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Monroeville, Pennsylvania
Monroeville is a home rule municipality in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. Located about 15 miles (24 km) east of the city of Pittsburgh, Monroeville is a bustling suburb with mixed residential and commercial developments. As of the 2010 census, Monroeville was home to 28,386 people. Named for Joel Monroe, the area's first postmaster, Monroeville was settled in the mid to late 18th century. The area was incorporated as Patton Township in 1849 before becoming the borough of Monroeville on January 25, 1951. Monroeville became a Home Rule Charter Municipality on May 21, 1974. A suburb of Pittsburgh, Monroeville is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 19.8 square miles (51 km2), of which 0.05% is water. As of the census of 2010 there were 28,386 people in Monroeville. The racial makeup of the borough was 79.51% White, 12.58% African American, 6.07% Asian, 0.42% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. Monroeville is one of the most racially diverse places in the Pittsburgh area. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,349 people, 12,376 households, and 8,044 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,483.0 people per square mile (572.6/km²). There were 13,159 housing units at an average density of 664.9 per square mile (256.7/km²). The racial makeup of the borough was 85.58% White, 8.29% African American, 0.14% Native American, 4.41% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 1.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 12,376 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.0% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.89. In the borough the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $44,653, and the median income for a family was $53,474. Males had a median income of $41,100 versus $30,232 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $24,031. About 4.9% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. U.S. Route 22 ran through Monroeville as a substantial business route. When the Parkway East (I-376) was extended east to connect to the Pennsylvania Turnpike, U.S. 22 was shifted to that road, and the original U.S. 22 stretch of William Penn Highway became Business U.S. 22. Today, U.S. Route 22 runs through the municipality, serving as its main business district. This highway, along with the Pennsylvania Turnpike (Interstate 76), the eastern portion of the Penn-Lincoln Parkway (Interstate 376 concurrent with U.S. 22), U.S. Route 22 Business, and PA Route 48 intersect, forming the 3rd busiest intersection in the commonwealth.][ Exit 57 (old Exit 6) of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is in Monroeville, with its interchange to Interstate 376. U.S. Route 22 also has an interchange with PA Route 286, which serves the northeastern part of the municipality. Pittsburgh-Monroeville Airport, also called Harold W. Brown Memorial Field, is a private airport at . The airport has a single paved runway of 2,280 feet (690 m). Two bus lines of the Port Authority of Allegheny County offer service to downtown Pittsburgh, and the Port Authority also has several park-and-ride lots located in Monroeville for bus commuters to Pittsburgh. K-12 students in Monroeville are served by the Gateway School District, a public school district with a student population of 3,800. Higher education is accessible via the Community College of Allegheny County's Boyce Campus and Indiana University of Pennsylvania's satellite facility in Penn Center East. ITT Technical Institute, the ExpoMart and The Western School of Health and Business - Monroeville are located in Monroeville.

Snowdrop Science Academy
Snowdrop Science Academy (SSA) is a Pre-K-8 private school in Monroeville, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 2005 by the non-profit organization West Penn Cultural Center (WPCC). The school was a private institution with an enrollment of 54 students. The school closed in October 2009. Snowdrop Science Academy(SSA) was dedicated to helping its students reach their highest academic and social potential through the use of small classes, a rigorous curriculum and a nurturing learning-environment. The school was based on the values of kindness,-honesty and respect for self and others. SSA provided a traditional academic program that challenged both intellect and-imagination. A solid foundation in core subject areas was taught-along with moral values. Boys- Navy blue school pants, a white button-down shirt and a tie.
Girls- Plaided green skirt, white button-down blouse and Snowdrop sweater.
For both Genders- Dress shoes Snowdrop Science Academy attends the Science Olympiads that happens at The California University of Pennsylvania. Snowdrop Science Academy also hosts Elementary level Science Olympiads at CCAC in of which Snowdrop has won the 2nd place trophy (2007) and the 1st place trophy. (2008) SSA includes an in-school club hour in which students are able to pick among clubs such as math club, art club, chess club, media club, Club Care, and sports club among other activities. Snowdrop is open to all students without regard to race, religion, gender, or national or ethnic origin. For optimum learning, the class sizes are limited to 12 students each. However, all subsequent years will have an application deadline of May 21. Due to our limited openings, students are highly encouraged to apply in the fall for the following school year. If there are no openings for your child’s grade at the time of registration, he/she will be put on our waiting list. The waiting list is managed on a first-come, first-served basis. When an opening occurs, the child at the top of the list will be contacted and offered the available position. All students entering Snowdrop must take an entrance exam. Kindergarteners also undergo a Kindergarten Readiness Test, regardless of age.

Gateway School District
The Gateway School District is a large, suburban, public school district located in Monroeville, Pennsylvania. It also serves residents of Pitcairn. Gateway School District encompasses approximately 19 square miles. Per the 2000 federal census data, the district serves a resident population of 33,038. In 2009, the district residents' per capita income was $22,998, while the median family income was $51,250. According to District officials, in school year 2007-08 the Gateway School District provided basic educational services to 4,101 pupils. It employed 341 teachers, 390 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 40 administrators, in 2009. The Gateway School District received more than $13.7 million in state funding in school year 2007-08. The Gateway School District is bordered by five other school districts: Woodland Hills S.D., Penn Hills S.D., Plum Borough S.D., East Allegheny S.D., and Franklin Regional S.D. (Westmoreland County). Gateway School District's football size classification is "AAAA" (Quad-A), which is the largest of the four classifications (A, AA, AAA, and AAAA). All students in the district attend Gateway High School for 9th grade to 12th grade. Depending on the location of their home, students in kindergarten through grade four attend either: Evergreen Elementary, Dr. Cleveland Steward, Jr. Elementary, Ramsey Elementary, or University Park Elementary. In the 2011-2012 school year, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) ranked Gateway High School 151st out of the 676 public high schools in Pennsylvania. This ranking was based on the combined math and reading PSSA test scores. In 2011, Gateway School District ranked 130th out of 498 Pennsylvania districts. The ranking is based on five years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in reading, writing, math and three years of science. Gateway School District was ranked 54th out of 105 Western Pennsylvania School Districts in 2009 by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking was based on three years of student academic performance on the PSSAs for: math, reading, writing and 1 year of science. In 2008, the district ranked 50th out of 105 western Pennsylvania public school districts and was 190th out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts. In 2007 the district ranked 173rd of 500 Pennsylvania school districts. In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate. Gateway School District's rate was 82% for 2010. According to traditional graduation rate calculations: In 2010, the high school is in Making Progress: in School Improvement II due to low student academic achievement. In 2009, the high school was in School Improvement II AYP level. In 2011, Gateway High School was ranked 33rd out of 122 western Pennsylvania high schools for student academic achievement by the Pittsburgh Business Times. 11th Grade Science: College Remediation: According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 28% of Gateway School District graduates required remediation in mathematics and reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges. Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English. The high school offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses count towards high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books. Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions. The Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system. For the 2009-10 funding year, the school district received a state grant of $33,833 for the program. The Gateway School District School Board has determined that a student must earn 23 credits to graduate, including: English 4 credits, Social Studies 3 credits, Science 3 credits, Mathematics 3 credits, Information Technology 0.5 credit, Arts/Humanities 2 credits, Health 0.5 credit, Physical Education 1 credit and Electives 6 credits. By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district. By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating classes 2016, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, English Composition, and Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams. Students’ Keystone Exam scores shall count for at least one-third of the final course grade. The Social Studies Department manages a community service program. Active student volunteers earn extra credit points in their Social Studies class and end of year awards. The program operates throughout the school year and over the summer months. It offers a concentrated leadership-training program during four weeks in the summer and volunteering efforts are conducted year round. In 2010 and 2009, the school achieved AYP. In both 2010 and 2009, the school's attendance rate was 94%. In 2009, the 8th grade was ranked 69th out of 141 western Pennsylvania middle schools based on three years of student academic achievement in PSSAs in: reading, math writing and one year of science. (Includes schools in: Allegheny County, Beaver County, Butler County, Fayette County, Westmoreland County, and Washington County. The school provides Grades 7 & 8. 8th Grade Reading 8th Grade Math: 8th Grade Science: 7th Grade Reading 7th Grade Math: In 2009 and 2010 the school achieved AYP status. The attendance rate was 94% in 2009 and increased to 95% in 2010. Both the 5th grade and 6th grade at school were noted as having irregularities in a study of the school's 2008-09 PSSA results. The statewide study noted highly improbable data for 50 schools in the state, including Moss Side Middle School. The District was audited by the Bureau of Assessment and Accountability on March 15, 2011. The process the school used to conduct the PSSAs was reviewed. According to district officials, the review found the district was compliant with state mandated procedures and protocols for the PSSAs. 6th Grade Reading: 6th Grade Math: 5th Grade Reading: 5th Grade Math: In December 2009, the district administration reported that 669 pupils or 16% of the district's pupils received Special Education services. In order to assure compliance with state and federal laws, the District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Student Support Team/Child Study Team. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District obtains parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents or guardians, who believe their child is eligible, may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the Gateway School District Director of Special Education. In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding. Gateway School District received a $1,951,528 supplemental funding to pay for special education services for its students, in 2010. For the 2011-12 school year, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required. The District Administration reported that 207 or 5.24% of its students were gifted in 2009. By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. Services designed to meet the needs of gifted students include the annual development of a Gifted Individual Education Plan, support services and specially-designed instruction designed to challenge the student. Students identified as gifted attending the High School have access to honors and advanced placement courses, and dual enrollment with local colleges. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal, requesting an evaluation. All requests should be made in writing which commences a 60 day evaluation deadline. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility. In 2009, the administrative reported there were 23 incidents of bullying in the district. There were 114 incidents of fighting and 15 incidents of Terroristic Threats. Gateway School Board prohibits bullying by district students and faculty. The policy defines bullying and cyberbullying. The Board directs that complaints of bullying be investigated promptly, and corrective action taken when allegations are verified. No reprisals or retaliation may occur as a result of good faith reports of bullying. The board expects staff members to be responsible to maintain an educational environment free from all forms of bullying. All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students. The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives. Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education. In 2009, the district employed over 340 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $69,609 for 180 days instructing students and 191 total days. The beginning salary was $42,804, while the highest salary was $113,568. The beginning salary was whole the highest salary was $147,000. Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, 3 paid personal days, 10 paid sick days, 5 paid bereavement days and other benefits. Teachers receive a payment of $100.00 for each unused day of sick leave at retirement, death or severance. The District grants the union thirty-five (35) teacher days of release time for attendance at State and National Conventions of PSEA and NEA respectively and additional conferences designated by the Association. The union may carry over ten (10) such days to a maximum of forty-five (45) days in any one year. Teachers work an 7 hour 30 minute day, which includes at least one planning period and a paid 30 minute lunch. Many teachers are required to teach only 6 periods a day. According to State Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System Board, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary. In 2007, the average teacher salary in the district was $65,775 for 180 days worked. The district ranked second in Allegheny County for average teacher salary in 2007. The average teacher salary in Pennsylvania was $54,977. As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation. Gateway School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 were $840 per pupil. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil. In May 2010, the school board awarded a four-year contract to Joseph A. Petrella as superintendent, at a starting salary of $140,000. The contract includes annual 3 percent salary increases and an extensive benefits package including a defined benefit pension, life insurance, health insurance and more. The district reported that its per pupil spending was $14,468. This ranked 81st among 501 Pennsylvania public school districts. In 2008, the district reported an unreserved designated fund balance of $3,546,754.00 and an unreserved-undesignated fund balance of $6,995,966.00. In 2010, the reserves were an unreserved designated fund balance of $3,679,754 and an unreserved-undesignated fund balance of $4,773,348. In December 2010, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit on the district. Several findings were reported to the school board and administration. For the 2011-12 school year the district laid off 12 teachers and eliminated 30 full-time and part-time aides, three custodians and two administrative positions. The teacher layoffs were due to declining enrollment and program changes. Eleven teacher positions were also eliminated through attrition. The district is funded by a combination of: a local income tax, a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the income level. In 2011-12, the district will receive $6,840,471 in state Basic Education Funding. Additionally, the district will receive $130,950 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget includes $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011. For the 2010-11 budget year, the Gateway School District received a 2.39% increase in state basic education funding for a total of $7,143,698. In Allegheny County, the highest increase went to South Fayette Township School District which received an 11.32% increase in state funding. One hundred fifty school districts in Pennsylvania received a 2% base increase for budget year 2010-11. The highest increase in the state was given to Kennett Consolidated School District of Chester County which was given a 23.65% increase in state funding. The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the budget proposal made in February each year. For the 2009-2010 school year budget, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2% increase in Basic Education Funding to Gateway School District for a total of $6,977,280. This was the lowest percentage point increase, in Basic Education Funding, for the school districts in Allegheny County and the state. Four county school districts received increases of over 6% in Basic Education Funding. Ninety school districts in Pennsylvania received the minimum 2% increase in 2009. Additionally, Governor Edward Rendell gave 15 Pennsylvania school districts education funding increases of over 10% in 2009. The highest funding increase went to Muhlenberg School District in Berks County which received a 22.31% increase in 2009-10. The state Basic Education Funding to the Gateway School District in 2008-09 was $6,840,471.05. The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1148 students in the Gateway School District received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007-2008 school year. The state provides supplemental funding in the form of accountability block grants. The use of these funds is strictly focused on specific state approved uses. Gateway School District uses its $355,431 to fund extensive teacher training to improve their teaching and to provide extra instruction for struggling students. These annual funds are in addition to the state's basic education funding. Schools Districts must apply each year for Accountability Block Grants. In 2009-10 the state provided $271.4 million in Accountability Block grants $199.5 million went to providing all-day kindergartens. Gateway School Board received multiple grants from the PA Department of Education for three years, to purchase equipment to help reform the high school's core subjects instruction and to prepare students for future employment by using cutting-edge equipment and software. The district used the funds to purchase laptops for students, laptops for teachers, laptop carts and other digital equipment. The district also received substantial funds to upgrade our existing network infrastructure. The grant provided additional funding for a technology coach to instruct teachers in using the equipment to improve instruction. In 2006-07 the district received $407,573. In 2007-08, the district received $300,000. In 2008, the district received $45,4130 for a total of $752,986. Since 2006, Pennsylvania's Classrooms for the Future program has distributed more than $150 million for laptops, interactive boards and other high-tech tools in 543 high schools. In 2009, the CFF funding program was terminated due to a deep state revenue - budget shortfall. The district received an extra $2,147,273 in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students. The funding is for 2009-10 and 2010-11 school years. School district officials did not apply for the Race to the Top federal grant which would have brought the district hundreds of thousands of additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement. Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate. Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved. In June 2011, The Gateway School Board set the property tax rates in 21.02 mills for the 2011-12 school year. A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2010-2011 school year is 2.9 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year. The School District Adjusted Index for the Gateway School District 2006-2007 through 2011-2012. For the 2011-12 school year the Gateway School Board applied for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index, for special education costs and pension payment costs. Each year, the Gateway School Board has the option of adopting either 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction. For the 2010-11 school year budget, the Gateway School Board applied for multiple exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index, including special education costs, maintenance of revenue sources and maintenance of local tax revenues. In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases. In 2009, the Gateway School Board did not apply for any exceptions to exceed the Index limit. In 2011, property tax relief was set at $171 for the 8,532 approved homesteads. In Allegheny County, the highest tax relief went to Duquesne City School District which was set at $351. In 2010, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Gateway School District was $173 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 8,413 property owners applied for the tax relief. In 2009 the school property tax relief was set at $176 for 8,609 approved properties. The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. In Allegheny County, 60% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009. Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, so people who make substantially more than $35,000 may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief. Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%). Many Allegheny County school districts are facing significantly declining enrollment and sharply rising costs. A proposal has been made by David Wassell, a prominent resident and leader in Allegheny County, to consolidate Allegheny County school districts to save tax dollars, focus dollars on student achievement, and improve student services. The plan calls for a proposed district that includes: East Allegheny School District, Penn-Trafford School District and Gateway School District. In March 2011, the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants Fiscal Responsibility Task Force released a report which found that consolidating school district administrations with one neighboring district would save the Commonwealth $1.2 billion without forcing the consolidation of any school buildings. The study noted that while the best school districts spent 4% of the annual budget on administration, others spend over 15% on administration. Governor Edward Rendell proposed that consolidation with adjacent school districts, in each county, would achieve substantial cost savings. The savings could be redirected to improving lagging reading and science achievement, to enriching the academic programs or to reducing residents' property taxes. Consolidation of the central administrations into one would not require the closing of any local schools. Pennsylvania has one of the highest numbers of school districts in the nation. In Pennsylvania, 80% of the school districts serve student populations under 5,000, and 40% serve less than 2,000. Less than 95 of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts have enrollment below 1250 students, in 2007. This results in excessive school administration bureaucracy and not enough course diversity. In a survey of 88 superintendents of small districts, 42% of the respondents stated that they thought consolidation would save money without closing any schools. The principal of Gateway High School is Mr. William Short. Assistant Principal (Grades 9 & 11) is Dr. John Fournier and Assistant Principal (Grades 10 & 12) is Peter Murphy. The principal of Gateway Middle School is Mr. Anthony Aquilio and the assistant principal is Mr. Jason Cendroski. The school employs several guidance counselors who work under Mrs. Eileen DesLauriers Gateway School Board established a district wellness policy in 2006 - Policy 246. The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 - 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006." The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education and physical education that are aligned with the Pennsylvania State Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus. The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval. The district offers a variety of clubs, activities and sports. Eligibility for participation is set by school board policy and the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association. By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools. The high school athletic director and football team's coach is Mr. Terry Smith. Other athletics activities include lacrosse, basketball, soccer, track, cross country, volleyball, tennis, swimming, wrestling, and golf. The mascot of the school district is the Gateway Gator, a stylized alligator. Gateway High School offers many clubs for its students to join. Gateway's Student Councils and Student Governments play a large role in student life. They are in charge of all school dances, fund-raisers, school spirit activities, and also attend and host various leadership workshops and conferences through the Pennsylvania Association of Student Councils. Gateway also competes in the FIRST Robotics Competition, an annual event for high-school aged participants. Gateway's team, Quasics, is FRC Team #2656. They have competed annually at the Pittsburgh Regional since 2008. Mr. Chalus and Mr. Reese are the founding teachers of the Gateway Middle School Robotics club. Lego Mindstorms are used for robotic competitions by the robotics club at Gateway Middle School. Leading members of the team include Stephen Dalo, Kubilay Ceylan, Michael Kim, and Justin Smith. Before 1948, Monroeville students could choose to attend nearby schools on a tuition basis. In the mid-1950s, the districts joined and began making plans for a new senior high school. Official action began February 1956, breaking ground in January 1957. The joint School Board selected the name of Gateway Senior High School. By September 1958, 900 students from Monroeville and Pitcairn were occupying the new high school. The first graduating class of 196 students received their diplomas in June 1959. For the next 25 years, grades 10-11-12 would attend school in the high school. 1983 marked the beginning of a new era at Gateway. Ninth grade was moved to the high school, South Junior High School became the Gateway Upper Elementary (5-6), and Monroeville Junior High School became Gateway Junior High School (7-8). Eleven years later, in 1994, Gateway Upper Elementary became the Moss Side Middle School (5-6), and Gateway Junior High School became Gateway Middle School (7-8). In 2007, the district completed its reconstruction and expansion of the high school complex. This complex includes the Monroeville Public Library, Pete Antimarino Football Stadium, the high school, Moss Side Middle School, administration offices, and various other multi-use sports fields.

U.S. Route 30
U.S. Route 30 marker at Portland, OR
at Pocatello, ID
at Cheyenne, WY
at Ames, IA
at Joliet, IL
at New Lenox, IL
at Merrillville, IN
at Beaverdam, OH
at Chambersburg, PA
U.S. Route 30 (US 30) is an east–west main route of the system of United States Numbered Highways, with the highway traveling across the northern tier of the country. It is the third longest U.S. route, after U.S. Route 20 and U.S. Route 6. The western end of the highway is at Astoria, Oregon; the eastern end is in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Despite long stretches of parallel and concurrent Interstate Highways, it has managed to avoid the decommissioning that has happened to other long haul routes such as U.S. Route 66. Much of the historic Lincoln Highway, the first road across America (from New York City to San Francisco), became part of US 30; it is still known by that name in many areas. The west end of US 30 is at an intersection with U.S. Route 101 at the south end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge in downtown Astoria, Oregon, approximately 5 miles (8 km) from the Pacific Ocean. It heads east to Portland, where it uses a short section of freeway built for the canceled Interstate 505. From there it heads around the north side of downtown on Interstate 405 and Interstate 5 to reach Interstate 84. Most of the rest of the route is concurrent with I-84, with only about 70 miles (110 km), under 1/5 of its remaining length, off the freeway, mainly on old alignments. Upon entering Idaho, US 30 runs along its old surface route through Fruitland and New Plymouth before joining I-84. It leaves at Bliss and soon crosses the Snake River, running south of it through Twin Falls and Burley before crossing it again and rejoining I-84. At the split with Interstate 86, US 30 continues east with I-86 almost to its end at Pocatello. US 30 cuts southeast through downtown Pocatello to Interstate 15, where it heads south to McCammon. There it exits and heads east and southeast, not parallel to an Interstate for the first time since Portland, into Wyoming.
Scenic US 30 shield The Thousand Springs Scenic Byway is a picturesque section of old US 30 in southern Idaho between the towns of Bliss and Buhl, dipping down into the Hagerman Valley and a canyon of the Snake River. The byway takes its name from the numerous streams and rivulets springing forth out of the east wall of that canyon, many of them plainly visible from the road, with the panoramic river in the foreground. These springs are outlets from the Snake River Aquifer, which flows through thousands of square miles of porous volcanic rock and is one of the largest groundwater systems in the world. The aquifer is believed to be fed by the Lost River which disappears into lava flows near Arco, about 90 miles (140 km) northeast of Hagerman. In Wyoming, US 30 heads southeast through Kemmerer to Granger, where it joins Interstate 80 across southern Wyoming. It is also here that it joins the historic Lincoln Highway. As in the previous two states, US 30 remains with the Interstate for most of its path, only leaving for the old route in the following places: Unlike the three states to the west, Nebraska keeps US 30 completely separate from its parallel Interstates (Interstate 80 in this case). From the state line to Grand Island, US 30 closely parallels I-80. East of Grand Island, US 30 diverges from I-80 and runs northeast towards Columbus on a highway parallel to the Platte River. At Columbus, it turns east towards Schuyler and Fremont and crosses the Missouri River into Iowa east of Blair. US 30 crosses Iowa from west to east approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of Interstate 80. Between Missouri Valley and Denison, the highway runs in a southwest-to-northeast direction. Several freeway bypasses have been built around the major cities on US 30 - Ames, Marshalltown, Tama, Cedar Rapids and DeWitt. It crosses the Mississippi River into Illinois on the Gateway Bridge at Clinton. U.S. Route 30S and U.S. Route 30A are two previous alternate alignments of U.S. Route 30 in Iowa. They followed the original alignment of US 30 in Iowa. They both began in Nebraska, entered Iowa in Council Bluffs, and extended north to Missouri Valley via Crescent to meet the current highway. US 30 heads east in Illinois to Rock Falls, where it begins to parallel Interstate 88. At Aurora it turns southeast to Joliet, where it is a major thoroughfare in the city of Joliet (Plainfield Road), and then back east through Chicago Heights to the Indiana state line, bypassing Chicago to the south. The original 1926 routing of US 30 ran directly through downtown Chicago, however. US 30 in Indiana is a major rural divided highway. It is not a freeway except at Fort Wayne, where it runs around the north side on Interstate 69 and Interstate 469. Between I-65 (at Merrillville) and I-69 (Fort Wayne), there are over 40 traffic signals on this divided highway, hindering smooth traffic flow. Many of these signals are concentrated between Hobart and Valparaiso, the two cities being about 20 miles apart. It is, however, a four lane divided road through its entirety within Indiana, generally avoiding small towns. Speed limits range, but are generally 60 miles per hour (97 km/h). US 30 heads east across northern Ohio via Mansfield and Canton. After several upgrades, it is now a four-lane divided highway from the Indiana state line to Canton with controlled-access freeway sections between Van Wert and Delphos, Bucyrus and Canton, Ohio. Then East of Canton, the road continues on to East Liverpool, Ohio mostly as two-lane highway. At Upper Sandusky, the highway runs concurrent with US 23. There is no direct interchange between US 30 and Interstate 75 where the roads cross in Beaverdam. Instead, US 30 has an "inverted trumpet" interchange connecting it to the old Lincoln Highway east of Beaverdam. The Lincoln Highway then connects drivers to I-75. US 30 spends only about four miles (6 km) in West Virginia. It crosses the Ohio River over the Jennings Randolph Bridge, and cuts through the town of Chester and across the northernmost piece of the Northern Panhandle on a two-lane road. US 30 heads southeast into Pennsylvania, joining U.S. Route 22 and then the Penn-Lincoln Parkway West west of Pittsburgh. It heads through downtown Pittsburgh on Interstate 376/US 22, leaving at Wilkinsburg for its own alignment. From there it roughly parallels the Pennsylvania Turnpike (Interstate 76) to the Philadelphia area, though in many areas, particularly from York past Lancaster to Coatesville and Downingtown, it is far enough for its own freeway. As it approaches Philadelphia, US 30 constitutes the main road of the "Main Line", a famous string of affluent suburbs west of the city; often called Lancaster Ave. and Lancaster Pike through this stretch. US 30 then joins I-76 near downtown Philadelphia, splitting onto Interstate 676 to cross the Delaware River on the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. US 30 splits from I-676 just east of the Ben Franklin Bridge toll plaza in Camden and heads southeast to Atlantic City, generally parallel to the Atlantic City Expressway, passing through the New Jersey Pine Barrens. For most of its New Jersey run, it is known as the White Horse Pike. It ends in Atlantic City at the intersection of Absecon Boulevard (US 30) and Virginia Avenue, about one mile (1.5 km) from the Atlantic Ocean. In the original (October 30, 1925) plan for the system, US 30 ran from Salt Lake City, Utah to Atlantic City, New Jersey. West of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, this was designated largely along the Lincoln Highway, as part of a promise to the Lincoln Highway Association to assign a single number to their road as much as possible. West of Salt Lake City, U.S. Route 40 continued to San Francisco, California, although it ran farther north than the Lincoln Highway east of Wadsworth, Nevada and west of Sacramento, California. Around 1931, a split in Ohio was designated, from Delphos east to Mansfield. The original US 30 was assigned U.S. Route 30S, and a straighter route became U.S. Route 30N. US 30S was eliminated ca 1975, putting US 30 on former US 30N.][ US 30 was rerouted ca 1931 to bypass Omaha, Nebraska and Council Bluffs, Iowa to the north. The former route, from Fremont, Nebraska to Missouri Valley, Iowa, was designated U.S. Route 30S. Around 1934 it was truncated to Omaha and c. 1939 it was changed from US 30S to US 30A and was removed from service in 1969 when the historic Douglas Street bridge was demolished. Metropolitan Portland has a signed US 30 "Bypass", beginning at the St. John's bridge, following (roughly) Lombard Street in North Portland, continuing along Sandy Blvd., and rejoining the I-84/US-30 route in the center of the town of Wood Village. Junctions with I-5, US-30 at the St. John's bridge, and I-205 are all signed with "US-30 BYPASS" markers. Portland also had a U.S. 30 Business route along N.E. Sandy Boulevard, however the route was decommissioned in 2007. Wyoming had requested ending US 30 in Salt Lake City, but Idaho and Oregon objected.][ What is now US 30 through those states (west of Burley, Idaho) had been designated as part of U.S. Route 20, another transcontinental route, but it took a detour to the north through Yellowstone National Park, making it inaccessible during the winter season. The states agreed to take US 30 along that route, splitting from the route to Salt Lake City at Granger, Wyoming and running along what had been designated as U.S. Route 530. (That number was then reused for the spur towards Salt Lake City.) The planned US 530 had ended at U.S. Route 91 at McCammon, Idaho, where the new US 30 turned north to Pocatello, meeting the planned US 20. (US 20 was truncated to Yellowstone but later extended along its own route to the Pacific Ocean.) What had been designated as U.S. Route 630, from US 30 at Echo, Utah to Ogden, was to be extended east on former US 30 to US 30 at Granger and northwest on US 91 and what had been designated U.S. Route 191 to US 30 at Burley. Utah objected to that plan, however, as it removed US 30 from that state, giving them only US 630, a branch. A compromise was reached, in which the US 630 route would become the main line of US 30, once improved to higher standards, but that was still not deemed completely satisfactory. Ultimately, in the final system, a split was approved between Burley, Idaho and Granger, Wyoming, with U.S. Route 30N running along what was to be US 30, and U.S. Route 30S taking the route through Utah (planned as US 630). In the final plan (dated November 11, 1926), the route towards Salt Lake City became U.S. Route 530, ending at U.S. Route 40 at Kimball Junction, Utah. In 2011, Google Maps mislabeled the entire length of US 30 as being concurrent with Quebec Route 366. As of 2012, Google Maps has also mislabeled the entire length of US 30 as "U.S. Route 30 in Nebraska" alongside the local names for the road.

Motorcycle
A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task they are designed for, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia – Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan – while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual production of 22 million units. As of 2002[update], India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds. The first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885. This vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, and thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier. Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). It was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. Many authorities who exclude steam powered, electric or diesel two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first was the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede of 1868. This was followed by the American Roper steam velocipede of 1869, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Roper demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, and built a total of 10 examples. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle (German: ). In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. Until World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson,][ with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. By the late 1920s or early 1930s, DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. After World War II, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s.][ The German company NSU held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s.][ In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development, both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time. NSU produced the most advanced design, but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing. Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by 1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines.][ The following year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns. From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden's engine work in the 1950s. In the 21st century, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by Japanese companies. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is a large market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. An example is the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, with its 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008. Today, this area is dominated by mostly Indian companies with Hero MotoCorp emerging as the world's largest manufacturer of two wheelers. Its Splendor model has sold more than 8.5 million to date. Other major producers are Bajaj and TVS Motors. In numerous cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000." In places such as Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly motorbikes due to a lack of public transport and low income levels that put automobiles out of reach for many. The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil's frontier towns. Amid the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%. Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005. This is mainly attributed to increasing fuel prices and urban congestion. A Consumer Reports subscribers' survey of mainly United States motorcycle and scooter owners reported that they rode an average of only 1,000 miles (1,600 km) per year, 82% for recreation and 38% for commuting. Americans put 10,000–12,000 miles (16,000–19,000 km) per year on their cars and light trucks. As motorcyclists age, there is a tendency for riders to choose touring bikes over sports bikes. While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion. In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through stationary or slow traffic. In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £10 per day London congestion charge other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels. Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for motorcycle travel in them in accordance with federal law, in addition to a reduced fee on certain toll roads. Other countries have similar policies. In New Zealand, motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled by a barrier arm; the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply rides around it. Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces. In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as Melbourne, Australia, motorcycles are generally permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car.][ Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance, cost, and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt. Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F rider, to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro 50 cc scooter. A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg-US (0.50 L/100 km; 560 mpg-imp) "on real highways – in real conditions." Due to low engine displacements (100 cc–200 cc), and high power-to-mass ratios, motorcycles offer good fuel economy. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like 1950s Britain and modern developing nations, motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market. Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed are limited by battery technology.][ Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric drive system. A 2013 survey of 4,424 readers of the US Consumer Reports magazine collected reliability data on 4,680 motorcycles purchased new from 2009 to 2012. The most common problem areas were accessories, brakes, electrical (including starters, charging, ignition), and fuel systems, and the types of motorcycles with the greatest problems were touring, off road/dual sport, sport-touring, and cruisers. There were not enough sport bikes in the survey for a statistically significant conclusion, though the data hinted at reliability as good as cruisers. These results may be partially explained by accessories including such equipment as fairings, luggage, and auxiliary lighting, which are frequently added to touring, adventure touring/dual sport and sport touring bikes. Trouble with fuel systems is often the result of improper winter storage, and brake problems may also be due to poor maintenance. Of the five brands with enough data to draw conclusions, Honda, Kawasaki and Yamaha were statistically tied, with 11 to 14% of those bikes in the survey experiencing major repairs. Harley-Davidsons had a rate of 24%, while BMWs did worst, with 30% of those needing major repairs. There were not enough Triumph and Suzuki motorcycles surveyed for a statistically sound conclusion, though it appeared Suzukis were as reliable as the other three Japanese brands while Triumphs were comparable to Harley-Davidson and BMW. Three fourths of the repairs in the survey cost less than US$ 200 and two thirds of the motorcycles were repaired in less than two days. In spite of their relatively worse reliability in this survey, Harley-Davidson and BMW owners showed the greatest owner satisfaction, and three fourths of them said they would buy the same bike again, followed by 72% of Honda owners and 60 to 63% of Kawasaki and Yamaha owners. Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances. Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling. Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. Because it is counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices – and even to many experienced motorcyclists. Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies respectively. If carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as an "endo" (short for "end-over-end"), or "looping" the vehicle. Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or after-market. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance, safety, performance, or comfort, and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars and trailers. Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles or trucks and buses. United States Department of Transportation data for 2005 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System show that for passenger cars, 18.62 fatal crashes occur per 100,000 registered vehicles. For motorcycles this figure is higher at 75.19 per 100,000 registered vehicles – four times higher than for cars. The same data shows that 1.56 fatalities occur per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for passenger cars, whereas for motorcycles the figure is 43.47–28 times higher than for cars (37 times more deaths per mile travelled in 2007). Furthermore for motorcycles the accident rates have increased significantly since the end of the 1990s, while the rates have dropped for passenger cars. The two major causes of motorcycle accidents in the United States are: motorists pulling out or turning in front of motorcyclists and violating their rights-of-way, and motorcyclists running wide through turns. The former is sometimes called a SMIDSY, an acronym formed from the motorists' common response of "Sorry mate, I didn't see you". The latter is more commonly caused by operating a motorcycle while intoxicated. Motorcyclists can anticipate and avoid some of these crashes with proper training, increasing their conspicuousness to other traffic, and not consuming alcohol or drugs before riding. The United Kingdom has several organisations which are dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training over and above what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle test. These include the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). Along with increased personal safety, riders with these advanced qualifications often benefit from reduced insurance costs. In South Africa, the Think Bike campaign is dedicated to increasing both motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycles on the country's roads. The campaign, while strongest in the Gauteng province, has representation in Western Cape, KwaZulu Natal and the Free State. It has dozens of trained marshals available for various events such as cycle races and is deeply involved in numerous other projects such as the annual Motorcycle Toy Run. Motorcycle Safety Education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to non-profit organisations to corporations. Most states use the courses designed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF), while Oregon and Idaho developed their own. All of the training programs include a Basic Rider Course, an Intermediate Rider Course and an Advanced Rider Course. In the UK and some Australian jurisdictions, such as Victoria, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and the Northern Territory, it is compulsory to complete a basic rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence, after which they can ride on public roads with L plates in the UK and P plates in Australia. In Canada, motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only, but all provinces and territories have Graduated Licensing programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. The Canada Safety Council, a non-profit safety organisation, offers the Gearing Up program across Canada and is endorsed by the Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council. Training course graduates may qualify for reduced insurance premiums. There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many different sub-types of motorcycles for many different purposes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture. The motorcyclist's riding position depends on rider body-geometry (anthropometry) combined with the geometry of the motorcycle itself. These factors create a set of three basic postures. Factors of a motorcycle's ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height, angle and location of footpegs, seat and handlebars. Factors in a rider's physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso, arm, thigh and leg length, and overall rider height. A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful, larger vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles. In 2007 and 2008, motorcycles and scooters, due to good fuel efficiency, attracted interest in the United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices. Piaggio Group Americas supported this interest with the launch of a "Vespanomics" website and platform, citing lower per-mile carbon emissions of 0.4 lb/mile (113 g/km) less than the average car, a 65% reduction, and better fuel economy. Other sources, however, claim that while motorcycles produce much less pollution in terms of greenhouse gases, a motorcycle can in some cases emit 10–20 times the quantity of nitrogen oxides (NOx) when compared to the NOx emissions of a car. This is because many motorcycles lack a catalytic converter to reduce NOx emissions, and while catalytic converters have been used in cars long enough that they are now commonplace, they are a relatively new technology in motorcycles. Many newer motorcycles (such as later models of the Yamaha R1 and Suzuki GSXR1000, as well as most BMWs which have included catalytic converters since the 1990s) now have factory fitted catalytic converters. Along with other technologies that have taken longer to appear in motorcycles (e.g. fuel injection, anti-lock brake systems),][ catalytic converters are becoming increasingly commonplace. United States Environmental Protection Agency 2007 certification result reports for all vehicles versus on highway motorcycles (which also includes scooters), the average certified emissions level for 12,327 vehicles tested was 0.734. The average "Nox+Co End-Of-Useful-Life-Emissions" for 3,863 motorcycles tested was 0.8531, for a difference of about 16%, not the claimed 10X factor. Likewise, if one looks at how many of the 2007 motorcycles tested were also catalytic equipped, 54% of them, 2,092, were equipped with a catalytic converter. The following table shows maximum acceptable legal emissions of the combination of hydrocarbon and nitrous oxides, as well as carbon monoxide, for new Class III motorcycles (280 cc or larger displacement) sold in the United States. The maximum acceptable legal emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide for new Class I and II motorcycles (50 cc–169 cc and 170 cc–279 cc respectively) sold in the United States are as follows: European emission standards for motorcycles are similar to those for cars. New motorcycles must meet Euro III standards, while cars must meet Euro V standards. Therefore, the difference in total pollution between motorcycles and cars that pass European emission standards would be small, certainly much smaller than the 10X factor claimed by the referenced LA Times article. Motorcycle emissions controls are being updated and it has been proposed to update to Euro IV in 2012 and Euro V in 2015.

Ross Park Mall
Ross Park Mall is an upscale shopping mall located in Ross Township, Pennsylvania, north of Pittsburgh. The mall houses nearly 160 retailers including anchor stores JCPenney, Macy's, Nordstrom, and Sears. An outdoor lifestyle component complements the enclosed center and features such names as California Pizza Kitchen, The Cheesecake Factory, Crate & Barrel, and L.L.Bean. The mall's present anchor tenants include Sears to the north, JCPenney to the east, Macy's to the south, and Nordstrom to the west. Crate & Barrel and L.L.Bean anchor the lifestyle addition on the western part of the mall property. When the mall was originally built, a Horne's store occupied the present Nordstrom location, and a Kaufmann's was in the present Macy's spot. Horne's was the second largest of Pittsburgh's department store chains, and this store had been the anchor of nearby Northway Mall; the two locations coexisted for about a year after the move. Kaufmann's was the third largest of Pittsburgh's chains, and its store moved in from a standalone location about a mile north on McKnight Road. Today, that location houses Giant Eagle, Dunham's Sports, and Stein Mart. The Nordstrom location has a complicated history. It was intended to be a Gimbel's but was never occupied because the Gimbel's chain was sold and liquidated around the time the mall opened. The spot was then taken over by Horne's. It operated as Horne's from 1987 to 1994, when Federated Department Stores purchased the Horne's chain and rebranded its stores with its own regional Lazarus name. The store operated as Lazarus until Federated renamed it as Macy's in March 2005. Four months later, Federated purchased the May Department Stores Company, which operated the Kaufmann's anchor store at the south end of the mall. Now Federated owned two anchors in the same mall, operating under different names. In March 2006, Nordstrom announced plans to build a new store on the Gimbel's/Horne's/Lazarus/Macy's site, after tearing down the building and an adjacent two-level parking structure. May quickly closed the Macy's store and began converting the much larger Kaufmann's to a Macy's. In September 2006, the former Kaufmann's became Macy's. Macy's then renovated the entire store with replacement of flooring and lighting, also relocating the furniture department to the original Horne's furniture galley located in the parking lot. After a two-year construction period, the Nordstrom store opened on October 24, 2008. In 2000, Ross Park underwent $14 million in renovations including the construction of a play area for children and new lighting, ceilings, entranceways and flooring. Additional renovations were done in 2008 with the mall expansion, incorporating a Nordstrom department store. Many luxury stores were also added to the mall such as Tiffany & Co., Lacoste, Burberry, Kate Spade, True Religion, Omega and Louis Vuitton. A 65,000-square-foot (6,000 m2) lifestyle addition completes the 2008 expansion. The fully realized lifestyle expansion will contain about four or five new tenants, including two eateries, and all stores will be accessible from the outside. The lifestyle addition currently houses California Pizza Kitchen, The Cheesecake Factory, and L.L.Bean. In November 2010, Crate and Barrel opened a 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) store next to L.L.Bean.

Merchant (surname)
Merchant is a family name shared by the following people: Sufyan Merchant(1997)
PRO Bikes LLC C Monroeville Pennsylvania Monroeville, Pennsylvania Pittsburgh metropolitan area Monroeville Hospitality Recreation Hospitality Recreation
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