Soils are the product of climate, organisms and topography, acting on parent (geologic) material over time. Thus the great diversity of geologic materials, geomorphic processes, climatic conditions, biotic assemblages and land surface ages in the United States is responsible for the presence of an enormous variety of mineral and organic soils. (Most of the mineral soils contain significant quantities of organic matter, but not enough to qualify for classification as organic soils.) The inorganic particles of different mineral soils vary greatly in size distribution, often as a result of transport and deposition of the parent material from which the soil is formed. Examples include loess (wind-deposited silt), dune sands, alluvial (river-deposited) sands and silts, and glacial till (which may include substantial amounts of clay, silt, sand, gravel and larger particles). Compared with sands (0.05 to 2 mm in diameter), silts (0.002 to 0.05 mm in diameter) have a very much larger specific surface (i.e. particle surface area per unit mass). At the surface of a particle, weathering processes occur. If the particle contains potential plant nutrients in mineral form, such processes result in release of the nutrients in readily available, ionic form. Thus, high specific surface is a major reason why silty soils tend to be relatively fertile. Clay particles are finer than silt, being less than 0.002 mm in diameter. Water retention tends to be greater in the finer-textured soils. If a fine-textured soil is well aggregated (with aggregates consisting of numerous organic and inorganic particles bonded together), the large pores between aggregates will facilitate drainage and aeration. (In contrast, drainage and aeration can be poor in poorly aggregated fine-textured soils in which nearly all of the pore space consists of fine pores.) Drainage is usually good and trafficability is usually superior in the coarser-textured soils. While some of the clay in a soil may have been inherited in the parent material, older soils might contain a significant amount of clay formed by weathering processes during soil formation. Soils with a high concentration of clay and organic matter tend to have considerable net negative electrical charge, conferring ability to retain many plant nutrient cations (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NH4+), readily available to plants by ion exchange. Plant nutrients are also released from soil organic matter by decomposition, and organic matter is particularly significant as the major form in which soil nitrogen is stored. Organic matter contributes to aggregation and water-retention properties of soil. Soil chemical composition reflects not only the original geologic materials (e.g. limestone, granite, basalt), but also soil-forming processes since deposition. In much of the northern US, soil formation commenced either shortly after glacial retreat at the end of the last Ice Age, or even more recently. Elsewhere in the US, one may find some older land surfaces where soil formation has occurred over a much longer period, in addition to some young soils.
San Jose (/ /; Spanish: St. Joseph) is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the United States, and the county seat of Santa Clara County. San Jose is the largest city within Silicon Valley, which is a major component of the greater San Francisco Bay Area. It is the largest city in Northern California.
San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town in the Spanish colony of Nueva California. The city served as a farming community to support Spanish military installations at San Francisco and Monterey. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose served as its first capital.
Covering an area of 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2), California is geographically diverse. The Sierra Nevada, the fertile farmlands of the Central Valley, and the arid Mojave Desert of the south are some of the major geographic features of this U.S. state. It is home to some of the world's most exceptional trees: the tallest (coast redwood), most massive (Giant Sequoia), and oldest (bristlecone pine). It is also home to both the highest (Mt. Whitney) and lowest (Death Valley) points in the 48 contiguous states.
The state is generally divided into Northern and Southern California, although the boundary between the two is not well defined. San Francisco is decidedly a Northern California city and Los Angeles likewise a Southern California one, but areas in between do not often share their confidence in geographic identity. The US Geological Survey defines the geographic center of the state at a point near North Fork, California.
The United States is a country in the Northern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere, and the Eastern Hemisphere. It consists of forty-eight contiguous states in North America, Alaska, a peninsula which forms the northwestern most part of North America, and Hawaii, an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. There are several United States territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. The term "United States", when used in the geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The country shares land borders with Canada and Mexico and maritime (water) borders with Russia, Cuba, and the Bahamas in addition to Canada and Mexico.
Crimson and White
The Alabama Crimson Tide football team represents the University of Alabama (variously Alabama, UA, or 'Bama) in the sport of American football. The Crimson Tide competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) and the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The Crimson Tide is among the most storied and decorated programs in NCAA history. Since beginning play in 1892, the program recognizes 15 of the national championships awarded to the team, including 10 wire-service (AP or Coaches) national titles in the poll-era, the most of any current FBS program. From 1958 to 1982, the team was led by Hall of Fame coach Paul "Bear" Bryant, who won six national championships with the program. Despite numerous national and conference championships, it was not until 2009 that an Alabama player received a Heisman Trophy, when running back Mark Ingram became the university's first winner.
The Bama Boyz (a.k.a. the Bamaz) are a Grammy-nominated, Dove Award-winning, American record production, songwriting, and artist trio, consisting of Eddie “E-Trez” Smith III, Jesse J. Rankins, Jonathan D. Wells. Professionally producing and songwriting since 2003, the Bama Boyz have accumulated a diverse range of music credits, ranging from genres such as Electro, R&B, Pop, hiphop, urban gospel, dance, and Latin pop to soundtracks/theme music for films, television shows, commercials, toy lines, and books. They are now known as Watch The Duck.
Eddie, Jesse, and Jonathan all grew up in Montgomery, Alabama, in the same neighborhood of Woodley Park. Jesse and Eddie both played in the percussion section of the symphonic band at Baldwin Jr. High School. Jonathan and Eddie both played in the percussion section of the marching band at Sidney Lanier High School. Even though the trio knew each other from the neighborhood, band, and school, they never created music as a trio until the summer of 2000. By fall 2001, Eddie, Jesse, and Jonathan were all attending Alabama A&M University where they became known for throwing parties on and off campus, creating funny television commercials to advertise their parties, and creating a popular school song and dance.
After the worst decade in the history of Alabama football, Paul Bryant took the Tide to its greatest successes to date. From 1961 to 1966 Alabama won four SEC championships, three national championships (in 1961, 1964, and 1965), and enjoyed winning streaks of 19 and 17 games. Alabama participated in a bowl game every season. However, the end of the decade saw a slight decline into mediocrity.
Bear Bryant's third team at Alabama was better than his second, which was better than his first. The 1960 team went 8–1–2, which was the best record for any Alabama team since the 1952 team went 10–2 and played in the Orange Bowl. Highlights of the season included a victory over defending SEC champion Georgia and a 3–0 win over Auburn in the Iron Bowl. After trailing Georgia Tech 15–0 at the half, Bama rallied to win 16–15 on a field goal as time expired. However, Alabama lost 20–7 to Tennessee, a team they had not beaten since 1954, and that loss cost Bama a share of the conference title in 1960. Alabama played Texas to a 3–3 tie in the Bluebonnet Bowl.
The geology of Alabama is marked by abundant geologic resources and a variety of geologic structures from folded mountains in the north to sandy beaches along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Alabama spans three continental geologic provinces as defined by the United States Geological Survey, the Atlantic Plain, Appalachian Highlands, and Interior Plains. The Geological Survey of Alabama breaks these provinces down into more specific physiographic provinces.