexyl, dimethyloctyl and dimethylnonyl homologues, were added to the German controlled drug schedules. In May the analogue of CP 47,497 was named cannabicyclohexanol.
In July 2010, it was announced that JWH-018 is one of the active components in at least three versions of Spice, which had been sold in a number of countries around the world since 2002, often marketed as incense. Another potent synthetic cannabinoid, HU-210, has been reported to have been found in Spice seized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection. An analysis of samples acquired four weeks after the German prohibition of JWH-018 took place found that the compound had been replaced with JWH-073.
Different ratios of JWH-018 and CP 47,497 and their analogues have been found in different brands of synthetic cannabis and manufacturers constantly change the composition of their products. The amount of JWH-018 in Spice has been found to vary from 0.2% to 3%.
Other non-cannabinoid ingredients have also been found in synthetic cannabis blends around the world including substituted cathinone derived stimulant drugs such as 4-methylbuphedrone and 4-methyl-alpha-PPP, and psychedelic tryptamine derivatives such as 4-HO-DET. In 2013 a designer opioid drug AH-7921 was detected in smoking blends in Japan, along with several novel cannabinoids and a cathinone analogue.
An analysis of 41 different synthetic cannabis blends sold commercially in New Zealand, conducted by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research and released in July 2011, found 11 different synthetic cannabinoid ingredients used: including JWH-018, JWH-073, AM-694, AM-2201, RCS-4, RCS-4 butyl homologue, JWH-210, JWH-081, JWH-250 (or possibly JWH-302, isomer not determined), JWH-203, and JWH-122—with between one and five different active ingredients, though JWH-018 was present in 37 of the 41 blends tested. In two brands the benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug phenazepam was also found, which is classified as a prescription medicine in New Zealand, and so these brands were ordered to be removed from the market by emergency recall. Since this time, a further 15 cannabinoid compounds have been detected as ingredients of synthetic cannabis blends in New Zealand and banned as temporary class drugs. In 2013 another hypnotic medication, zaleplon was found to have been used as an active ingredient in a blend that had been sold in New Zealand during 2011-2012.
No official studies have been conducted on its effects on humans. Though its effects are not well-documented, extremely large doses may cause negative effects that are in general not noted in cannabis users, such as increased agitation and vomiting. Professor John W. Huffman, who first synthesised many of the cannabinoids used in synthetic cannabis, is quoted as saying, "People who use it are idiots." "You don't know what it's going to do to you." A user who consumed 3 g of Spice Gold every day for several months showed withdrawal symptoms, similar to those associated with withdrawing from the use of narcotics. Doctors treating the user also noted that his use of the product showed signs associated with addiction. One case has been reported wherein a user, who had previously suffered from cannabis-induced recurrent psychotic episodes, suffered reactivation of his symptoms after using Spice. Psychiatrists treating him have suggested that the lack of an antipsychotic chemical, similar to cannabidiol found in natural cannabis, may make synthetic cannabis more likely to induce psychosis than natural cannabis.
Studies are currently available which suggest an association between synthetic cannabinoids and psychosis. Physicians should be aware that the use of synthetic cannabinoids can be associated with psychosis and investigate possible use of synthetic cannabinoids in patients with inexplicable psychotic symptoms. Also, people with risk factors for psychosis should be counseled against using synthetic cannabinoids.
Myocardial infarction (heart attacks) were associated with the use of the synthetic cannabinoid K2. Also, convulsions were associated with the use of a synthetic cannabinoid product.
Spice does not cause a positive drug test for cannabis or other illegal drugs using GC-MS-screening with library search, multi-target screening by LC-MS/MS, or immunological screening procedures. A study has been conducted into the detection of metabolites of JWH-018 in urine; the metabolites are mainly conjugates with glucuronic acid and can be reliably detected by GC–MS/MS and LC–MS/MS.
Spice and specific forms of JWHxxx are not specifically prohibited in Canada, but synthetic cannabis is listed as a schedule II drug. Health Canada is debating on the subject.
The case of David Mitchell Rozga, an American teenager from Indianola, Iowa, United States, brought international attention to K2. Rozga shot himself in the head with a family owned hunting rifle in an apparent suicide in June 6, 2010. After news of Rozga's death, it was reported by friends that they had smoked K2 with Rozga approximately one hour before his death. The nature of his death and reports from numerous family members, had led investigators to believe that it was likely Rozga was under the influence of a mind altering substance, at the time of his death. The death of Rozga has been used as a face of political lobbying against the continuation of K2, and other legal synthetic drugs, such as bath salts.
Following the incident, an act to ban the use and distribution of the drug was proposed by the US Senator Chuck Grassley of Iowa as the David Mitchell Rozga Act. It was approved into legislation by the United States Congress in June 2011,. On July 10, 2012, President Barack Obama signed the Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act of 2012 into law. It banned synthetic compounds commonly found in synthetic marijuana, placing them under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
Prior to that, some compounds within synthetic cannabis (HU-210) were scheduled in the USA under federal law, while others (JWH-073) have been temporarily scheduled until final determination of their status can be made. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) considers it to be a "drug of concern", citing "...a surge in emergency-room visits and calls to poison-control centers. Adverse health effects associated with its use include seizures, hallucinations, paranoid behavior, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, racing heartbeat, and elevated blood pressure."
Several states independently passed acts making it illegal under state law, including Kansas in March 2010, Georgia and Alabama in May 2010, Tennessee and Missouri in July 2010, Louisiana in August 2010][, Mississippi in September 2010,][ and Iowa. An emergency order was passed in Arkansas in July 2010 banning the sale of synthetic cannabis. In October 2010, the Oregon Board of Pharmacy listed synthetic cannabinoid chemicals on its Schedule 1 of controlled substance, which means that the sale and possession of these substances is illegal under the Oregon Uniform Controlled Substances Act. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, several other states are also considering legislation, including Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Florida, Indiana, and Ohio. Illinois passed a law on July 27, 2010 banning all synthetic cannabinoids that goes into effect January 1, 2011. Michigan banned synthetic cannabinoids in October 2010, and the South Dakota Legislature passed a ban on these products which was signed into law by Gov. Dennis Daugaard on February 23, 2012 (and which took immediate effect under an emergency clause of the state constitution). North Carolina banned synthetic cannabis by a unanimous vote of the state senate, due to concerns that its contents and effects are reasonably similar to natural cannabis, and may cause equal effects in terms of psychological dependency.
Following cases in Japan involving the use of synthetic cannabis by Navy, Army and Marine Corps personnel resulted in the official banning of it, a punitive general order issued on January 4, 2010 by the Commander Marine Corps Forces, Pacific prohibits the actual or attempted possession, use, sale, distribution or manufacture of synthetic cannabis as well as any derivative, analogue or variant of it. On June 8, 2010, the U.S. Air Force issued a memorandum that banned the possession and use of Spice, or any other mood-altering substance except alcohol or tobacco, among its service members.
On November 24, 2010, the DEA announced that it would make JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP-47,497, and cannabicyclohexanol, which are often found in synthetic cannabis, illegal using emergency powers. They will be placed in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, within a month of the announcement, and the ban will last for at least a year. The temporary ban, for at least a year, came into effect on March 1, 2011.
On October 20, 2011, the Louisiana State University football program announced that it had suspended three players, including star cornerback Tyrann Mathieu, who tested positive for synthetic cannabis.
The Tatra K2 was the first production articulated tramcar built by ČKD Tatra between 1966 and 1983, following the failure of the experimental K1 which never entered production. It was noted that the main problem with the K1 was with the new electrical equipment, and therefore the same electrical equipment of the T3 was incorporated into the new K2. The prototype entered service in 1966 as Prague tramcar number 7000, where it spent only a short spell before being transferred to Most, and then again moved to Brno. Production of the K2 on a mass scale started the same year, and many examples remain in service to this day,][ albeit most having been extensively modernised. The modernisation of the K2 fleet in Brno, the biggest customer of the type, included the complete re-modelling of the front end, and the upgrading of their electronic equipment. These modernised examples were labeled K2R, whereby the 'R' stands for 'reconstructed'.
The K2SU was the version of the K2 which went on sale in Russia, also in 1966. Production of the type ended prematurely in 1969 as the vehicles were not well suited to the comparatively heavy traffic in Russian cities. Nevertheless, a total of 246 of the type entered service. The only K2SU to remain in active service was in Yekaterinburg were it was retained as an historic vehicle until 1998.
Sarajevo was the only city in the former Yugoslavia to receive the K2, where it was labeled the K2YU. The only differences with the original K2 were in very minor details. There were also sold 15 K2YU trams to Brno and 3 to Bratislava.
A total of 567 units entered service in the following cities:
Modernized trams type K2S in Bratislava
K2 tram in Brno
K2R tram in Ostrava
K2YU tram in Sarajevo
Sarajevo K2 renovated by Inekon Trams