A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands. Land bridges can be created by marine regression, in which sea levels fall, exposing shallow, previously submerged sections of continental shelf; or when new land is created by plate tectonics; or occasionally when the sea floor rises due to post-glacial rebound after an ice age.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.
Within the body of physical geography, the Earth is often split either into several spheres or environments, the main spheres being the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and pedosphere. Research in physical geography is often interdisciplinary and uses the systems approach.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term body of water most often refers to large accumulations of water, such as oceans, seas, and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more rarely, puddles. A body of water does not have to be still or contained; Rivers, streams, canals, and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are also considered bodies of water.
Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are man-made (artificial). There are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Similarly, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction.
The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America. It contains the country of Panama and the Panama Canal. Like many isthmuses, it is a location of great strategic value.]citation needed[
The isthmus was formed some 3 million years ago during the Pliocene epoch. This major geological event separated the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and caused the creation of the Gulf Stream.
It is difficult to discuss the setting of The Book of Mormon without suggesting that the book itself is either historical and set in real-world geography, or to suggest that the book is fiction. Either assumption carries profound implications for the claims of Joseph Smith, Jr. and the religion[s] he founded. However, to Latter Day Saints, the book is regarded as a historical record of sacred scripture.
According to Smith, an angel named Moroni told him "there was a book deposited, written upon gold plates, giving an account of the former inhabitants of this continent, and the source from whence they sprang." Smith identifies these "inhabitants" as the "indians" of his own country. According to Smith, Moroni explained that the coming forth of the Book of Mormon was concomitant with the fulfillment of various ancient prophecies. According to Latter Day Saint scripture, these divine pronouncements came to an end in the ancient land Cumorah, which some claim is the same land containing the "Hill Cumorah" near Joseph Smith's home in Palmyra, western New York (from whence the gold plates of the Book of Mormon were retrieved).