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American Restoration is an American reality television series airing on the History channel. Produced by Leftfield Pictures, the series is recorded in Las Vegas, Nevada, where it chronicles the daily activities at Rick's Restorations, an antique restoration shop, with its owner Rick Dale, his staff, and teenage son, as they restore various vintage items to their original condition. The show is the first spin-off of Pawn Stars, in which Dale has appeared several times as an on-camera expert and restored various items. The series has featured cameo appearances by the cast of Pawn Stars, American Pickers, magician Lance Burton, NASCAR driver Greg Biffle, and musicians Sammy Hagar, Billy Joel, and Jason Mraz. The series focuses on Rick's Restorations, a company owned and operated by Las Vegas area metal artist and antique restoration expert Rick Dale, who has been restoring various vintage items for almost 30 years. Dale and his company first appeared on the History reality television series Pawn Stars, in that show's first season episode "Time Machines," and in nine subsequent episodes in which he restored numerous decades-old items for the Harrisons (owners of the Gold and Silver Pawn Shop where Pawn Stars takes place), including vending machines, gas pumps, barber chairs, motorcycles, and jukeboxes. Up to the May 16, 2012 episode ("Sticky Fingers"), the opening title sequence featured Dale alluding to the vintage era from which most of the items he restores originate: Beginning with the June 6, 2012 episode ("Dirt Bike Duels"), a new intro was used, in which Rick talks about his business and his family, spotlighting himself, his son Tyler, brother Ron, and stepson Brettly: In addition, a new feature, "Rick's Tips", was added preceding the second commercial break, in which Rick poses a question related to restoration, similar to the trivia question feature on Pawn Stars. According to Dale, who claims to emphasize a great attention to detail in his work, his shop typically works on 6 - 12 projects at any given time. Although he and his staff restore the items brought in by customers themselves, they are shown consulting other merchants and experts for parts, and calling in freelance employees, such as Bob, a metalworker, when their workload requires it. In addition to items brought in by customers, Dale will also purchase items himself to restore from pickers, such as the toy train he purchases in "Buttered Up." The range of services offered by Rick's Restorations is limited by financial concerns. Although Dale has a positive view of his staff's abilities, he observes that they are sometimes difficult to manage, in particular his younger brother, Ron. The series' second season premiered on April 15, 2011 at 10pm ET/PT with back-to-back episodes. This series is seen outside the US on most local versions of the History channel, usually under its international title, Kings of Restoration. In some countries such as Canada (History Canada) in the United Kingdom (History UK), and in the Philippines GMA News TV (dubbed in Filipino) the series is broadcast using the same American Restoration title as the History channel in the US.
Pawn Stars is an American reality television series, shown on History, and produced by Leftfield Pictures. The series is filmed in Las Vegas, Nevada, where it chronicles the daily activities at the World Famous Gold & Silver Pawn Shop, a 24-hour family business opened in 1989 and operated by patriarch Richard "Old Man" Harrison, his son Rick Harrison, Rick's son Corey "Big Hoss" Harrison, and Corey's childhood friend, Austin "Chumlee" Russell. The show, which became the network's highest rated show, and the No. 2 reality show behind Jersey Shore, debuted on July 26, 2009. Reruns can be seen on History as well as its sister network Lifetime, which added the show in December 2010. The series depicts the staff's interactions with customers, who bring in a variety of artifacts to sell or pawn and who are shown haggling over the price and discussing its historical background, with narration provided by the Harrisons and occasionally Chumlee. The series also follows the interpersonal conflicts among the cast. One reviewer referencing these conflicts described the show as a version of Antiques Roadshow "hijacked by American Chopper's" Teutul family. TV Guide has offered a similar description, calling the show "one part Antiques Roadshow, a pinch of LA Ink and a dash of COPS". Numerous local experts in a variety of fields also regularly appear to appraise the items being sold or pawned, two of whom having gone on to their own spinoff programs. Antique restorer/metal artist Rick Dale is the star of the series' first spin-off, American Restoration, which premiered in October 2010, and mechanic/auto restoration expert Danny "The Count" Koker stars in the third spinoff, Counting Cars, which debuted August 13, 2012. Cameo appearances have been made by Bob Dylan, Jeremy McKinnon, Meredith Vieira, the Oak Ridge Boys, George Stephanopoulos, Matt Kenseth, Steve Carell, Kip Winger and Roger Daltrey. Pawn Stars began with Brent Montgomery and Colby Gaines of Leftfield Pictures, who were struck by the array of eclectic and somewhat seedy pawn shops in Las Vegas during a 2008 weekend visit to the city. Thinking such shops might contain unique characters, they searched for a family-run shop on which to center a TV series, until they found the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop less than two miles from the Las Vegas Strip, whose manager, Rick Harrison, had been trying unsuccessfully to pitch a show based on his shop for four years, and who had been featured in the Las Vegas episode of Insomniac with Dave Attell in 2003. The series was originally pitched to HBO, though the network preferred the series to have been a Taxicab Confessions-style series taking place at the Gold & Silver's night window. The format eventually evolved into the now-familiar family-oriented motif used on the series. History president Nancy Dubuc, who had been charged with creating programming with a more populist appeal to balance out the network's in-depth military programming, picked up the series, which was initially titled Pawning History, before a staffer at Leftfield suggested that Pawn Stars would fit better with the locale. The network concurred, believing that name to be more pleasing and easily remembered. The staffer adjusted its storyline in order to bring it in line with the network's brand, which included the on-camera experts appraising the items brought into the Gold & Silver, though she did not discourage the interpersonal conflicts among the show's stars. The series is filmed on location at the World Famous Gold & Silver Pawn Shop in Las Vegas, Nevada. Although jewelry is the most commonly pawned item at the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop, most of the customers featured in episodes bring in a variety of vintage or antique items to the store, which has 12,000 items in its inventory as of July 2011 (5,000 of which are typically held on pawn). Each episode consists of segments devoted to approximately five or six of these items, in which either Harrison, his son, Corey, or Harrison's father Richard (known as the "Old Man"), explain the history behind the object. Whoever is evaluating the object goes over potential value with the customer, interspersed with an interview in which he explains the basis of his decision to the viewer. A price tag graphic at the bottom corner of the screen provides the ever-changing dollar amount as the two haggle over the item's price. When the Harrisons are unable to evaluate an object, they consult with a knowledgeable expert who can evaluate it to determine its authenticity and potential value, and in the case of items needing repair, the cost of restoration. Following that, they are shown haggling over the price with the customer. On occasion, Rick will purchase items in need of restoration before determining its restoration costs, thus taking a risk on such costs. Interpersonal narratives focusing on the relationship and conflicts among Harrison, Corey, the Old Man, and Corey's childhood friend, Austin "Chumlee" Russell, who also works at the shop, are also shown. These usually pertain to arguments over the running of the shop, the elder Harrisons questioning Corey's judgment, and aspersions cast on Chumlee's intelligence and competence. Before the second commercial break, a multiple choice trivia question related to the shop and its inventory, the cast members or one of the featured items is shown, with the answer provided after the break. In addition to spawning imitators, such as the truTV series Hardcore Pawn, the success of Pawn Stars has been a boon to the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop, which has become a Las Vegas tourist site, and has expanded its business accordingly. Originally averaging between 70 and 100 customers per day, the shop's traffic increased to more than 1,000 by October 2010. To handle the increased business, the shop hired nearly 30 new employees, and underwent a $400,000 expansion of their showroom by two thirds, to 15,000 square feet, the shop's tenth expansion since it opened. Rick Harrison also mentioned in the fourth season episode "Over the Top" that he was building a gym above the Pawn Shop for the staff's use. The shop also now sells its own brand merchandise, whose designs originate from fans entering design competitions on Facebook, which saves the Harrisons the cost of hiring professional designers. The staff's presence on Facebook and Twitter also ensures audiences during local nightclub appearances, for which Corey Harrison and Chumlee Russell are paid $1,000 a night. As a result of filming at the shop, however, the four main cast members no longer work the counter, due to laws that require the identity of customers pawning items to remain confidential, and the tourists and fans taking photos and video in the showroom that would preclude this. When shooting episodes of the series, the shop is temporarily closed, with only a handful of customers allowed into the showroom. In July 2011, Harrison signed a record-breaking 80-episode renewal contract for four more seasons of the series. After being broadcast during its first four years on Mondays at 10PM ET, the program moved to Thursday nights at 9PM ET on May 30, 2013, replacing Swamp People, which moved an hour later to 10PM ET. The program also received a new opening and theme song, "Winning isn't Everything", performed by Lynyrd Skynyrd. In June 2013, the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop opened an "Express Pawn" counter; this part of the shop, with its own entrance and even its own sign, allows the shop to continue conducting business when the main area of the store is closed for filming, or at times when the store is congested with tourist traffic. Professional specialists are sometimes called in by the pawn shop to determine the authenticity and value of the items brought in and, in some cases, to restore them. The following is a list of recurring experts who have appeared in two or more episodes. By January 2011, Pawn Stars was History's highest-rated series. An original episode broadcast on January 24, 2011 was watched by seven million viewers, the most-watched telecast ever on History, according to the network and Nielsen Media Research. In 2011 it was the second highest-rated reality series on TV behind Jersey Shore, attracting 7.6 million viewers. Christopher Long, reviewing the first season DVD for DVD Town, praised the series for its cast and the educational value of the items examined, calling it "addictive" and "a big-time winner", and opined that it is the best show on History and perhaps cable. In one issue of TV Guide, writer Rob Moynihan included the show in a list of "guilty pleasures." April McIntyre of Monsters and Critics, whose negative view of pawn shops influenced her view of the series' setting, reviewed one episode of the series, which she labeled a "cool Antiques Roadshow". Though she found aspects of it interesting, she criticized what she perceived as an emphasis on cheap laughs at the expense of family patriarch Richard Harrison over the show's historical material, as well as Corey Harrison's weight. She ultimately saw potential for the series if aspects of it that she found to be in poor taste were curbed. USA Today's Gary Strauss opined that the bickering among the Harrisons, as well as the customers seen in the shop, is "alternately amusing and grating". People magazine wrote of the show, "Think Antiques Roadshow, but with neon and far more tattoos." Some of History's viewers were reportedly displeased with how reality series like Pawn Stars and Swamp People have replaced some of the network's previous history-oriented programming. The series has also attracted some criticism from other pawnbrokers, who while conceding its entertainment value, claim that the series' focus on the extravagant vintage items brought into the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop are not typical of the average pawn shop, whose business is predicated on individuals on fixed income who bring in conventional objects in order to pay their bills, such as electronics, tools and jewelry. Corey Grigson and Charles Brown, who own a shop called Pawn Stars, estimate that their average loan to a customer is between $50 and $100. They also point out appraisals are handled by the staff, who rely on experience, reference works and research, and not the outside experts who are frequently seen on the show aiding the Harrisons. The success of the series has also lent itself to parody. At the June 2011 NHL Awards in Las Vegas, the Hanson Brothers from the movie Slap Shot appeared in a spoof sketch in which they try to sell the Stanley Cup to Harrison at the Gold & Silver. In 2010 Rick Harrison and the staff of the Gold and Silver Pawn Shop were awarded the Pawnbroker of the Year Award by the National Pawnbrokers Association for bringing the industry greater recognition and a better image with the TV show. On July 17, 2012, the Clark County Commission declared that day to be "Pawn Stars/Gold & Silver Pawn Day". At the Commission meeting, Richard "The Old Man" Harrison donated $1,000 to the Clark County Museum, and lent the U.S. Senate floor chair used by Senator Patrick McCarran (sold to the Gold and Silver in the Pawn Stars episode "Take a Seat") to the museum as part of a display on Senator McCarran. In October 2012, A+E Networks and the History channel, as well as cast members from the show, were sued in Clark County District Court in Las Vegas for interference with business practices by Wayne Jefferies, a Las Vegas promoter and the Harrisons' manager, who represented them and "Chumlee" Russell in their television business dealings. Jefferies, who was instrumental in helping to launch the series, states that after the show premiered, his influence in the show was increasingly reduced, and he was ultimately fired and left without his promised share of fees and merchandising royalties from the series. Jefferies states that this occurred after a January 2012 leaked story on TMZ that indicated that the Pawn Stars cast was taken aback by the History Channel's launch of the spinoff Cajun Pawn Stars, of which the cast had been unaware. Following the success of Pawn Stars, Leftfield Pictures created three spinoffs of Pawn Stars for History which are airing with another in the process. In addition, Leftfield created four similar series that follow the same format as Pawn Stars: In 2011, History launched Pawn Stars: The Game for play on Facebook. In June 2011, Rick Harrison's autobiography, License to Pawn: Deals, Steals, and My Life at the Gold & Silver, was published by Hyperion Books. Harrison's autobiography details his childhood, some of the troubles he faced before he got into the pawning business, as well as anecdotes from his time at the Gold & Silver. Also, The Old Man, Corey, and Chumlee have their own chapters in the book, reflecting on their life and experiences at the pawn shop. In October 2011, the Redwood Hills Financial Group issued the Modern Cash Prepaid MasterCard Limited Edition: Gold & Silver Pawn Shop prepaid debit card, in a special tie-in with the Gold and Silver Pawn Shop. On September 5, 2012, it was announced that Bally Technologies would unveil a new slot machine featuring the cast of Pawn Stars the following month at the 2012 Global Gaming Expo. which took place October 2 to 4, 2012 in Las Vegas.
The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend, which is typically the last weekend in May. It is contested as part of the IZOD IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, a open-wheel formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing." The event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered one of the three most prestigious motorsports events in the world. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, and infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to approximately 300,000. The inaugural running was won by Ray Harroun in 1911. The 97th running was held in 2013. Tony Kanaan is the defending champion. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, a 2.5 mile oval circuit. The race consists of 200 laps, run counterclockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles. The race is always held on Memorial Day weekend. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece. The event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2012, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6 turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower (410–520 kW). The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, and one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been considered to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world. In addition, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway complex was built in 1909 as a gravel-and-tar track and hosted a smattering of small events, including ones for motorcycles. The first long distance event, in "fearful conditions", was the 100-lap Prest-O-Lite Trophy in 1909, won by Bob Burman in a Buick. Breakup of the asphalt led to two fatal accidents in the first two long-distance events (a 250 mi (400 km) and 300 mi (480 km), which was shortened to 235 mi (378 km) after two severe wrecks). That these spectacles had attracted 15,000 paying customers (and crowds of up to 40,000) persuaded principal owner Carl G. Fisher to spend US$155,000 on repaving the track with 3.2 million bricks; he also added a 2 ft 9 in (0.84 m) concrete wall around the track's circumference. During the 1910 Memorial Day weekend, the first events on the newly paved circuit drew 60,000 spectators; Ray Harroun won the 200 mi (320 km) Wheeler-Schebler Trophy in a Marmon. The crowds grew progressively smaller for the rest of the season, however, so the track owners chose to focus on a single race. They considered a 24-hour contest, in the fashion of Le Mans, or a 1,000 mi (1,600 km). They instead chose a 500 mi (800 km) contest, and offered a spectacular $US25,000 (Fr1.25 million, about ₤5250) purse. The combination allowed the track to rapidly acquire a privileged status for automobile races. The first "500" was held at the Speedway on Memorial Day, May 30, 1911, run to a 600 cu in (9,800 cc) maximum engine size formula. It saw a field of 40 starters, with Harroun piloting a Marmon Model 32-based Wasp racer — outfitted with his invention, the rear view mirror. Harroun (with relief from Cyrus Patschke) was declared the winner, although Ralph Mulford protested the official result. 80,000 spectators were in attendance, and an annual tradition had been established. Many considered Harroun to be a hazard during the race, as he was the only driver in the race driving without a riding mechanic, who checked the oil pressure and let the driver know when traffic was coming. In 1912, the purse was raised to US$50,000. The field was limited to 33 (where it remains) and a riding mechanic was made mandatory. This second event was won by Joe Dawson in a National, after Ralph de Palma's Mercedes broke. Although the first race was won by an American driver at the wheel of an American car, European makers such as the Italian Fiat or French Peugeot companies soon developed their own vehicles to try to win the event, which they did from 1912 to 1919. The 1913 event saw a change to a 450 cu in (7,400 cc) maximum engine size. After World War I, the native drivers and manufacturers regained their dominance of the race. Engineer Harry Miller set himself up as the most competitive of the post-war builders. His technical developments allowed him to be indirectly connected to a history of success that would last into the mid-1970s. In 1946 American operatic tenor and car enthusiast James Melton started the tradition of singing "(Back Home Again in) Indiana" before the race when asked to do so on the spur of the moment by Speedway president Tony Hulman. This continued through the years, notably by actor and singer Jim Nabors since 1972. Following the European trends, engine sizes were limited to 183 cu in (3,000 cc) during 1920-2, 122 cu in (2,000 cc) for 1923-5, and 91 cu in (1,490 cc) in 1926-9. The 1920 race was won by Gaston Chevrolet in a Frontenac, prepared by his brothers, powered by the first eight-cylinder engine to win the 500. For 1923, riding mechanics were no longer required. A supercharged car, ID, first won the race in 1924. In 1925, Pete DePaolo was the first to win at an average over 100 mph (160 km/h), with a speed of 101.13 mph (162.75 km/h). In the early 1920s, Miller built his own 3.0 litre (183 in³) engine, inspired by the Peugeot Grand Prix engine which had been serviced in his shop by Fred Offenhauser in 1914, installing it in Jimmy Murphy's Duesenberg and allowing him to win the 1922 edition of the race. Miller then created his own automobiles, which shared the 'Miller' designation, which, in turn, were powered by supercharged versions of his 2.0 and 1.5 liter (122 and 91 in³) engine single-seaters, winning four more races for the engine up to 1929 (two of them, 1926 and 1928, in Miller chassis). The engines powered another seven winners until 1938 (two of them, 1930 and 1932, in Miller chassis), then ran at first with stock-type motors before later being adjusted to the international 3.0 liter formula. After purchasing the Speedway in 1927, Eddie Rickenbacker prohibited supercharging and increased the displacement limit to 366 cu in (6,000 cc), while also re-introducing the riding mechanic. In 1935, Miller's former employees, Fred Offenhauser and Leo Goosen, had already achieved their first win with the soon-to-become famous 4-cylinder Offenhauser or "Offy" engine. This motor was forever connected with the Brickyard's history with a to-date record total of 27 wins, in both naturally aspirated and supercharged form, and winning a likewise record-holding 18 consecutive years between 1947 and 1964. Meanwhile, European manufacturers, gone from the Indianapolis 500 for nearly two decades, made a brief return just before World War II, with the competitive Maserati 8CM allowing Wilbur Shaw to become the first driver to win consecutively at Indianapolis in 1939-1940. With the 500 having been a part of the Formula One World Drivers' Championship between 1950 and 1960, Ferrari made a discreet appearance at the 1952 event with Alberto Ascari, but European entries were few and far between during those days. In fact, it was not until the Indianapolis 500 was removed from the Formula One calendar that European entries made their return, with Australian Jack Brabham driving his slightly modified F1 Cooper in the 1961 race. In 1963, technical innovator Colin Chapman brought his Team Lotus to Indianapolis for the first time, attracted by the large monetary prizes, far bigger than the usual at a European event. Racing a mid-engined car, Scotsman Jim Clark was second in his first attempt in 1963, dominating in 1964 until suffering suspension failure on lap 47, and completely dominating the race in 1965, a victory which also interrupted the success of the Offy, and offering the 4.2 litre Ford V8 its first success at the race. The following year, 1966, saw another British win, this time Graham Hill in a Lola-Ford. Offenhauser too would join forces with a European maker, McLaren, obtaining three wins for the chassis, one with the Penske team in 1972 with driver Mark Donohue, and two for the McLaren works team in 1974 and 1976 with Johnny Rutherford. This was also the last time the Offy would win a race, its competitiveness steadily decreasing until its final appearance in 1983. American drivers kept on filling the majority of entries at the Brickyard for the following years, but European technology had taken over. Starting in 1978, most chassis and engines were European, with the only American-based chassis to win during the CART era being the Wildcat and Galmer (which was actually built in Bicester, England) in 1982 and 1992 respectively. Ford and Chevrolet engines were built in the UK by Cosworth and Ilmor, respectively. After foreign cars became the norm, foreign drivers began competing in the Indianapolis 500 on a regular basis, choosing the United States as their primary base for their motor racing activities. Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi, Italian Teo Fabi and Colombian Roberto Guerrero, were able to obtain good outings in the 80s, as did Dutchman Arie Luyendyk. However, it wasn't until 1993 that reigning Formula One World Champion Nigel Mansell shocked the racing world by moving to the United States, winning the CART PPG IndyCar World Series Championship and only losing the 500 in his rookie year because of inexperience with green-flag restarts. Foreign-born drivers became a regular fixture of Indianapolis in the years to follow. Despite the increase in foreign drivers commonly being associated with the CART era, it should be noted that four of the first six Indianapolis 500 winners were non-US drivers. The race was originally advertised as the "International 500-Mile Sweepstakes Race" from 1911 to 1916. However, from its inception, the race has been widely known as the Indianapolis 500 or, more simply as "the 500." In 1919, the race was referred to as the "Liberty Sweepstakes" following WWI. From 1920 to 1980, the race officially reverted to the "International Sweepstakes" moniker, as printed on the tickets, with slight variations over the years. Following WWII, the race was commonly recognized as "The 500", "The 500-Mile Race", "Indianapolis 500-Mile Race", "Indianapolis 500," or "Indy 500," and usually the ordinal (e.g. "50th") preceded it. Often the race was also advertised on the radio as the "Annual Memorial Day race," or similar variations. For the 1981 race, the name "65th Indianapolis 500-Mile Race" was officially adopted, with all references as the "International Sweepstakes" dropped. Since 1981, the race has been advertised in this fashion, complete with a unique annual logo and the ordinal always included. Around that same time, in the wake of the 1979 race entry controversy, and the formation of CART, the race changed to an invitational event, rather than an Open, rendering the "sweepstakes" description invalid. Since its inception, the race has eschewed any sort of naming rights or title sponsor, a move, though uncommon in the modern sports world, has been well received by fans. While the facility has numerous sponsor billboards around the grounds, including some controversial ads on the retaining walls in 2012, the Speedway has preferred to feature a contingent of several prominent official race sponsors rather than one primary title sponsor. In the 21st century on television, the race broadcast has been advertised with a title sponsor. Currently on ABC-TV, the race is referred to as the Indianapolis 500 Telecast Presented by, but this appears only on the U.S. telecasts, and mention of the sponsor is not visible for patrons at the track. The Borg-Warner Trophy, introduced in 1936, proclaims the event as the "Indianapolis 500-Mile Race," with no reference at all to the name "International Sweepstakes." In 2009, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway began a three-year long "Centennial Era" to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the opening of the track (1909), and the 100th anniversary of the first Indy 500 (1911). As a gesture to the nostalgic Centennial Era celebration (2009–2011), tickets for the 2009 race donned the moniker "93rd 500 Mile International Sweepstakes." It is the first time since 1980 that the "Sweepstakes" title has been used. During the month of May 2009, the ordinal (93rd) was used very sparingly, and for the first time since 1981, was not identified on the annual logo. Instead, in most instances in print, television, and radio, the race was referred to as the "2009 Indianapolis 500." Since the race was not held during WWI and WWII, the advertised Centennial Era occurred during the 93rd/94th/95th runnings. To avoid confusion between the 100th anniversary, and the actual number of times the race has been run, references to the ordinal during the Centennial Era were curtailed. Female participation of any sort at Indianapolis was discouraged and essentially banned throughout the first several decades of competition. As such, female reporters were not even allowed in the pit area until 1971. There have been nine female drivers to qualify, starting with Janet Guthrie in 1977. Sarah Fisher has competed eight times, the most of any female. Danica Patrick led 19 laps in the 2005 race and 10 laps in the 2011 race, the only times a female has led laps during the race. Her third place finish in 2009 is the best finish for a woman. From 1911 to 1955, the race was organized under the auspices of the AAA Contest Board. Following the 1955 Le Mans disaster, AAA dissolved the Contest Board to concentrate on its membership program aimed at the general motoring public. Speedway owner Tony Hulman founded USAC in 1956, which took over sanctioning of the race and the sport of Indy car racing. From 1950 to 1960, the Indianapolis 500 also counted toward the FIA's World Championship of Drivers (now synonymous with Formula One), although few drivers participated in the other races of that series. Control issues of monetary prizes and regulation amendments caused conflict in the 1970s. Soon after the death of Tony Hulman in 1977, and the loss of several key USAC officials in a 1978 plane crash, several key team owners banded together and formed CART in late 1978 to sanction the sport of Indy car racing. The Indy 500 itself, however, remained under the sanctioning control of USAC. It became the lone top-level race the body still sanctioned, as it ultimately dropped all other Indy car races (as well as their stock car division) to concentrate on sprints and midgets. For the next three years, the race was not officially recognized on the CART calendar, but the CART teams and drivers comprised the field. By 1983, an agreement was made for the USAC-sanctioned Indy 500 to be reflected on the CART calendar, and CART points were awarded towards the championship. Despite the CART/USAC divide, from 1983 to 1995 the race was run in relative harmony. CART and USAC occasionally quarreled over relatively minor technical regulations, but utilized the same machines and the CART-based teams and driver comprised the bulk of the Indy 500 entries each year. In 1994, Speedway owner Tony George announced plans for a new series, to be called the Indy Racing League. The Indy 500 would serve as its centerpiece. Opinions varied on his motivations, with his supporters sharing his disapproval of the race's lack of status within CART, the increasing number of foreign drivers (as American drivers were gravitating towards NASCAR), and the decreasing number of ovals in the season series. Detractors accused George of throwing his weight around and using the race as leverage to gain complete control of the sport of open wheel racing. In 1995 and in response to a change in schedule by the CART series that put several races in direct conflict with Indy Racing League events, George announced that 25 of the 33 starting positions at the 1996 Indy 500 would be reserved for the top 25 cars in IRL points standings (similar in practice to NASCAR's Top 35 rule introduced years later). The move effectively left only eight starting positions open to the CART-regulars that chose not to participate in the IRL races. CART's reaction was to refuse to compromise on the schedule conflicts, skip the IRL races required to accumulate the qualifying points, boycott the race, and stage a competing event, the U.S. 500, on the same day. Veteran Buddy Lazier won a competitive but crash-filled 1996 Indy 500. Two CART teams, Walker Racing and Galles Racing, competed in the Indianapolis 500 to fulfill sponsor obligations and were welcomed without incident. The U.S. 500 was marred by a massive opening-lap pileup. The competing U.S. 500 failed to establish itself as a major event, and was cancelled after only one running. For 1997, new rules for less expensive cars and "production based" engines were put into place. The move made it such that the IRL and CART utilized different and incompatible equipment. No CART-based teams would enter the Indy 500 for the next three years. In 2000, Target Chip Ganassi Racing, still a CART-mainstay, made the decision to cross lines and compete at Indianapolis with drivers Jimmy Vasser and Juan Pablo Montoya. On race day, Montoya dominated the event, leading 167 of the 200 laps to victory. In 2001, Penske Racing returned, and won the race with driver Hélio Castroneves. By 2003, Ganassi, Penske and Andretti Green all defected to the IRL permanently. CART went bankrupt later in the year, and its rights and infrastructure were purchased by remaining car owners, and it became the Champ Car World Series. The two series continued to operate separately through 2007. In early 2008, the two series were unified to create a single open wheel championship after a 12-year split being run under Indy Racing League/IMS control—known as the IndyCar Series. In 2011, the sanctioning body was renamed IndyCar. The 2012 race was the return of Turbocharged engines for the first time since 1996 with the use of the Dallara DW12 chassis and 2.2 L V-6 single turbo and twin turbocharged engines.][ In the 1960s and early 1970s, the Indy 500 and the World 600 at Charlotte Motor Speedway were held on different days of the week. A handful of NASCAR regulars participated in both events in the same year, including Bobby Allison, Donnie Allison, Cale Yarborough, and Lee Roy Yarbrough. From 1974-1992, the two events were scheduled for the same day and same starting time, making participation in both impossible. A few stock car drivers during that time, namely Neil Bonnett in 1979, nevertheless still attempted to qualify at Indy, even if that meant skipping Charlotte altogether. From 1994 to 2004, several NASCAR drivers were able to compete in both the Indy 500 and the Coca-Cola 600 at Charlotte in the same day. Since 1993, the Coca-Cola 600 has been scheduled in the evening the same day as the Indy 500. The effort has been known as "Double Duty." At the conclusion of the Indy 500, drivers would catch a helicopter directly from the Speedway to the Indianapolis International Airport. From there they would fly to Concord Regional Airport, and ride a helicopter to the NASCAR race. John Andretti, Tony Stewart, and Robby Gordon, attempted the feat. In 2001, Tony Stewart became the only driver to complete the full race distance (1100 miles) in both races on the same day. For 2005, the start of Indianapolis was pushed back to 1 p.m. EDT to improve television ratings. This significantly closed the window for a driver to be able to race both events in the same day. (The race's original starting time had been set at 11 a.m. EST - 12 noon EDT - because in 1911, race promoters estimated it would take six hours to complete the event, and they did not want the race to finish too close to suppertime. Nowadays the race is routinely completed in under three and one-half hours.) Two drivers, Mario Andretti and A. J. Foyt, have won the Indianapolis 500 and the Daytona 500. Both also won the 24 Hours of Daytona and 12 Hours of Sebring, America's premier endurance races. Indianapolis 500 winner Johnny Rutherford once won one of the Daytona 500 qualifying races. In 2010, Bruton Smith (owner of Speedway Motorsports, Inc.), offered $ 20,000,000 to any driver, IndyCar or NASCAR, who can win both the Indianapolis 500 and the Coca-Cola 600 on the same day starting in 2011 - a feat that has never been done before. For 2011, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway moved the start time of the Indy 500 back to 12 noon EDT, which re-opened the window for travel. However, no drivers have yet stepped forward to attempt the double duty. Brad Keselowski has suggested that he may answer the challenge in 2014. Technical specifications for the Indianapolis 500 are currently specified by IndyCar. Rules are the same as every other IndyCar race except for special low-drag adjustable "Speedway" wings that are only used for the Indy 500. In the past, especially during the years when USAC sanctioned the race but CART was the dominant sanctioning body, rules between the race and the sanctioning body differed at times, resulting in chassis and engines being legal for Indy, yet not being legal for other events that season. The most famous manifestation of that disparity was the Ilmor-built Mercedes-Benz 500I engine fielded by Roger Penske in 1994. Teams may enter up to two machines under a given car number - the "primary" car and a "backup" car. The backup car is identified by the letter "T". For example the two cars for the #2 team would be numbered #2 and #2T. Both cars may be practiced during the month, but due to engine lease rules, they must share the same engine. It is not uncommon for teams to prefer their backup car, if it is deemed faster, or for other strategic reasons. Additionally, as the month wears on, a "T car" may be split off into its own entry, and re-assigned a new number, or be sold to another team. All cars must pass a rigorous technical inspection before receiving a sticker signifying that the car is eligible to practice. Various criteria includes minimum weight, dimensions, and approved parts, particularly safety equipment. Prior to and following qualification attempts, cars must pass another inspection. The first inspection is focused on safety aspects while the second is largely to detect deviations from the performance guidelines set forth by the league. For more information, see Indianapolis 500 pole-sitters Throughout the years the race has used a number of qualifying procedures. The current four-lap (ten-mile) qualifying distance was first introduced in 1920, and has been used every year since 1939. Drivers line up by speed rank in the order of the day they qualified. For several decades, four days of time trials were scheduled: the Saturday & Sunday two weeks before the race, and the Saturday & Sunday one week before the race. From 1998—2000 and from 2010—present, two days of qualifying, the Saturday and Sunday one week before the race, are scheduled for qualifications. The fastest qualifier on the first day of time trials (nicknamed "Pole day") wins the highly coveted pole position. Drivers who qualify on the second day of time trials (nicknamed "Bump day") line up behind the first-day qualifiers - even if their speeds are faster than those from the first day. Once the field is filled to 33, the slowest car, regardless of the day it qualified, is "on the bubble." If another car qualifies faster, he/she will bump the slowest driver out of the field. Since 2010, the qualifications have been held over two days, and include a special "shootout" session for the pole position. On each qualifying day, the session will begin at Noon local time. Each car will in a predetermined random order make their first qualifying attempt. (Teams have the option of passing on this first attempt and making their first attempt later in the day, however track conditions will get progressively worse throughout the day, meaning teams are better off making their first attempt as early as possible in the day.) Teams will then have until 4:00 PM local time on Pole Day and 6:00 PM local time on Bump Day/During the Fast 9 Shootout to make up to two additional attempts, but if they choose to do so they forfeit their previous time. (Cars need only take the track by 4:00 PM/6:00 PM for their run.) For each attempt, cars get one out-lap followed by one warm-up lap. At that time, a member of the team (usually the team owner) must wave a green flag, signaling an attempt, or else the car will be waived off. The attempt can be waived off during any of the four laps by the team, driver, or IndyCar. (The series will waive off the run if it is obvious the run will not be fast enough to qualify and it is getting late in the day.) If an attempt is waived off after the run starts, the attempt counts towards the 3-attempt limit & the previous time is still forfeited. Many people promote and share information about the Indianapolis 500 and its memorabilia collecting. The National Indy 500 Collectors Club is an independent active organization that has been dedicated to support such activities. The organization was established January 1, 1985 in Indianapolis by its founder John Blazier and includes an experienced membership available for discussion and advice on Indy 500 memorabilia trading and Indy 500 questions in general. The longest-running Indy racing memorabilia show is the National Auto Racing Memorabilia Show.][ The Indianapolis 500 has been the subject of several films, and has experienced countless references in television, movies, and other media. Indianapolis 500 Legends, a Wii and DS game based on the race was released on December 18, 2007. Louis Meyer requested a glass of buttermilk after winning his second Indy 500 race in 1933. After winning his third title in 1936, he requested another glass but instead received a bottle. He was captured by a photographer in the act of swigging from the bottle while holding up three fingers to signify the third win. A local dairy company executive recognized the marketing opportunity in the image and, being unaware Meyer was drinking buttermilk, offered a bottle of milk to the winners of future races. Milk has been presented each year since then apart from 1947 to 1955. Modern drivers are offered a choice of whole, 2%, and skim. At the 1993 Indianapolis 500, winner Emerson Fittipaldi, who owned and operated an orange grove, notoriously drank orange juice instead of milk following the win. He eventually relented and also drank milk later in the post-race ceremonies. The race has been broadcast live on the radio in its entirety by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network since 1953. The Hulmans were somewhat resistant to allow television coverage of the 500. It was televised live from 1949 to 1950 on WFBM-TV (now WRTV). During parts of the 1960s and '70s the race was broadcast live on closed-circuit TV for viewing in theaters and sports venues. From 1965 to 1985, ABC broadcast the race via tape delay. Since 1986, ABC has televised the race live in its entirety. However, at the request of the Speedway, Indianapolis ABC affiliate WRTV blacks out the live broadcast and airs it on tape delay in prime time to encourage local race attendance. In 2007, the race was first broadcast in HD. Terry Reed. Indy: The Race and Ritual of the Indianapolis 500. 2nd ed. Potomac Books, Inc.; 2005. ISBN 978-1-57488-907-9.
In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind a pawn of the same color on an adjacent file and that cannot be advanced without loss of material, usually the backward pawn itself. In the diagram, the black pawn on the c6-square is backward.
Backward pawns are usually a positional disadvantage, since they are difficult to defend. Also, the opponent can place a piece, usually a knight, on the hole in front of the pawn without any risk of a pawn driving it away. The backward pawn also prevents the black rooks and queen on the same file from attacking the piece placed on the hole. If the backward pawn is on a half-open file, as in this case, the disadvantage is even greater, as the pawn can be attacked more easily by an opponent's rook or queen on the c-file. Pieces can become weak when they are devoted to protecting a backward pawn, since their obligation to defend the pawn keeps them from being deployed for other uses. Modern opening theory features several openings in which one of the players deliberately incurs a backward pawn in exchange for some other advantage such as the initiative or better development. An excellent example is the Sveshnikov Variation of the Sicilian Defence. After the moves 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 (or 4...e5!? 5.Nb5 d6 – Kalashnikov Variation) 5. Nc3 e5!? 6. Ndb5 d6 (see diagram), Black has a backward pawn on d6, but White now has to endure a displacement of his knights and an undermining of his center after 7. Bg5 a6 8. Na3 b5 9. Bxf6 gxf6! 10. Nd5 (dodging the threatened pawn-fork of the knights) 10... f5! (or 10...Bg7 11.c3 [facilitating the knight on a3 to return to the center by the route Na3–c2–e3] 11...f5!) 11. c3 Bg7, etc.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie. Usually, in tournaments a draw is worth a half point to each player, while a win is worth one point to the victor and none to the loser. For the most part, a draw occurs when it appears that neither side will win. Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move has no legal move and is not in check), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no capture or pawn move). A draw also occurs when neither player has sufficient material to checkmate the opponent or when no sequence of legal moves can lead to checkmate. Unless specific tournament rules forbid it, players may agree to a draw at any time. Ethical considerations may make a draw uncustomary in situations where at least one player has a reasonable chance of winning. For example, a draw could be called after a move or two, but this would likely be thought unsporting. Until 1867, tournament games that were drawn were replayed. The Paris tournament of 1867 had so many drawn games to be replayed that it caused organisational problems. In 1868 the British Chess Association decided to award each player a half point instead of replaying the game (Sunnucks 1970:100).
The rules allow for several types of draws: stalemate, the threefold repetition of a position (with the same player to move), if there has been no capture or a pawn being moved in the last fifty moves, if checkmate is impossible, or if the players agree to a draw. In games played under time control, a draw may result under additional conditions (Schiller 2003:26–29). A stalemate is an automatic draw, as is a draw because of insufficient material to checkmate. A draw by threefold repetition or the fifty-move rule may be claimed by one of the players with the arbiter (normally using his score sheet), and claiming it is optional. A claim of a draw first counts as an offer of a draw, and the opponent may accept the draw without the arbiter examining the claim. Once a claim or draw offer has been made, it cannot be withdrawn. If the claim is verified or the draw offer accepted, the game is over. Otherwise, the offer or claim is nullified and the game continues; the draw offer is no longer in effect. An offer of a draw should be made after a player makes a move but before he presses his game clock. A player may decline the offer of a draw. The other player also declines the offer if he makes a move, and the draw offer is no longer in effect. Article 5 of the FIDE Laws of Chess gives the ways a game may end in a draw, and they are detailed in Article 9: (Schiller 2003:26–29). It is popularly considered that perpetual check – where one player gives a series of checks from which the other player cannot escape – is a draw, but in fact there is no longer a specific rule for this in the laws of chess, because any perpetual check situation will eventually be claimable as a draw under the threefold repetition rule or by the fifty-move rule, or (more likely) by agreement (Hooper & Whyld 1992). By 1965 perpetual check was no longer in the official rules (Harkness 1967). Although these are the laws as laid down by FIDE and, as such, are used at almost all top-level tournaments, at lower levels different rules may operate, particularly with regard to rapid play finish provisions. In games played with a time control, there are other ways a draw can occur (Schiller 2003:29), (Just & Burg 2003). In chess games played at the top level, a draw is the most common outcome of a game: of around 22,000 games published in The Week in Chess played between 1999 and 2002 by players with a FIDE Elo rating of 2500 or above, 55 percent were draws. Roughly 36 percent of games between top computer chess programs are draws (more than are won by White or won by Black). Yuri Averbakh gives these combinations for the weaker side to draw: Andy Soltis discusses the vagueness of the terms "draw", "drawish", "drawable", "book draw", "easy draw", and "dead draw". In books and chess theory a position is considered to be a draw if best play leads to a draw – the difficulty of the defence is not taken into account. Soltis calls these positions "drawable". For instance, under that criteria the rook and bishop versus rook endgame is usually a theoretical draw or "book draw", but the side with the bishop often wins in practice. In this position from an actual game, the only move to draw is 124. Rf8! White actually played 124. Rd8?? and lost (Soltis 2010:12–13).
In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. Since pawns are the least mobile of the chess pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and thus largely determines the strategic nature of the position.
Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated, doubled or backward pawns and holes, once created, are usually permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid them (but there are exceptions — for instance see Boleslavsky hole below). In the absence of these structural weaknesses, it is not possible to classify a pawn formation as good or bad — much depends on the positions of the pieces. However, the pawn formation does determine the overall strategies of the players to a large extent, even if arising from unrelated openings. Pawn formations symmetrical about a vertical line (such as the e5 Chain and the d5 Chain) can be deceptively similar, but they tend to have entirely different characteristics because of the propensity of the kings to castle on the kingside. Pawn structures often transpose into one another, such as the Isolani into the Hanging Pawns and vice versa. Such transpositions must be considered carefully and often mark shifts in game strategy. Andrew Soltis, in his book Pawn Structure Chess, classifies the major pawn formations into 16 categories, discussed below. It is to be noted that for a formation to fall into a particular category, it need not have a pawn position identical to the corresponding diagram, but only close enough that the character of the game and the major themes are unchanged. It is typically the center pawns whose position influences the nature of the game the most. Structures with mutually attacking pawns are said to have tension. They are ordinarily unstable and tend to transpose into a stable formation with a pawn push or exchange. Play often revolves around making the transposition happen under favorable circumstances. For instance, in the Queen's Gambit Declined, Black waits until White develops the king's bishop to make the d5xc4 capture, transposing to the Slav formation (see below). Openings: Primary: Caro-Kann. Other: French, Scandinavian, QGD. Character: Slow-paced game. Themes for White: Outpost on e5, kingside space advantage, d4-d5 break, possibility of queenside majority in the endgame (typically after the exchange of White's d pawn for Black's c pawn). Themes for Black: Weakness of the d4 pawn, c6-c5 and e6-e5 breaks. The latter break is usually preferable, but harder for Black to achieve. Openings: Primary: Slav. Other: Catalan, Grunfeld, Colle system (with colors reversed). Character: Slow-paced game. Themes for White: Pressure on the c file, weakness of Black's c pawn (either after Black's b7-b5 or after d4-d5xc6 in response to e6-e5), the d4-d5 break. Themes for Black: e6-e5 and c6-c5 breaks. Openings: Primary: Sicilian (Najdorf, Richter-Rauzer and Sozin variations), Sicilian Scheveningen, and several other Sicilian variations. Character: Complex, dynamic, sharp middlegame. Themes for White: Pressure on the d file, space advantage, e4-e5 break (often prepared with f2-f4), f2-f4-f5 push, g2-g4-g5 blitz (see Keres attack). Themes for Black: Pressure on the c file, minority attack (and counterplay in general) on the queenside, pressure on White's pawn on e4 or e5, d6-d5 break, e6-e5 transposing into the Boleslavsky hole (see below). It is often unwise for White to exchange a piece on c6 allowing the recapture bxc6, because the phalanx of Black's center pawns becomes very strong. Openings: Primary: Sicilian Dragon. Other: English Opening (with colours reversed). Character: Either a razor sharp middlegame with opposite side castling or a moderately sharp game with same side castling. The Sicilian Dragon requires a high level of opening memorization to play properly. This is especially true when it comes to the Yugoslav Attack in which White plays the moves Be3, f3, Qd2 and 0-0-0. Other variations are: The Classical Dragon where White plays Be2 and 0-0; The Tal attack is defined by Bc4 and 0-0, and the Fianchetto Defense where White plays g3, Bg2 and 0-0. These less common variations lead to less tactical positions, with a potentially technical endgame. Themes for White: Outpost on d5, kingside attack (either f2-f4-f5 with kingside castling or h2-h4-h5) with queenside castling, weakness of Black's queenside minority (of pawns) in the endgame. Themes for Black: Pressure on the long diagonal, queenside counterplay, exploiting White's often overextended kingside pawns in the endgame. Openings: Primary: Sicilian. Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: Nd4-c2-e3, Fianchettoing one or both Bishops, the Maróczy hop (Nc3-d5 followed by e4xd5 with terrific pressure on the e-file), kingside attack, c4-c5 and e4-e5 breaks. Themes for Black: b7-b5 break, f7-f5 break (especially with a fianchettoed King bishop), d6-d5 break (prepared with e7-e6). The Maróczy bind, named after Géza Maróczy, has a fearsome reputation. Chess masters once believed that allowing the bind as Black always gave White a significant advantage. Indeed, if Black does not quickly make a pawn break, his pieces will suffocate to death. Conversely, the formation takes time to set up and limits the activity of White's light-squared bishop, which can buy Black some breathing room to accomplish this break. Openings: Primary: English Opening (symmetrical), Sicilian. Character: Closed, Semi-open game. The Hedgehog is a formation similar to the Maróczy bind, and shares the strategic ideas with that formation. Openings: Primary: Sicilian Najdorf, Classical, Sveshnikov, Kalashnikov. Other: Sicilian O'Kelly (2... a6). Character: Open, dynamic game. Themes for White: taking control the d5 hole, exploiting the backward d6 pawn, f2-f4 break. Themes for Black: d6-d5 break, queenside minority attack, the c4 square. It is a paradoxical idea that Black can strive for equality by voluntarily creating a hole on d5. The entire game revolves around control of the d5 square. Black must play very carefully or White will place a knight on d5 and obtain a commanding positional advantage. Black almost always equalizes, and might even obtain a slight edge, if the d6-d5 break can be made. Black has two options for his queen bishop: on e6 and on b7 (after a7-a6 and b7-b5). Unusually for an open formation, bishops become inferior to knights because of the overarching importance of d5: White will often exchange Bg5xf6, and Black usually prefers to give up his queen bishop rather than a knight in exchange for a white knight if it gets to d5. When white castles queenside, Black often delays castling because his king is quite safe in the center. Openings: Primary: King's Indian. Other – Benoni, Ruy Lopez (Spanish). Character: Closed game with opposite side activity. Themes for White: Massive queenside space advantage, c2-c4-c5 break (optionally prepared with b2-b4), prophylaxis with g2-g4 (after f2-f3), f2-f4 break. Themes for Black: kingside attack, f7-f5 break, g7-g5-g4 break (after f2-f3), c7-c6 break, prophylaxis with c6-c5 or c7-c5 transposing to a Full Benoni formation. The chain arises from a variety of openings but most commonly in the heavily analyzed King's Indian Classical variation. The theme is a race for a breakthrough on opposite flanks – Black must try to whip up a kingside attack before White's heavy pieces penetrate with devastating effect on the c file. The position was thought to strongly favour White until a seminal game (Taimanov-Najdorf 1953) where Black introduced the maneuver Rf8-f7, Bg7-f8, Rf7-g7. When the chain arises in the Ruy Lopez, play is much slower with tempo being of little value and featuring piece maneuvering by both sides, Black focusing on the c7-c6 break and White often trying to play on the kingside with the f2-f4 break. Openings: Primary: French. Character: Closed/semi-open but sharp game. Themes for White: kingside mating attack, f2-f4-f5 break. Themes for Black: Exchanging the hemmed-in QB, c7-c5 and f7-f6 breaks. Due to White's kingside space advantage and development advantage, Black must generate counterplay or be mated. Novices often lose to the sparkling Greek gift sacrifice. Attacking the head of the pawn chain with f7-f6 is seen as frequently as attacking its base, because it is harder for white to defend the head of the chain than in the d5 chain. In response to exf6, Black accepts a backward e6 pawn in exchange for freeing his position (the b8-h2 diagonal and the semi-open f-file) and the possibility of a further e6-e5 break. If White exchanges with d4xc5 it is called the Wedge formation. White gets an outpost on d4 and the possibility of exploiting the dark squares while Black gets an overextended e5 pawn to work on. Openings: Primary: King's Indian, Old Indian (colors reversed), Ruy Lopez. Other: Ruy Lopez (colors reversed). The notation in the rest of this section refers to the colors reversed version. Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: d6 weakness, c4-c5 push, a3-f8 diagonal, queenside pawn storm. Themes for Black: d4 weakness, a1-h8 diagonal, f4 square, kingside attack, trading pieces for a superior endgame. The Rauzer formation is named after Rauzer who introduced it in the Ruy Lopez. It can also rarely occur in the Ruy Lopez with colors reversed. It is considered to give Black excellent chances because d6 is much less of a hole than White's d4. If the black king's bishop is fianchettoed it is common to see it undeveloped to f8 to control the vital c5 and d6 squares, or remove White's dark-squared bishop, the guardian of the hole. The Rauzer formation is often misjudged by beginners. In the position on the left, White appears to have a development lead while Black's position appears to be riddled with holes. In reality, it is Black who stands clearly better, because White has no real way to improve his position while Black can improve by exploiting the d4 square (see complete game on Java (Applet) board). Openings: Primary: King's Indian. Other: English, Pirc, Ruy Lopez. Character: Semi-open game, slow buildup. Themes for White: exploitation of d6 weakness, e4-e5 and c4-c5 breaks, minority attack with b2-b4-b5. Themes for Black: attacking the e4 and c4 pawns, d6-d5 and f7-f5 breaks, queenside play with a7-a5-a4. The wall is yet another structure that leaves Black with a d-pawn weakness, but prevents White from taking control of the center and gives Black active piece play and an opportunity to play on either side of the board. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit. Other: French. Character: Open game. Themes for White: d4-d5 break, sacrifice of the isolani, outpost on e5, kingside attack. Themes for Black: Blockading the isolani, trading pieces for a favorable endgame. The isolani leads to lively play revolving around the d5 square. If Black can clamp down on the pawn, her positional strengths and threat of exchanges give her the advantage. If not, the threat of the d4-d5 break is ever present, and the isolani can sometimes be sacrificed to unleash the potential of White's pieces, enabling White to whip up a whirlwind attack. Kasparov is famous for the speculative d4-d5 sacrifice. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined. Other: Queen's Indian Defense. Character: Open game. Themes for White: Line opening advance in the center, kingside attack. Themes for Black: Forcing a pawn advance and blockading the pair, conversion to isolani. Like the isolani, the hanging pawns are a structural weakness and must not be entered into unless the piece position offers some compensation. The play revolves around Black trying to force one of the pawns to advance. If Black can establish a permanent blockade the game is positionally won. On the other hand, White aims to keep the pawns hanging, trying to generate a kingside attack leveraging off of their superior center control. Other themes for White include tactical possibilities and line opening breaks in the center. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined. Other: Caro-Kann (colors reversed). Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: Minority attack, e3-e4 break. Themes for Black: e4 outpost, kingside attack. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined, Caro-Kann. Other: Alekhine Defense, QGD Tarrasch Defense (colors reversed). Character: Semi-open, dynamic game. Themes for White: Exploiting the dark squares, queenside majority in the endgame, with an advanced pawn. Themes for Black: e4 outpost, kingside attack, White's overextended pawn, e6-e5 and b7-b5 breaks. Openings: Primary: Dutch Defense. Other: Colle system, English. Character: Closed game, uncomplicated strategy. Themes: Exchanging the bad bishop, e4/e5 outposts, breaks on the c and g files. Players must carefully consider how to recapture on the e4/e5 square, since it alters the symmetric pawn formation and creates strategic subtleties. This structure also appears in one of Botvinnik's treatments of the English. Adding the typical White fianchetto of the king's bishop to this structure provides significant pressure along the long diagonal, and usually prepares the f2-f4-f5 break. Openings: Primary: Closed Sicilian, Closed English (colors reversed). Character: Closed, complicated position. Themes for White: kingside pawn storm, c2-c3 and d3-d4 break. Themes for Black: queenside pawn storm, a1-h8 diagonal
In chess, a passed pawn is a pawn with no opposing pawns to prevent it from advancing to the eighth rank; i.e. there are no opposing pawns in front of it on the same file nor on an adjacent file. A passed pawn is sometimes colloquially called a passer. Passed pawns can be an advantage because only the opponent's pieces can prevent them from promoting. In the diagram at right, the white pawns on b5, c4, and e5 are passed pawns. Black's pawn on d4 is a passed pawn. If Black plays fxg4, then Black will also have a passed pawn on g4, and White will have a passed pawn on f4.
A passed pawn that is protected by its own pawns is called a protected passed pawn. In the first diagram in this article, the pawns on the b and e files are protected passed pawns. Two or more passed pawns on adjacent files are called connected passed pawns (see connected pawns), and they are very strong. In the diagram at the top, White's b and c pawns are connected passed pawns. A pair of connected passed pawns is sometimes called a steamroller. It is often strategically advantageous for the side with connected passed pawns to place them on the same rank and then advance them in tandem, because this makes them more difficult to blockade. Sometimes, minor pieces are sacrificed so that a pawn can have a clear path to promotion on the eighth rank. In the example at the right (Botvinnik versus Capablanca, AVRO 1938), in order to capitalize on the passed pawn on e6 and break its blockade by Black's queen, White continued 30. Ba3! Qxa3 31. Nh5+! gxh5 32. Qg5+ Kf8 33. Qxf6+ guaranteeing the e-pawn's promotion. The passed pawn's value is well worth the sacrifice of both the knight and bishop because it clears the path of the black queen and knight. The only pieces preventing the e-pawn's promotion are the black queen and knight, and once they are gone, the e-pawn has a free path to promotion because Black's pawns are helpless to stop it. Had there been a black pawn on the seventh rank that challenges the advancement of the e-pawn, it could have stopped the progress of the white pawn. An outside passed pawn is a passed pawn that is on or near the left or right edge of the board, and is separated by a number of files from the rest of the pawns. Such a pawn often constitutes a strong advantage for its owner because the opposing king does not have the range to cover both sides of the board. In the position on the right from the fifth game of the 1971 Candidates match between Bobby Fischer and Bent Larsen, the outside passed pawn on the a-file confers White a winning advantage, even though material is equal. The pawn will force Black's king to keep it from queening, leaving White's king free to capture Black's remaining pawns and win the game. White wins with: An outside passed pawn is also powerful in an endgame with minor pieces. It is not so powerful in an endgame with rooks if the opposing rook can get behind the pawn (diagram), as in the Tarrasch rule (Müller & Pajeken 2008:40–41), (Levenfish & Smyslov 1971:157). Passed pawns are particularly important, often of decisive significance, in the endgame. The position at left provides a dramatic example of this. White has no passed pawns and seems to be in desperate straits, since Black's king will soon attack White's pawns with ...Kg4. In fact, White by means of a sacrificial combination creates a passed pawn and wins: 1. g6! fxg6 (or 1...hxg6 2.f6! gxf6 3.h6!) 2. h6! gxh6 3. f6! and White's newly created passed pawn will queen. If it is Black's move, he must avoid this combination by playing 1... g6! (not 1...f6 2.h6!, nor 1...h6 2.f6!). Since passed pawns have no opposing pawns to stop them, the threat of queening often forces the opponent to use a piece to block or capture the pawn, wasting valuable time and immobilizing material or possibly even losing it (as when a defender of the blocking piece is forced to move). Indeed, the value of a far-advanced passed pawn or pawn group is often equal to or even greater than that of a piece. Four examples of this are seen in the diagram at right. In the upper-left quadrant of the board, White's connected passed pawns on the sixth rank are superior to Black's rook. Even if on move, Black cannot stop one of White's pawns from queening. Similarly, in the upper-right quadrant, Black's bishop cannot hold back both of White's pawns. White queens a pawn after 1. f7 (1.h7 also works) Bxf7 2. h7 followed by 3. h8=Q. In the lower-left quadrant, White's queen cannot stop Black's pawn from queening without stalemating Black. The lower-right quadrant highlights how awkward a knight is in dealing with a passed pawn, especially a rook pawn. White's knight is actually worse than useless in trying to stop Black's pawn. It cannot do so itself, and if White's king (which could catch the pawn if the knight were not there) approaches with 1. Kf2 (hoping for 1...hxg2? 2.Kxg2), Black plays 1... h2! and 2... h1=Q. A striking (albeit very unusual) example of the power of passed pawns is seen in the position at left, the conclusion of an endgame study by Leopold Mitrofanov. Black, with a queen, bishop, and knight, is helpless against White's two passed pawns, which threaten both 10.b7# and 10.c8=Q+ Bb8 11.b7#.
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In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board.

The line between middlegame and endgame is often not clear, and may occur gradually or with the quick exchange of a few pairs of pieces. The endgame, however, tends to have different characteristics from the middlegame, and the players have correspondingly different strategic concerns. In particular, pawns become more important as endgames often revolve around attempting to promote a pawn by advancing it to the eighth rank. The king, which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate, becomes a strong piece in the endgame. It can be brought to the center of the board and be a useful attacking piece.

The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases, especially the opening and endgame. Those who write about chess theory, who are often but not necessarily also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians".

"Opening theory" commonly refers to consensus, broadly represented by current literature on the openings. "Endgame theory" consists of statements regarding specific positions, or positions of a similar type, though there are few universally applicable principles. "Middlegame theory" often refers to maxims or principles applicable to the middlegame. The modern trend, however, is to assign paramount importance to analysis of the specific position at hand rather than to general principles.

In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.

Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.


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