Windham is an affluent suburban town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 13,592 at the 2010 census.
The area was initially home to the Pawtucket Native Americans. Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area in 1719. The region was known as “Nutfield” and included what are now the neighboring towns of Derry and Londonderry. By 1721 some of the original settlers petitioned to form a separate independent community. Governor Benning Wentworth granted this request in 1742. The town was named after Sir Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, a member of Parliament from 1734 to 1750, Secretary of State for the Southern Department from 1761 to 1763, and a good friend of Governor Wentworth. The town of Windham was originally a parish of Londonderry. Windham was the second town designated by Governor Benning Wentworth following the establishment of the New Hampshire-Massachusetts border. Windham was the birthplace of Samuel Dinsmoor, Governor of New Hampshire from 1831 to 1834. The first census ever taken in Windham totaled at 663 residents in the year 1790.
Historic landmarks in Windham include the Searles School, Searles Castle, the town center, and the Armstrong Memorial Building. Searles Castle is one of Windham’s most prominent landmarks. Edward F. Searles, an interior decorator and antique collector, built the castle. The architect, Henry Vaughn, modeled the castle’s architecture after the style of the Stanton Harcourt Manor in Oxon County, England. The building was completed in 1915 at a cost of over $1,250,000. The castle contains over 20 rooms and is available to the public to be rented out for functions and events.
Windham is situated in Rockingham County in southeastern New Hampshire, approximately 3 miles (5 km) north of the Massachusetts border. It is accessible from Exit 3 of Interstate 93. Windham is considered a bedroom community because of its growing population (over 10,000), only about 160 commercial land parcels, and lack of public transportation. The nearest airport to Windham is Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, about 20 miles (32 km) to the north. Boston, Massachusetts, is 37 miles (60 km) to the south along Interstate 93. The landscape of Windham consists of suburban subdivisions, rural open spaces and large areas of undeveloped land.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.9 square miles (72 km2), of which 26.8 sq mi (69 km2) is land and 1.1 sq mi (2.8 km2) is water, comprising 3.80% of the town. The highest point is Jenny's Hill, at 505 feet (154 m) above sea level.
As of the census of 2010, there were 13,592 people, 4,724 households, and 3,773 families residing in the town. The population density was 507.2 people per square mile of land (195.9/km²). There were 5,164 housing units at an average density of 192.7 per square mile (74.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.2% White, 0.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.2% some other race, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.
There were 4,724 households, out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.6% were headed by a married couple living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.1% were non-families. 15.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.2% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87, and the average family size was 3.25.
In the town the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 33.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.8 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males.
For the period 2006-2010, the median income for a household in the town was $112,386 (in 2010 dollars) and the median income for a family was $121,452. Male full-time year-round workers had a median income of $93,588 versus $55,445 for females. The per capita income for the town was $46,071. About 0% of families and 0.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.
The Windham School District currently serves over 2,800 students at the four public schools. Kindergarten through second grade students and some third grade students attend Golden Brook School. Other third grade students and fourth through fifth grade students attend Windham Center School. Windham Middle School, home of the Wildcats, is occupied by sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Windham High School, home to the Jaguars, consists of grades nine through twelve, and opened in the fall of 2009. The class of 2012 was the first graduating class at Windham High School. Prior to the 2011-12 school year, Windham High School did not have a senior class. Prior to opening its own high school, students from Windham went to the high school in neighboring Salem, beginning in 1995. The class of 2011 was the last Windham/Salem graduating class from Salem High School. Earlier, in the 1990s and late 1980s, students attended Pinkerton Academy in Derry.][
Windham is part of the School Administrative Unit 28, consisting of the school districts of Windham and the neighboring town, Pelham. Beginning July 1, 2013, Windham and Pelham will split, with each town having its own school administrative unit. The Windham School District will become New Hampshire SAU #95.
Windham High School's biology teacher, Bethany Bernasconi, was voted New Hampshire's teacher of the year for 2012.
Windham includes a variety of local attractions such as municipal parks, golf courses, tennis courts, bowling facilities, youth recreation programs, fishing, hunting, boating, snowmobile transits, bike trails, and waterfront access.][ The Windham Country Club golf course is an 18-hole premier course voted four stars by GolfDigest. Men's leagues, women's leagues, and youth leagues are offered at the course. Griffin Park, built in 2005, offers three baseball fields, a soccer field, tennis and basketball courts, an in-line skate park, and a playground. Windham's town beach is located on Cobbetts Pond. Lifeguards are on duty from mid-June to Labor Day. Swimming lessons are available every summer. An open boat launch is available to Windham residents next to the town beach. The Windham Rail Trail, which extends from Windham into Derry, is 4.1 miles (6.6 km) of level, paved trail for walking/biking. Windham’s Recreation Athletic youth programs include football and cheerleading, baseball, tennis, lacrosse, basketball, and soccer.
The Nesmith Library is Windham's public library. Each June Friends of the Library of Windham (FLOW) host Windham’s annual Strawberry Festival. The festival hosts local food businesses around Windham such as The Gourmet Grill, Glenn’s Kreme and Cone, and The Village Bean. Residents of Windham take part in the annual three to five-mile walk known as the Turkey Trot. It takes place every year on Thanksgiving morning through the neighborhoods of Windham and raises money for the local Shepherd's Food Pantry. The Strawberry Festival was moved to Windham High School in 2009 due to the overcrowding at the library in previous years.
The Windham Fire Department is a full-time, 24-hour department. In addition to providing emergency services, the department also works closely with community organizations on fire prevention units in the school district, and CPR and first aid classes. The Windham Police Department is a full-time department staffed by seventeen personnel, including the chief, captain, four sergeants, two detectives, and eight patrol officers. Internal assignments include a Traffic and Community Resource Officer. Resource officers are placed at the Middle School and High School. The department also has on staff a full-time prosecutor, a part-time records clerk and full-time department secretary. Both the fire and police department are located in the center of Windham across from the Windham Town Hall. The nearest hospital is Parkland Medical Center, 5 miles (8.0 km) away in Derry.][
The National Highways Network
of India, is a network of highways that is managed and maintained by agencies of the Government of India. These highways measured over 70,934 km (44,076 mi) as of 2010, including over 1,000 km (620 mi) of limited-access Expressways. Out of 71,000 km of National Highways 15,000 plus km are 4 or 6 laned and remaining 50,000 km are 2 laned.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is the nodal agency responsible for building, upgrading and maintaining most of the national highways network. It operates under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) is a major effort to expand and upgrade the network of highways. NHAI often uses a public-private partnership model for highway development, maintenance and toll-collection.
National highways constituted about 2% of all the roads in India, but carried about 40% of the total road traffic as of 2010. The majority of existing national highways are two-lane roads (one lane in each direction), though much of this is being expanded to four-lanes, and some to six or eight lanes. Some sections of the network are toll roads. Over 30,000 km (19,000 mi) of new highways are planned or under construction as part of the NHDP, as of 2011. This includes over 2,600 km (1,600 mi) of Expressways currently under construction.
India has 70,934 km (44,076 mi) of national highways (NH) connecting all the major cities and state capitals as of August 2011. Most of them have two lanes. About 10,000 km (6,200 mi) have been widened to four lanes with two lanes in each direction. Only a few of NH are built with cement concrete. As of 2010, 19,064 km (11,846 mi) of NH were still single-laned roads. The government is currently working to ensure that by December 2014 the entire National Highway network consists of roads with two or more lanes.
India has the distinction of having the world's second highest-altitude motor highway— Leh-Manali Highway, connecting Shimla to Leh in Ladakh, Kashmir.]
National highways form the economic backbone of the country and have often facilitated development along their routes, and many new towns have sprung up along major highways. Highways also have large numbers of small restaurants and inns (known as dhabas
) along their length. They serve popular local cuisine and serve as truck stops.
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India adopted a new systematic numbering of National Highways in April 2010. The new system will indicate the direction of National Highways whether it is East-West (odd numbers) or North-South (even numbers) and also the geographical region where it is located, increasing from east to west and from north to south.
Under former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, India launched a massive program of highway upgrades, called the National Highway Development Project (NHDP), in which the main north-south and east-west connecting corridors and highways connecting the four metropolitan cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata) have been fully paved and widened into four-lane highways. Some of the busier National Highway sectors in India have been converted to four or six lane expressways – for example, Delhi-Agra, Delhi-Jaipur, Ahmedabad-Vadodara, Mumbai-Pune, Mumbai-Surat, Bangalore-Mysore, Bangalore-Chennai, Chennai-Tada, Delhi-Meerut , Hyderabad-Vijayawada and Guntur-Vijayawada. Phase V of the National Highway Development Project is to convert all 6,000 km (3,700 mi) of the Golden Quadrilateral Highways to 6-lane highways/expressways by 2012.
The National Highways Act, 1956 provides for private investment in the building and maintenance of the highways. Recently, a number of existing roads have been reclassified as national highways. Bypasses have also recently been constructed around larger towns and cities to provide uninterrupted passage for highway traffic. The hugely varied climatic, demographic, traffic, and sometimes political situation in India results in NHs being single lane in places with low traffic to six lanes in places with heavy traffic. National highways are being upgraded or are under construction. Some NHs are long while some are short spurs off other NHs to provide connectivity to nearby ports or harbours.
The longest NH is NH7, which runs between Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, at the southernmost point of the Indian mainland, covering a distance of 2,369 km (1,472 mi), and passes through Hyderabad and Bangalore. The shortest NH is the NH47A, which spans 6 km (3.7 mi), to the Ernakulam - Kochi Port.
Castleton State College (also known as "CSC") is a public liberal arts college located in Castleton in the U.S. state of Vermont. Castleton has an enrollment of 2000 students and offers more than 30 undergraduate programs as well as master’s degrees in education and accounting. The college is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges.
Castleton State College traces its history to the Rutland County Grammar School, chartered by the Vermont General Assembly on October 15, 1787. The Grammar School was a regional school, preparing young men for college through instruction in traditional academic subjects such as Latin and Greek. The institution changed its name frequently during the 19th century. At times it was known as Castleton Academy, Castleton Academy and Female Seminary, Vermont Classical High School, and Castleton Seminary.
In 1823 instruction in “the solid branches of female education” began for “young Ladies and Misses.” By the Civil War, the majority of the students attending Castleton were young women.
In 1829, a three-story brick building costing the enormous sum of $30,000 was constructed on a small hill south of the village. Principal Solomon Foot (1826-1829), who was to be President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate during the Civil War, was the driving force in this expansion of the school. The Seminary Building (eventually known as the Old Seminary Building) was the most impressive structure in the village, but expensive to maintain and often too large for the school’s struggling enrollment.
Castleton Medical College (1818-1862), was also located in the village. It graduated 1400 students, more than any other New England medical school at the time. Although Castleton Medical College and Castleton Seminary were separate institutions, they often shared faculty. Today the former medical college building, known as the Old Chapel, is the oldest building on the campus.
The first woman principal was Harriet Haskell (1862-1867). She had attended the Seminary as a child, took classes at Middlebury College without being permitted to matriculate, and then attended Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which was not yet a college but offered a college-level curriculum for women. Although Haskell was in her 20s when she served as principal, the school flourished under her administration. With her departure to be principal of Monticello Ladies Seminary in Godfrey, Illinois, Castleton Seminary went into decline.
The school began its transition to a college in 1867, when the State Normal School at Castleton was founded as one of three state normal schools chartered by Vermont.
The Normal School, a term based on the French école normale supérieure, educated students for teaching careers. For 30 years the Normal School property and grounds were privately owned by Abel E. Leavenworth and his son Philip. In 1912, the State of Vermont purchased the property.
The College saw dramatic growth in students and its stature in the 1920s and 1930s under the direction of Caroline Woodruff. Woodruff modernized the school's curriculum, incorporating the theories of Vermont educator-philosopher John Dewey, especially his precepts of "learning by doing" and "learning by teaching." Caroline Woodruff hired staff with advanced degrees and broadened her students' exposure to the world by bringing people such as Helen Keller, Robert Frost, and Norman Rockwell to Castleton. Woodruff was the first and only Vermonter to become president of the National Education Association.
In 1947, the Normal School became Castleton Teachers College. With increased enrollment from men, intercollegiate athletics began in the 1950s.
In 1962 Castleton joined other state-supported colleges in becoming a part of the Vermont State Colleges, a consortium of colleges governed by a common board of trustees, chancellor and Council of Presidents, each college with its own president and deans.
The campus is bordered by Mechanic Street to the east, Glenbrook Drive to the west and is bisected by South Street. Seminary Street leads to the President's House after going past Wright House (Admissions), the Casella Fine Arts Center, Leavenworth Hall and the Georgian Revival Woodruff Hall. Castleton incorporates a building known as the Old Chapel (Castleton Medical College Building), which was once the home of an unrelated medical college that operated from 1818 to 1862 and attracted students from around the world. In the past decade the College underwent a series of major renovations. A new residence hall fitness center was built in 2004. Dorms and an expansion to the science center was completed in 2007. The $27 million Castleton Student Initiative project was completed in the fall of 2009. It includes a new Campus Center, addition to the Spartan Athletic Complex, multipurpose Spartan Stadium, and an addition to Leavenworth Hall that houses the Communication Department.
The original campus was centered around the Old Seminary Building, which was built in the 1820s and burned in 1924. It was replaced by Woodruff Hall. The Medical College building was moved from Main Street to a location next to the Old Seminary Building in the 1867 to serve as the classrooms for the State Normal School. (The building, by then known as the Old Chapel was moved to its current location on Seminary Drive in 1968.) In 1926, these buildings were joined by the Georgian Revival Leavenworth Hall (burned in 1971), the school's first building devoted almost entirely to dormitory space. In 1951, this building was joined by another Georgian Revival structure, Ellis Hall, and at about the same time a science building was constructed (additions in the 1960s and 2000s, now part of the Jeffords Science Center). Subsequent buildings constructed include Glenbrook Gymnasium (c. 1957, with additions in the 1980s and 2000s), the Coolidge Library (1965, addition in 1980), Huden Dining Hall (1965), the Fine Arts Center (1968), new Leavenworth Hall (1974), Stafford Hall (1990s), and the Campus Center (1977, renovated in 2009). Subsequent dormitories, or "residence halls," include Haskell and Adams Halls (1965), Morrill and Wheeler Halls (1968), Babcock Hall (1975), Castleton Hall (2005), and North, South, and Audette Houses (2006).
Additionally, the college incorporates several former residences into its campus, including the Victorian Stick Style admissions building (Wright House), a circa-1840s Gothic Revival style public safety building, a 19th-century Greek Revival art studio, and a circa-1890s building housing a cafe and administrative offices (Morrill House).
The Castleton State Spartans compete in 20 NCAA Division III Varsity sports in the North Atlantic Conference and the Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC). The Men and Women Varsity Ski Teams compete in the United States Collegiate Ski Association (USCSA). Castleton was also the 1963 NAIA Division III Men's soccer National Champions. From 1983-1986, Stan Van Gundy (later head coach of the Orlando Magic) coached Men's Basketball at Castleton. Castleton started a football team for the 2009 season as a member of the newly formed Eastern Collegiate Football Conference.
The Castleton State College Spartans hockey team competes at the Spartan Arena in the Diamond Run Mall in Rutland (town), Vermont.
The Castleton Spartans football team represents the school in NCAA Division III college football. The team has been coached by Marc Klatt since 2011 replacing the very first head coach, Rich Alercio, who was suddenly forced out of the post after a scandal involving contact with a player. It has been part of the Eastern Collegiate Football Conference since its inaugural season in 2009.