The geography of Mesoamerica describes the geographic features of Mesoamerica, a culture area in the Americas inhabited by complex indigenous pre-Columbian cultures exhibiting a suite of shared and common cultural characteristics. Several well-known Mesoamerican cultures include the Olmec, Teotihuacan, the Maya, and the Aztec. Mesoamerica is often subdivided in a number of ways. One common method, albeit a broad and general classification, is to distinguish between the highlands and lowlands. Another way is to subdivide the region into sub-areas that generally correlate to either culture areas or specific physiographic regions.
The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. Geographically, South America is generally considered a continent forming the southern portion of the American landmass, south and east of the Panama–Colombia border by most authorities, or south and east of the Panama Canal by some. South and North America are sometimes considered a single continent or supercontinent, while constituent regions are infrequently considered subcontinents. Geopolitically and geographically, all of Panama—including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus—is generally considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
South America became attached to North America only recently (geologically speaking) with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama some 3 million years ago, which resulted in the Great American Interchange. The Andes, likewise a comparatively young and seismically restless mountain range, run down the western edge of the continent; the land to the east of the northern Andes is largely tropical rain forest, the vast Amazon River basin. The continent also contains drier regions such as eastern Patagonia and the extremely arid Atacama desert.
The fauna of Nicaragua is characterized by a very high level of biodiversity. Much of Nicaragua's wildlife lives in protected areas. There are currently 78 protected areas in Nicaragua, covering more than 22,000 square kilometers (8,500 sq mi), or about 17% of its landmass. These protected areas encompass a wide variety of habitats, including rainforests, lakes, mountains, and volcanoes throughout the country. For example, Bosawás Biosphere Reserve covers 7,300 square kilometers (2,800 sq mi), making it the second largest rainforest in the Americas after the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.
Tierra fría (Spanish for cold land) is a pseudoclimatological term used in parts of Latin America to refer to mountain locations within that cultural realm, where high elevation results in a markedly cooler climate than that encountered in the lowlands at a comparable latitude.
To a climatologist, the term is inaccurate, since the places so designated would hardly be reckoned as having a "cold" climate as the discipline of climatology defines the concept; in reality, the combination of low latitude and high altitude — typically between approximately 6,000 ft (about 1,850 m) and 10,000 ft (about 3,600 m) in locations within 10° of the equator — produces a climate that falls into the same category as many oceanic climates found along the west coasts of the continents within the temperate zones — mild temperatures all year round, with monthly averages ranging from about 10°C (50°F) in the coldest months to about 18°C (64.4°F) in the warmest months (at places further poleward the range of altitudes where this climate exists becomes progressively lower). Common crops grown in the Tierra Fria are: Potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, corn, rye, and maize.
Nicaragua is a country in Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras. Approximately the size of Greece or the U.S. state of New York, it is the largest country in Central America. The country covers a total area of 130,370 square kilometers (119,990 square kilometers of which is land area) and contains a diversity of climates and terrains. The country's physical geography divides it into three major zones: Pacific lowlands, the wetter, cooler central highlands, and the Caribbean lowlands.
Honduras is a country situated in Central America. Honduras borders the Caribbean Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. Guatemala lies to the west, Nicaragua south east and El Salvador to the south west. It is the second largest Central American republic. The triangular-shaped country has a total area of just over 43,000 square miles (110,000 km2). The 700-kilometers northern boundary is the Caribbean coast extending from the mouth of the Río Motagua on the west to the mouth of the Río Coco on the east, at Cape Gracias a Dios. The 922-kilometer southeastern side of the triangle is the land border with Nicaragua; it follows the Río Coco near the Caribbean Sea and then extends southwestward through mountainous terrain to the Gulf of Fonseca on the Pacific Ocean. The southern apex of the triangle is a 153- kilometer coastline at the Gulf of Fonseca, which opens onto the Pacific Ocean. The western land boundary consists of the 342-kilometer border with El Salvador and the 256-kilometer border with Guatemala.
Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.