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Institute of Biomedical Science
IBM Personal Computer
The Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) is the professional body for biomedical scientists in the United Kingdom. The IBMS was founded in 1912 and represents approximately 16,000 members employed mainly in National Health Service and private laboratories, veterinary laboratories, the National Blood Authority, Health Protection Agency, Medical Research Council and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Other members also work in related commercial fields and in teaching. Most members live and work in the United Kingdom and Ireland but many are employed overseas. It aims to promote and develop biomedical science and its practitioners.
Registration with the Health and Care Professions Council is a legal requirement for Biomedical Scientists working in the UK and the IBMS assesses and approves undergraduate and postgraduate courses and qualifications and candidates seeking registration. In recognition of attaining this first level of professional competence, the Institute also awards its own Certificate of Competence in Biomedical Science, which forms an important part of an individual’s professional portfolio. The IBMS approves laboratories for registration training on behalf of the Health and Care Professions Council.
History of IBM
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida.
Alongside "microcomputer" and "home computer", the term "personal computer" was already in use before 1981. It was used as early as 1972 to characterize Xerox PARC's Alto. However, because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term PC came to mean more specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's PC products.
IBM PC compatible
International Business Machines, abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software (with a focus on the latter), and offers infrastructure services, hosting services, and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. Ginni Rometty is the president and CEO of IBM.
IBM has been well known through most of its recent history as one of the world's largest computer companies and systems integrators. With over 433,362 (2012) employees worldwide, IBM is one of the largest and most profitable information technology employers in the world. IBM holds more patents than any other U.S. based technology company and has eleven research laboratories worldwide. The company has scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals in over 170 countries. IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, five National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.
History of IBM magnetic disk drives
IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones. They duplicated almost exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS.
Many early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as the original PC and AT models. The IBM AT compatible bus was later named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales.
IBM manufactured magnetic disk storage devices from 1956 to 2003, when it merged its hard disk drive business with Hitachi's. Both the hard disk drive (HDD) and floppy disk drive (FDD) were invented by IBM and as such IBM's employees were responsible for many of the innovations in these products and their technologies. The basic mechanical arrangement of hard disk drives has not changed since the IBM 1301. Disk drive performance and characteristics are measured by the same standards now as they were in the 1950s. Few products in history have enjoyed such spectacular declines in cost and size along with corresponding improvements in capacity and performance.
IBM manufactured 8-inch floppy disk drives from 1969 until the middle 1980s but was not a significant manufacturer of smaller sized floppy disk drives. IBM always offered its magnetic disk drives for sale but did not offer them with OEM terms and conditions until 1981. By 1996 IBM had stopped making hard disk drives unique to its systems and was offering all its HDDs on an OEM basis.
IBM DB2 is a family of database server products developed by IBM. These products all support the relational model, but in recent years some products have been extended to support object-relational features and non-relational structures, in particular XML.
Historically and unlike other database vendors, IBM produced a platform-specific DB2 product for each of its major operating systems. However, in the 1990s IBM changed track and produced a DB2 "common server" product, designed with a common code base to run on different platforms.
IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM from 1952 to the present. During the 1960s and 1970s, the term mainframe computer was almost synonymous with IBM products due to their marketshare. Current mainframes in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the IBM System/360.
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. The series maintained backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy migration path for customers; this, plus improved performance, were the dominant themes of the product announcement. Improvements over the S/360 first released in the S/370 model range included:
The original System/370 line underwent several architectural improvements during its roughly 20-year lifetime. One very significant change was the introduction of virtual memory, which was first made generally available in 1972 via IBM's "System/370 Advanced Function" announcement. IBM had initially (and controversially) chosen to exclude virtual storage from the S/370 line. The August 2nd, 1972 announcement included:
IBM WebSphere refers to a brand of computer software products in the genre of enterprise software known as "application and integration middleware". These software products are used by end-users to create applications and integrate applications with other applications. IBM WebSphere has been available to the general market since 1998.