A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier, within or around a cell. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded , integral and peripheral proteins used in communication and transportation of chemicals and ions. The cellular membranes should not be confused with isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous and basement membranes.
Membrane biology is the study of the biological and physiochemical characteristics of membranes.
Respiratory epithelium is a type of epithelium found lining the respiratory tract, where it serves to moisten and protect the airways. It also functions as a barrier to potential pathogens and foreign particles, preventing infection and tissue injury by action of the mucociliary escalator.
The respiratory epithelium lining the upper (cranial) airways is classified as ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. This designation is due to the arrangement of the multiple cell types composing the respiratory epithelium. While all cells make contact with the basement membrane and are, therefore, a single layer of cells, the nuclei are not aligned in the same plane. Hence, it appears as though several layers of cells are present and the epithelium is called pseudostratified.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology:
Cell biology – studies cells, including their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research extends to both the great diversity of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the many specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. Formerly, the field was called cytology, from the Greek kytos, "container")
Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, "contain") is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research encompasses both the great diversity of single-celled organisms like bacteria and protozoa, as well as the many specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans, plants, and sponges.
Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences. Appreciating the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology as well as to biomedical fields such as cancer research and developmental biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide a unifying theme, sometimes allowing the principles learned from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types. Therefore, research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology.
Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose function is to secrete mucin, which dissolves in water to form mucus. They use both apocrine and merocrine methods for secretion.
The majority of the cell's cytoplasm is occupied by mucinogen granules, except at the bottom. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the nucleus, and other organelles are concentrated in the basal portion. The apical plasma membrane projects microvilli to increase surface area for secretion.