What were the 7 first states 2 secede from the Union in 1860?


The first 7 states to secede from the Union were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.

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South Carolina Listeni/ˌsθ kærəˈlnə/ is a state in the Southeastern United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina; to the south and west by Georgia, located across the Savannah River; and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was the first of the 13 colonies that declared independence from the British Crown during the American Revolution.

South Carolina was the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, and the 8th state to ratify the US Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina later became the first state to vote to secede from the Union which it did on December 20, 1860. It was readmitted to the United States on June 25, 1868.

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The United States is a federal constitutional republic, in which the President of the United States (the head of state and head of government), Congress, and judiciary share powers reserved to the national government, and the federal government shares sovereignty with the state governments.

Prior to the 1960s, the state Democratic Party was firmly in control of the government of South Carolina at all levels. The state Republican Party was little more than a country club group organized to reap the benefits when a Republican was in the White House. Most voters in South Carolina were Yellow dog Democrats, but Governor Strom Thurmond's run for President as a States' Rights Democrat in 1948 opened up the possibility of voting for a party other than the national Democratic Party. The Republican Party did not gain relevancy in the state until Strom Thurmond, as a United States Senator, switched parties in 1964 from Democrat to Republican. From 1964 to present, the Republican Party has gradually gained strength and by the 1990s it became the dominant party of the state.

Republican electoral strategy for state elections revolves around winning in the three major metro areas of South Carolina: Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville. When they run up big margins in the counties of Charleston, Berkeley, Dorchester, Lexington, Greenville, and Spartanburg, Republican candidates usually win and Mark Sanford demonstrated this perfectly in his 2002 gubernatorial race against incumbent Governor Jim Hodges.

The white population of South Carolina, long before the American Civil War, strongly supported the institution of slavery. Political leaders such as John C. Calhoun and Preston Brooks had inflamed regional (and national) passions, and for years before the eventual start of the Civil War in 1861, voices cried for secession. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first Southern state to declare its secession and later formed the Confederacy. The first shots of the Civil War were fired in Charleston by its Citadel cadets upon a civilian merchant ship Star of the West bringing supplies to the beleaguered Federal garrison at Fort Sumter January 9, 1861. The April 1861 Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter ignited what became a four-year struggle that divided the nation.

South Carolina was a source of troops for the Confederate army, and as the war progressed, also for the Union as thousands of ex-slaves flocked to join the Union forces. The state also provided uniforms, textiles, food, and war material, as well as trained soldiers and leaders from The Citadel and other military schools. In contrast to most other Confederate states, South Carolina had a well-developed rail network linking all of its major cities without a break of gauge. Relatively free from Union occupation until the very end of the war, South Carolina hosted a number of prisoner of war camps. South Carolina also was the only Southern state not to harbor pockets of anti-secessionist fervor strong enough to send large amounts of men to fight for the Union, as every other state in the Confederacy did.

The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is an area comprising the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles and varied cuisines that have helped distinguish it in some ways from the rest of the United States. The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly English, Scotch-Irish and Scottish), African, and some Native American components. Several Southern states (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) were English Colonies that sent delegates to sign the Declaration of Independence and then fought against the English along with the Northern Colonists during the Revolutionary War. The basis for much Southern culture derives from the pride in these states being among the 13 original colonies (and much of the population of the South had fore-fathers who emigrated west from these colonies). Manners and customs reflect the early population of the South's relationship with England as well as that of Africa and to some extent the native populations.

Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by an early support for the doctrine of states' rights, the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Lower South; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; and the legacy of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as "Jim Crow", that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny blacks of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s. In more modern times, however, the South has become the most integrated region of the country and race-relations on par with those elsewhere. Since the late 1960s blacks have held and currently hold many high offices, such as mayor and police chief, in many cities such as Atlanta and New Orleans.]better source needed[

The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States (CS) or the Confederacy, was a government set up in 1861 by seven slave states of the Lower South that had declared their secession from the United States following the November 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln. Those seven states created a "confederacy" in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, and four of the Upper South were admitted after war began in April. The Confederacy later accepted two additional states as members (Missouri and Kentucky) although neither officially declared secession nor was ever controlled by Confederate forces.

The United States government (the Union) rejected secession and the Confederacy as illegal. The American Civil War began with the 1861 Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a fort in the Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, which was claimed by both sides. By 1865, after very heavy fighting, largely on Confederate soil, CSA forces were defeated and the Confederacy collapsed. No foreign nation officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, but several had granted belligerent status.

The Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America was an Anglican Christian denomination which existed from 1861 to 1865. It formed from parts of the Episcopal Church in the United States during the American Civil War. When the Southern states seceded from the Union and established the Confederate States of America, it was not unusual for Christian churches to split along national lines also. The Episcopalians were different as their separation was made only after the Confederacy was created and ended within six months of the South's surrender when southern Episcopalians reunited with their counterparts in the North.

As Southern states began to secede from the Union, beginning with South Carolina in December 1860, dioceses struggled over the issue of their status in the Episcopal Church. The first diocese to separate was that of Louisiana, whose bishop Leonidas Polk issued a proclamation on 30 January 1861, stating, "The State of Louisiana having, by a formal ordinance, through her Delegates in Convention assembled, withdrawn herself from all further connection with the United States of America, and constituted herself a separate Sovereignty, has, by that act, removed our Diocese from within the pale of 'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States'". While other bishops disagreed with Polk's view that a diocese's relationship with the wider church was automatically severed by the actions of the civil authorities, they agreed that there was a separation but not a division. The bishops also maintained that this was a separation forced upon them by the changing political realities.

The Republic of South Carolina was declared when the State of South Carolina declared its secession from the United States on December 20, 1860. This was the second Republic of South Carolina, since South Carolina declared its independence (from Britain) the first time on March 26, 1776, more than three months prior to the United States Declaration of Independence. On February 8, 1861, South Carolina joined other Southern states to form the Confederate States of America. South Carolina after secession was frequently called the Palmetto Republic.

By a unanimous vote of 169–0 in a special state convention held in Columbia, South Carolina chose to secede from the Federal union. It adopted the palmetto flag as its national banner.

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