Native Americans are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of the present-day United States, including those in Alaska and Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have been controversial. According to a 1995 U.S. Census Bureau set of home interviews, most of the respondents with an expressed preference refer to themselves as "American Indians" or simply "Indians"; this term has been adopted by major newspapers and some academic groups, but does not traditionally include Native Hawaiians or certain Alaskan Natives, such as Aleut, Yup'ik, or Inuit peoples.
Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies. Many Native Americans lived as hunter-gatherer societies and told their histories by oral traditions; Europeans therefore created almost all of the surviving historical record concerning the conflict.
The languages of North America reflect not only that continent's indigenous peoples, but the European colonization as well. The most widely spoken languages in North America (which includes Central America and the Caribbean islands) are English, Spanish, French, Danish (almost entirely exclusive to Greenland alone), and, especially in the Caribbean, creole languages lexified by them.
North America is home to a large number of language families and some language isolates. In the Arctic north, the Eskimo–Aleut languages are spoken from Alaska to Greenland. This group includes the Aleut language of the Aleutian Islands, the Yupik languages of Alaska and the Russian Far East, and the Inuit languages of Alaska, Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Greenland.
Achumawi, Adai, Afro-Seminole Creole, Ahtna, Alabama, Aleut, Alutiiq, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Atakapa, Atsugewi, Barbareño, Biloxi, Blackfoot, Caddo, Cahuilla, Carolina Algonquian, Carolinian, Cayuga, Cayuse, Central Kalapuya, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Pomo, Chamorro, Chemakum, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chico, Chimariko, Chinook Jargon, Chippewa, Chitimacha, Chiwere, Choctaw, Coast Tsimshian, Coahuilteco, Coeur d'Alene, Colorado River, Columbia-Moses, Cocopah, Comanche, Cowlitz, Creek, Crow, Deg Xinag, Dena’ina, Delaware, Eastern Abnaki, Eastern Pomo, Esselen, Etchemin, Eyak, Eyeri, Fox, Gros Ventre, Gullah, Gwich’in, Halkomelem, Haida, Hän, Havasupai, Havasupai-Hualapai, Hawaiian, Hawaiian Pidgin, Hidatsa, Holikachuk, Hopi, Hupa, Inupiaq, Ipai, Jicarilla, Karuk, Kashaya, Kathlamet, Kato, Kawaiisu, Kiowa, Klallam, Klamath-Modoc, Klickitat, Koasati, Konkow language, Koyukon, Kumeyaay, Kutenai, Lakota, Lipan, Louisiana Creole French, Lower Tanana, Luiseño, Lummi, Lushootseed, Mahican, Maidu, Makah, Malayalam, , Mandan, Maricopa, Massachusett, Mattole, Mednyj Aleut, Menominee, Mescalero-Chiricahua, Miami-Illinois, Mikasuki, Mi'kmaq, Mobilian Jargon, Mohawk, Mohawk Dutch, Mohegan-Pequot, Mojave, Mono, Munsee, Mutsun, Nanticoke language, Nawathinehena, Negerhollands, Nez Perce, Nisenan, Nlaka'pamux, Nooksack, Northeastern Pomo, Northern Kalapuya, Northern Paiute, Northern Pomo, Okanagan, Omaha-Ponca, Oneida, Onondaga, Osage, Pawnee, Paipai, Picuris, Piscataway, Plains Apache, Plains Cree, Potawatomi, Powhatan, Qawiaraq, Quechan, Quileute, Quiripi, Saanich, Sahaptin, Salinan, Salish, Samoan, Seneca, Shasta, Shawnee, Shoshone language, Solano, Southeastern Pomo, Southern Pomo, Southern Sierra Miwok, Southern Tiwa, Takelma, Tanacross, Taos, Tataviam, Tewa, Tillamook, Timbisha, Tipai, Tlingit, Tolowa, Tongva, Tonkawa, Tsetsaut, Tübatulabal, Tuscarora, Twana, Unami, Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Tanana, Ventureño, Virgin Islands Creole, Wailaki, Wappo, Wasco-Wishram, Washo, Whulshootseed, Wichita, Winnebago, Wintu, Wiyot, Wyandot, Yahi, Yana, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yoncalla, Yuchi, Yuki, Yurok
Many languages are used, or historically have been used in the United States. The most commonly used language is English. There are also many languages indigenous to North America or to U.S. states or holdings in the Pacific region. Languages brought to the country by colonists or immigrants from Europe, Asia, or other parts of the world make up a large portion of the languages currently used; several languages, including creoles and sign languages, have also developed in the United States. Approximately 337 languages are spoken or signed by the population, of which 176 are indigenous to the area. Fifty-two languages formerly spoken in the country's territory are now extinct.
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds. Today hundreds of thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples. Historically the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the St. Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of peoples who speak Algonquian languages.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families, as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages.
Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made, such as in three macrofamilies of Eskimo–Aleut, Na-Dene, and Amerind. This scheme is rejected by nearly all specialists. According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous American languages in North America are critically endangered, and many are already extinct. The most widely spoken indigenous language is Southern Quechua, with about 6 to 7 million speakers, primarily in South America.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, while "Amerindian" is used in Guyana but not commonly used in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaskan Natives.
According to a prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The most recent migration could have taken place around 12,000 years ago, with the earliest period remaining a matter of some unresolved contention. These early Paleo-Indians soon spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation accounts.
The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least seventeen languages collectively occupying the Atlantic coast of North America and adjacent inland areas, from what are now known as the Canadian Maritime provinces to North Carolina. The available information about individual languages varies widely. Some are known only from one or two documents containing words and phrases collected by missionaries, explorers or settlers, and some documents contain fragmentary evidence about more than one language or dialect. Nearly all of the Eastern Algonquian languages are extinct. Mi'kmaq and Malecite-Passamaquoddy have appreciable numbers of speakers, while Western Abnaki and Delaware are each reported to have fewer than ten speakers post 2000.
Eastern Algonquian constitutes a separate genetic subgroup within Algonquian. Two other groups of Algonquian languages that are recognized, Plains Algonquian, and Central Algonquian; are geographic, and do not refer to genetic subgroupings.
Charles County is a county located in the southern central portion of the U.S. state of Maryland, and a part of the Washington Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 146,551. This county was named for Charles Calvert (1637–1715), third Baron Baltimore.
Approximately 4,103 Piscataway Indian Nation: 103
Piscataway-Conoy Tribe of Maryland: 3,500
The Piscataway are a subtribe of the Conoy Native American tribe of Maryland. At one time, they were one of the most populous and powerful Native polities of the Chesapeake Bay region. They spoke Algonquian Piscataway, a dialect of Nanticoke. Today three groups represent Piscataway descendants, the Piscataway Indian Nation and Tayac Territory, the Piscataway Conoy Tribe of Maryland, and the Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians. All three groups are located in Southern Maryland and have state recognition. None are federally recognized.
The Algonquian languages (// or //; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the indigenous Ojibwe language (Chippewa), which is a senior member of the Algonquian language family. The term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (pronounced [ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik]), "they are our relatives/allies". A number of Algonquian languages, like many of the Iroquoian languages of the hereditary enemies of the Algonquian peoples have already become extinct.
Speakers of Algonquian languages stretch from the east coast of North America to the Rocky Mountains. The proto-language from which all of the languages of the family descend, Proto-Algonquian, was spoken around 2,500 to 3,000 years ago. There is no scholarly consensus as to the territory where this language was spoken.
Piscataway is an extinct Algonquian language formerly spoken by the Piscataway, a dominant chiefdom on the Western Shore of Chesapeake Bay, in present-day Maryland, United States. Piscataway, also known as Conoy (from the Iroquois ethnonym for the tribe), is considered a dialect of Nanticoke.
This designation is based on the scant evidence available for the Piscataway language. The Doeg tribe, then located in present-day Northern Virginia, are also thought to have spoken a form of the same language. These dialects were intermediate between the Native American groups of Lenape languages formerly spoken to the north of this area (in present-day Delaware and New Jersey) and the Powhatan language, formerly spoken to the south, in what is now Tidewater Virginia.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. As permitted by the U.S. Constitution, the District is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and is therefore not a part of any U.S. state.
The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the preexisting settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia in 1846 and created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District in 1871.