What time does the Alabama football team play today and who do they play?


Alabama plays San Jose State tonight at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Kickoff is at 6:00 p.m. CT.

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The Quad is an approximately 22-acre (8.9 ha) quadrangle on the campus of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Home to most of the university's original buildings, this portion of the campus remains the geographic and historic center of the modern campus. Originally designed by noted English-born architect William Nichols, construction of the university campus began in 1828, following the move of the Alabama state capital from Cahaba to Tuscaloosa in 1826. The overall design for this early version of the campus was patterned after Thomas Jefferson's plan for the University of Virginia, with its Lawn and Rotunda. Following the destruction of the campus during the American Civil War, a new Quad emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Different in form and function from the original design of the early 19th century, the modern Quad continues to fill its role as the heart of the campus. Although completely surrounded by academic and administrative buildings, only five structures are built directly on the Quad: the Little Round House, Tuomey Hall, Oliver-Barnard Hall, Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library, and Denny Chimes. The remainder of the space is occupied by a grove of trees on the west side and a great lawn on the east. A feature on the northwestern side, known as The Mound, is the site of the old Franklin Hall. A popular gathering place, the Quad is home to pep rallies, a bonfire during homecoming, and numerous day-to-day student activities. The Old Quad was rectangular and designed along a north-south axis. By the time of the university's destruction in 1865, the quadrangle featured the Lyceum at the center of the northern side, the 70-foot (21 m) wide, 70-foot (21 m) high Rotunda at the very center of the quadrangle, and the President's Mansion at the center of the southern side. A primary lane ran from the Lyceum in the north, circled the rotunda, and continued on to the President's Mansion in the south. Lining this lane between the Lyceum and Rotunda were six dormitories, three on each side. Another lane ran east to west in front of the Lyceum. To the west of the Lyceum were at least two faculty houses and the Gorgas House, then used as a dining hall. To the east was a faculty house and, at some distance away from the Quad, the Alabama Corps of Cadets gunpowder magazine. The Lyceum was a two-story brick building with an Ionic portico, very similar in design to the Lyceum that Nichols built several years later at the University of Mississippi. It housed laboratories and classrooms. The Rotunda, completed in 1833, was a three-story brick structure surmounted by a dome and surrounded by a two-story colonnade of twenty-four Ionic columns. An auditorium, used for ceremonies and church services, occupied its first two floors. The third floor housed the university's 7,000-volume library and natural history collection. Near the northwest side of the Rotunda stood a guardhouse, now known as the Little Round House. It was the only structure on the Quad with a direct military purpose. Four of the dormitories were three-story brick buildings, Washington and Franklin halls on the west side of the Quad and Jefferson and Madison halls on the east. Two one-story frame buildings, Johnson and Lee halls, were built in 1863, one between Washington and Franklin and another between Jefferson and Madison. The Alabama Legislature converted the university over to the military system on February 23, 1860. This decision proved disastrous, as it turned the school into a military target during the Civil War. During the war the university became known as the "West Point of the Confederacy," sending roughly 200 cadets into the field each year. On April 3, 1865 Union Brigadier General John T. Croxton and 1500 cavalrymen approached Tuscaloosa with orders to destroy all targets of military value in the town. On April 4 Croxton sent Colonel Thomas M. Johnston and two hundred men to burn the university. In the midst of carrying out his orders, university faculty pleaded with Johnston to spare the Rotunda and its library. Johnston sent a message via courier to Croxton, asking if he might spare the building. Croxton replied “My orders leave me no discretion... My orders are to destroy all public buildings.” By the time that his men had completed their orders only seven university buildings remained: the Gorgas House, President's Mansion, Observatory (not on the Quad), the Little Round House, and a few faculty residences. Following the destruction of the campus, the university remained closed to students until 1871. When it reopened, it had a total enrollment of only 107 students. The first building to be built on the campus was Woods Hall, completed in 1868. It was built well north of the Quad, with bricks from the destroyed Quad buildings. The Quad itself did not become home to any new buildings until the 1880s, following the end of the Reconstruction era. Completed in 1884, Clark Hall was the first new structure facing the Quad. Built on the site of the Lyceum, the Gothic Revival-style building was designed as an all purpose building, with a library, chapel, and a public meeting room. It was followed by two additional Gothic Revival-style buildings, flanking it to the west and east: Manly Hall in 1885 and Garland Hall in 1888. They both were designed as multifunctional structures, with Garland housing the first Alabama Museum of Natural History. Two smaller Gothic Revival-style buildings, Tuomey and Oliver-Barnard halls were completed in 1889, directly on the Quad to the south of the Manly, Clark, and Garland grouping. The Quad was the first on-campus site for Alabama Crimson Tide football home games. The Tide played there from 1893 to 1914 before moving to Denny Field. The Quad came to be surrounded by academic buildings during a flurry of building activity in the early 20th century. From 1910 onward, all buildings facing the Quad would be built in the Classical Revival and Beaux-Arts styles. The first of this group was the Beaux-Arts-style Smith Hall, built in 1910 as the new home of the Alabama Museum of Natural History. Next was the Beaux-Arts-style Morgan Hall, built in 1911 as a compliment to Smith Hall. It initially housed the School of Law. Little Hall, in Classical-Revival-style, was built in 1915 to house a gymnasium. The adjoining Moore Hall was built in 1935 as an extension of Little and did not receive a name until 1975. The 1920s saw more building activity around the Quad than any other period since the initial construction of the university. It saw the construction of Nott Hall in 1922, Carmichael Hall in 1925, Lloyd and Farrah halls in 1927, Bidgood Hall in 1928, and Bibb Graves, Doster, and Reese Phifer halls in 1929. Denny Chimes, a 115-foot (35 m) campanile on the southern end of the Quad was also completed in 1929. The Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library was the last structure built directly on the Quad, on the site of the former Rotunda. The five-floor Classical Revival building was completed in 1939. Some of the foundation ruins of the Rotunda were preserved under the semi-circular plaza adjoining the front portico. In 1949 Gallalee Hall was built to house a new observatory. The last building constructed facing the Quad was the Rose Administration Building, completed in 1969. It was built on the site of the first incarnation of Julia Tutwiler Hall, a dormitory built in 1914 and demolished to make way for the new building.
Tuscaloosa ( ) is a city in and the seat of Tuscaloosa County in west central Alabama (in the southeastern United States). Located on the Black Warrior River, it is the fifth-largest city in Alabama, with an estimated population of 93,357 in 2012. Founded in 1819, the city was named after Tuskaloosa, the chieftain of a Muskogean-speaking people who battled and was defeated by Hernando de Soto in 1540 in the Battle of Mabila, and served as Alabama's capital city from 1826 to 1846. Tuscaloosa is the regional center of industry, commerce, healthcare, and education for the area of west-central Alabama known as West Alabama. It is the principal city of the Tuscaloosa Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Tuscaloosa, Hale and Pickens counties and has an estimated metro population in 2012 of 233,389. Tuscaloosa is also the home of the University of Alabama, Stillman College and Shelton State Community College. While the city attracted international attention when Mercedes-Benz announced it would build its first automotive assembly plant in North America in Tuscaloosa County, the University of Alabama remains the dominant economic and cultural engine in the city. The city has received many quality-of-life accolades. It was named one of the "50 Best Places to Launch a Small Business" in 2009 by Fortune Small Business, and one of the "100 Best Communities for Young People" by America’s Promise Alliance. It was named "The Most Liveable City in America" in 2011 by the U.S. Conference of Mayors. Tuscaloosa has been traditionally known as the "Druid City" because of the numerous water oaks planted in its downtown streets since the 1840s. City leaders adopted the moniker "The City of Champions" after the Alabama Crimson Tide football team won the BCS National Championship game in 2010, 2012, and again in 2013. In 2008, the City of Tuscaloosa hosted the USA Olympic Triathlon trials for the Beijing Games. Nearly 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians arrived in what today is referred to as the Deep South. Paleo-Indians in the South were hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna that became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. After thousands of years, the Paleo-Indians developed a rich and complex agricultural society. Archaeologists called these people the Mississippians of the Mississippian culture; they were Mound Builders. Their large earthworks, built for political and religious rituals and expressing their cosmology, still stand throughout the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, as well as their tributaries in the Southeast. Descendant Native American tribes include the Creek. Also among the historical tribes living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee, and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Koasati, and Mobile. In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States. He had gained popularity when he defeated the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, following victories in the War of 1812. He long proposed Indian removal to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, to make land available for European-American settlement. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. Instead, he aggressively pursued plans to move all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River. Following the Indian Removal Act, in 1832 the Creek National Council signed the Treaty of Cusseta, ceding their remaining lands east of the Mississippi to the U.S., and accepting relocation to the Indian Territory. Most Muscogee-speaking peoples were removed to Indian Territory during the Trail of Tears in 1834, although some remained behind. Some Muscogee in Alabama live near Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore (northeast of Mobile). The pace of white settlement in the Southeast increased greatly after the War of 1812. A small assortment of log cabins soon arose near the large Creek village at the fall line of the river, which the new settlers named in honor of the legendary Chief Tuskaloosa of a Muskogean-speaking tribe. In 1817, Alabama became a territory, and on December 13, 1819, the territorial legislature incorporated the town of Tuscaloosa, one day before Congress admitted Alabama to the Union as a state. From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa was the capital of Alabama. During this period, in 1831, the University of Alabama was established. The town's population and economy grew rapidly until the departure of the capital to Montgomery caused a rapid decline in population. Establishment of the Bryce State Hospital for the Insane in Tuscaloosa in the 1850s helped restore the city's fortunes. During the Civil War following Alabama's secession from the Union, several thousand men from Tuscaloosa fought in the Confederate armies. During the last weeks of the War, a brigade of Union troops raiding the city burned the campus of the university. The larger town was also damaged in the battle and shared fully in the South's economic sufferings which followed the defeat. In the 1890s the construction of a system of locks and dams on the Black Warrior River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers opened up an inexpensive link to the Gulf seaport of Mobile, stimulating especially the mining and metallurgical industries of the region. By the advent of the 20th century, the growth of the University of Alabama and the mental health-care facilities in the city, along with a strong national economy fueled a steady growth in Tuscaloosa which continued unabated for 100 years. On June 11, 1963, George Wallace, the governor of Alabama, stood in front of the Foster Auditorium entrance at The University of Alabama in what became known as the Stand in the Schoolhouse Door in an attempt to stop desegregation of that institution by the enrollment of two African-American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood; when confronted by US Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and federal marshals sent in by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Wallace stepped aside. President John F. Kennedy had called for the integration of the University of Alabama as well. Although Hood dropped out of school after two months, he subsequently returned and, in 1997, received his Ph.D. in philosophy. Malone persisted in her studies and became the first African American to graduate from the university. In 2000, the university granted her a doctorate of humane letters. Autherine Lucy's expulsion was rescinded in 1980, and she successfully re-enrolled and graduated with a master's degree in 1992. Later in his life, Wallace apologized for his opposition at that time to racial integration. In 2010, the university formally honored Lucy, Hood and Malone by rechristening the plaza in front of Foster Auditorium as Malone-Hood Plaza and erecting a clock tower – Autherine Lucy Clock Tower – in the plaza. Manufacturing plants of large firms such as Michelin and JVC located in town during the latter half of the 20th century. However, it was the announcement of the addition of the Mercedes facility in 1993 that best personified the new era of economic prosperity for Tuscaloosa. On April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa was hit by a 1.5 mi (2.4 km) wide EF4 tornado that resulted in 64 deaths, over 1500 injuries, and massive devastation. 44 of the fatalities were in Tuscaloosa alone, with the rest being in Birmingham and surrounding suburbs. Its top winds were estimated by the US National Weather Service at 190 mph (310 km/h). Officials at DCH Regional Medical alone reported treating more than 1000 injured people in the tornado aftermath. Officials reported dozens of unaccompanied minors being admitted for treatment at the hospital, raising questions about the possible loss of their parents. Several were taken to pediatric trauma wards, indicating serious injuries. Referring to the extent and severity of the damage, Mayor Walter Maddox stated that "we have neighborhoods that have been basically removed from the map." The same tornado later went on to cause major damage in the Birmingham area. The tornado was part of the larger April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak which affected large parts of the eastern United States. In the immediate aftermath of the tornado, thousands of rescue workers dug through the wreckage looking for survivors and recovering bodies. More than 450 were originally listed as missing in the post-disaster chaos, leading to fears that the death toll could skyrocket to the hundreds and skepticism about the relatively slow fatality figures with respect to the number of casualties. Rumors abounded about refrigerated trucks being brought to store unidentified remains and countless bodies at the bottom of area bodies of water. However, the fatality figure did not increase (in fact, it decreased) and most missing persons were later found to have survived. During this period, The Tuscaloosa News posted an on-line people finder to aid loved ones and friends in finding one another and to determine who was still missing. Two days after the storm, US president Barack Obama and Alabama governor Robert Bentley, and their spouses, Michelle Obama and Diane Bentley, respectively, accompanied Mayor Maddox on a tour of the damage and the recovery efforts, along with FEMA Administrator Craig Fugate and several Congressional dignitaries. Remarking about the scale and severity of the damage, Obama stated, "I've never seen devastation like this, it's heartbreaking" after touring the damaged areas. Obama pledged the full resources of the federal government toward aiding the recovery efforts Bentley—himself a Tuscaloosa native—pledged additional national guard troops. Tuscaloosa Mayor Walt Maddox announced that he was requesting 500 additional National Guard troops as well as calling for more volunteer aid workers and cadaver teams for the recovery of bodies in order to prevent the spread of disease. The New York Yankees organization contributed $500,000 to the American Red Cross and Salvation Army to aid in recovery efforts, and the Atlanta Braves organization donated $100,000. Actor Charlie Sheen visited the city to pay his respects on May 2 and donated supplies for relief efforts, along with several other actors, musicians and athletes. Due to the disaster, on August 6, 2011, the University of Alabama held a delayed graduation ceremony for the class of 2011 and awarded six students who died in the tornado posthumous degrees. The cable channel ESPN has also filmed a tribute in memory of the devastation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Tuscaloosa has a total area of 70.3 square miles (182 km2), of which 60.2 square miles (156 km2) is land and 10.1 square miles (26 km2) is water. Most water within the city limits is in Lake Tuscaloosa, which is entirely in the city limits, and the Black Warrior River. Tuscaloosa is located at (33.206540, −87.534607), approximately 60 miles (97 km) southwest of Birmingham. It lies on the fall line of the Black Warrior River approximately 311 kilometres (193 mi) upriver from the river's confluence with the Tombigbee River at Demopolis. Because of its location on the boundary between the Appalachian Highland and the Gulf Coastal Plain, the geography of the area around Tuscaloosa is diverse, varying from heavily forested hills to the northeast to a low-lying, marshy plain to the southwest. The six major areas of Tuscaloosa are: Typical of the Deep South, Tuscaloosa experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. The Gulf of Mexico heavily influences the climate by supplying the region with warm, moist air. During the fall, winter, and spring seasons, the interaction of this warm, moist air with cooler, drier air from the North along fronts create precipitation. These fronts usually move from west to east as they track along the jet stream. Notable exceptions occur during hurricane season where storms may move from due south to due north or even from east to west during land-falling hurricanes. The interaction between low- and high-pressure air masses is most pronounced during the severe weather seasons in the spring and fall. During the summer, the jet streams flows well to the north of the southeastern U.S., and most precipitation is consequently convectional, that is, caused by the warm surface heating the air above. Severe thunderstorms can bring damaging winds, large hail and occasionally tornadoes. A destructive F4 tornado struck Tuscaloosa County in December 2000, killing eleven people. Tuscaloosa City was struck by an F2 Tornado in January 1997 which resulted in the death of one person. In April 2011, two tornadoes in a span of twelve days hit the city, the first being an EF3 on April 15, and the second and more devastating being an EF4 on April 27, where over 50 fatalities occurred. According to Mayor Walter Maddox, considerable infrastructure damage was done to the city which will hamper recovery efforts. Winter lasts from mid-December to late-February; the daily average temperature in January is . On average, the low temperature falls to the freezing mark or below on 46 days a year, and to or below on 4.4 days. While rain is abundant (January and February are on average the wettest months), measurable snowfall is rare, with most years receiving none and the average seasonal snowfall amounting to 0.7 inches (1.8 cm). Spring usually lasts from late-February to mid-May, becoming drier as the season progresses. Summers last from mid-May to mid-September, and the July daily average temperature is . There are 71–72 days of + highs annually and 3.5 days of + highs. The latter part of summer tends to be drier. Autumn, which spans from mid-September to early-December, tends to be similar to spring in terms of temperature and precipitation. The highest recorded temperature at the Tuscaloosa Regional Airport was on July 29, 1952 & August 10, 2007, while the lowest recorded temperature was on January 21, 1985. As of the census of 2000 there were 77,906 people, 31,381 households, and 16,945 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,385.2 people per square mile (534.8/km²). There were 34,857 housing units at an average density of 619.8 per square mile (239.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 54.09% White, 42.73% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 0.87% from two or more races. 1.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 31,381 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.0% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.0% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 24.5% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,731, and the median income for a family was $41,753. Males had a median income of $31,614 versus $24,507 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,129. About 14.2% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over. The city of Tuscaloosa is home to many places of worship in which people from the surrounding area of West Alabama may come to worship, although largely Southern Baptist. Holy Spirit Roman Catholic Church is one of three Catholic Churches. First Presbyterian Church is the place of worship for many American and German residents in Tuscaloosa. Calvary Baptist Church, Emmanuel Baptist Church, and First African Baptist Church are three of the many Baptist churches in Tuscaloosa. Holy Cross Lutheran Church is a church reflecting on the Evangelical Lutheran community of Tuscaloosa. The University Church of Christ has both a campus ministry and a prison ministry. St. Gregory the Theologian Orthodox Church is the only Orthodox church in West Alabama. Its congregation is made up of Russians, Greeks, Romanians, Arabs, Eastern Europeans, and converts to Eastern Christianity. Some of the oldest churches in Tuscaloosa are St. John's Roman Catholic Church (founded c. 1845) and Christ Episcopal Church (c. 1828). Tuscaloosa is also home to many non-Christians as well. The Jewish community of Tuscaloosa worships at Temple Emanu-El and the Hillel B'nai B'rith Center, both located on the University of Alabama campus. The Hindu Mandir Temple and Cultural Center is also found in Tuscaloosa. Muslims comprise a small percentage and worship at the Mosque / Islamic center located near the University campus. Tuscaloosa has a strong-mayor variant mayor-council form of government, led by a mayor and a seven-member city council. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently for four-year terms. The mayor is elected by the city at-large while council members are elected to single-member districts. Neither the mayor nor the members of the city council is term-limited. All elected offices are nonpartisan. Elections take place on the fourth Tuesday of August in years following presidential election years, with run-off elections taking place six weeks later if necessary. Terms begin immediately after election. The most recent municipal elections were held in 2009. The mayor is the chief executive and administrative officer of the city. His main duty is to oversee the day-to-day operation of city departments pursuant to executing policy enacted by the city council or, in the absence of any council policy, his own discretion. His other duties include preparing an operating budget each year for approval by the city council and acting as ambassador of the city. The mayor also presides over city council meetings but votes only in case of ties. The current Mayor of Tuscaloosa is Walter Maddox, who was elected to office in September 2005. Prior to Maddox, Alvin A. DuPont had served as mayor for 24 years. The city council act as the legislative body of the city. It is powered by state law to consider policy and enact law and to make appoints to city boards. The council also considers the budget proposed by the mayor for approval. The majority of work in the council is done by committee. These committees usually consisting three council members, one of whom will be chairman, and relevant non-voting city employees. Tuscaloosa, as the largest county seat in western Alabama, serves a hub of state and federal government agencies. In addition to the customary offices associated with the county courthouse, namely two District Court Judges, six Circuit Court Judges, the District Attorney and the Public Defender, several Alabama state government agencies have regional offices in Tuscaloosa, such as the Alabama Department of Transportation and the Alabama State Troopers (the state police). Tuscaloosa is in the federal jurisdiction of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. There is a courthouse in Tuscaloosa simply called the Federal Courthouse. Several federal agencies operate bureaus out of the courthouse. Federally, Tuscaloosa is split between the 6th and 7th Congressional Districts, which are represented by Spencer Bachus (R) and Terri Sewell (D), respectively. In addition, Alabama's senior senator, Richard Shelby (R), is a resident of Tuscaloosa. Starting in 2013, the part of Tuscaloosa in the 6th Congressional District will shift to the 4th Congressional District, which is currently represented by Robert Aderholt (R). On the state level, the city is split among the 5th, 21st, and 24th Senate districts and 62nd, 63rd, and 70th House districts in the Alabama State Legislature. In December 2009, construction on the new federal courthouse of Tuscaloosa began. The $67 million building was the centerpiece of a major downtown urban renewal project. According to information released by the General Services Administration, the building will be 129,000 square feet (12,000 m2) with parking. It will house the U.S. District Court, U.S. Bankruptcy Court and Social Security Administration office. The Northern District of Alabama has only one facility suitable for holding a major criminal trial in Huntsville. However, Huntsville's lacks the facilities for safely moving criminal suspects in and out of the building safely. Tuscaloosa's new federal courthouse will anchor the federal structure for the whole Northern District of Alabama. Despite its image as a college town, Tuscaloosa boasts a diversified economy based on all sectors of manufacturing and service. Twenty-five percent of the labor force in the Tuscaloosa Metropolitan Statistical Area is employed by the federal, state, and local government agencies. 16.7% is employed in manufacturing; 16.4% in retail trade and transportation; 11.6% in finance, information, and private enterprise; 10.3% in mining and construction; and 9.2% in hospitality. Education and healthcare account for only 7.2% of the area workforce with the remainder employed in other services. Tuscaloosa was ranked in the November 2009 issue of Fortune Small Business as one of the "50 Best Places to Launch a Small Business" (ranked #11 among metro areas with populations of 250,000 or less). The city's industrial and manufacturing base includes BFGoodrich Tire Manufacturing, GAF Materials Corporation, Hunt Refining Company, JVC America, Nucor Steel and Phifer Wire among numerous other operations. Another significant contributor to the manufacturing segment of the city's economy is the Mercedes-Benz U.S. International assembly plant located on a site in Tuscaloosa County located near Vance approximately 20 miles (32 km) east of downtown. The plant began assembling the Mercedes-Benz M-Class in 1997 and the R-Class Grand Sport Tourer in 2005 and just recently began production with the GL-Class. Plants that supply components to Mercedes-Benz also make their home in Tuscaloosa and add to the economic strength of the city. The Westervelt Company, a land resources and wildlife management company has its headquarters in Tuscaloosa. The company was formerly the Gulf State Paper Corporation, with headquarters in Tuscaloosa from 1927 until 2005 when it sold its pulp and paperboard operations to the Rock-Tenn Company of Norcross, Georgia. Gulf States then restructured to form Westervelt. Health-care and education serve as the cornerstone of Tuscaloosa's service sector, which includes the University of Alabama, DCH Regional Medical Center, Bryce Hospital, the William D. Partlow Developmental Center, and the Tuscaloosa VA Medical Center. Tuscaloosa is home to two regional malls, University Mall and McFarland Mall; a lifestyle center, Midtown Village, which is anchored by Barnes and Noble and Best Buy; and numerous other shopping outlets, including Hillcrest Center, McFarland Plaza, Merchants Walk, South Plaza Shopping Center, Taylorville Corners, Downtown Business District, University Town Center, Skyland Plaza Shopping Center, Ridge Village Shopping Center, Parkview Plaza Shopping Center, Parkview Shopping Center, Alberta Plaza Shopping Center, Alberta Shopping Center, Alberta Park Shopping Center, Meadowbrook Shopping Center, The Shops at Lake Tuscaloosa, and many, many more. Wood Square Shopping Center, formerly located on McFarland Boulevard and 13th Street, was completely leveled by the April 27, 2011 EF4 tornado. University Mall and Midtown Village, which are located along McFarland Boulevard, anchor the core retail area of the city. Other retail properties in this area include McFarland Plaza (formerly known as Bama Mall), an open-air mall anchored by Stein Mart, Toys R Us, and Ross Dress For Less, Many other free standing stores and restaurants, most notably SuperTarget and Home Depot are located on the former east campus of Shelton State Community College. Other large retail areas in the city are located around the intersection of Skyland Boulevard and Alabama Highway 69/Interstate 359 (Lowe's, Academy Sports and Outdoors, K-Mart, Cobb Hollywood 16 Theatres) and around the intersection of McFarland Boulevard and Skyland Boulevard (McFarland Mall, Wal-Mart Supercenter, Sam's Club). As in many cities across the US, the downtown area used to be the main retail area of Tuscaloosa until the opening of McFarland and University malls about three miles from downtown. While efforts to restore the entertainment and cultural offerings downtown in recent years have paid off, a revival of the retail offerings has been less successful. Education is a vital component of the city as Tuscaloosa is home to several colleges and schools. The University of Alabama is the dominant institution of higher learning and is the largest university in the state of Alabama in terms of enrollment. Enrolling approximately 33,602 students on an 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) campus, UA has been a part of Tuscaloosa's identity since it opened its doors in 1831. Stillman College, which opened in 1875, is a historically black liberal arts college enrolling approximately 1,200 students on a 105 acres (0.42 km2) campus. Additionally, Shelton State Community College, one of the largest in Alabama, is located in the city. The school enrolls around 7,000 students from all backgrounds and income levels. The majority of Shelton State students are "traditional" students. They are usually either first-time college students earning associate degrees for transfer to four-year institutions after graduation, or UA and Stillman students enrolled in entry-level classes that they cannot or do not want to take at their home institutions. The Tuscaloosa City School System serves the city. It is overseen by the Tuscaloosa City Board of Education, which is composed of eight members elected by district and a chairman elected by a citywide vote. The Board appoints a Superintendent to manage the day-to-day operations of the system. Operating with a $100 million budget, the system enrolls approximately 10,300 students. The system consists of 24 schools: 13 elementary schools (12 zoned and 1 magnet), 6 middle schools (5 zoned and 1 magnet), 3 high schools (Paul W. Bryant High School, Central High School and Northridge High School), and 2 specialty schools (the Tuscaloosa Center for Technology, a vocational school, and Oak Hill School for special needs students). In 2002, the system spent $6,313 per pupil, the 19th highest amount of the 120 school systems in the state. Tuscaloosa is also served by several private schools, both secular and religious, including Tuscaloosa Academy, American Christian Academy, Holy Spirit Catholic School, North River Christian Academy, the Capitol School, and Tuscaloosa Christian School (in neighboring Cottondale). Since 1923, the state-run William D. Partlow Developmental Center has served the mentally retarded, offering these citizens a public education as well as seeing to their other needs. Tuscaloosa is home to a variety of cultural sites and events reflective of its historical and modern role in Alabama and the Southeast in general. Many of these cultural events are sponsored by the University of Alabama. Numerous performing arts groups and facilities, historical sites, and museums dedicated to subjects as varying as American art and collegiate football dot the city. There are events that reflect upon the ethnic cultures of Tuscaloosa. The Tuscaloosa County Industrial Development Association sponsors the annual Weindorf German Festival celebrating German culture and the annual Sakura Japanese Festival. The Irish culture is celebrated through the city's St. Patrick's Day Parade and the Celtic Kentuck' Festival. Holy Spirit Catholic Church holds a religious procession/parade and mass in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe which is symbolic to the large Hispanic population and the catholic population of the area. The Tuscaloosa Public Library is a joint city-county agency with nearly 200,000 items on catalog. A total of 46,857 registered patrons use the library on a regular basis — roughly 28% of the population of the county. There are currently two branches in the city, the Main branch on Jack Warner Parkway and the Weaver-Bolden branch in western Tuscaloosa, and a third branch in suburban Taylorville (Brown branch). Additionally, the University of Alabama, Stillman College and Shelton State Community College have campus libraries that are open for non-circulation use by the public. Museums in Tuscaloosa are located all over town, but are primarily concentrated in the downtown area or on the campus of UA. Museums that are downtown include CHOM: the Children’s Hands-On Museum of Tuscaloosa and the Murphy African-American Museum. The Alabama Museum of Natural History and the Paul W. Bryant Museum are located on the UA campus. The Westervelt Warner Museum of American Art is located on the grounds of NorthRiver Yacht Club in northern Tuscaloosa. Additional museums and galleries are found across the river in Northport. The Jones Archaeological Museum is located 15 miles (24 km) south of Tuscaloosa at the Moundville Archaeological Park in Moundville. Tuscaloosa is home to several performing arts organizations. Though some are affiliated with UA or Shelton State, several are independent organizations. These various organization cooperate and coordinate their operations through the Arts and Humanities Council of Tuscaloosa County. The Arts Council also operates the Bama Theatre (see below). The Tuscaloosa Symphony Orchestra, which celebrated its twenty-fifth season in 2006-2007, is based at the Moody Music Building and is conducted by American Adam Flatt. Tuscaloosa is also home to the Alabama Choir School. The Frank Moody Music Building on the UA campus holds a 1000-seat Concert Hall and a 140-seat Recital Hall. The Concert Hall features a three-story-tall, 5,000-pipe Holtkamp organ and frequently hosts concerts and other musical events, including the hit band, Kansas. The Recital Hall features a Schlicker organ that was crafted in Buffalo, New York. Also on the UA campus, Rowand-Johnson Hall, holds the Marian Gallaway Theatre, a 305-seat proscenium theater and the Allen Bales Theatre, a 170-seat thrust theatre. Finally, Morgan Hall features a 600-seat auditorium. The Sandra Hall-Ray Fine Arts Centre on the Shelton State campus holds the Bean-Brown Theatre, a 450-seat proscenium theater, and the 100-seat Alabama Power Foundation Recital Hall. The Bama Theatre is a 1094-seat proscenium theatre located in downtown Tuscaloosa and is operated by The Arts and Humanities Council. The Bama Theatre was built between 1937 and 1938 under the New Deal-era Public Works Administration as a movie palace. At the time of its construction in 1938, it was the only air-conditioned building in Tuscaloosa. The theatre was renovated as a performing arts center in 1976 and housed the Tuscaloosa Symphony Orchestra and Theatre Tuscaloosa troupe until those groups moved into their own facilities. Today, the Bama Theatre is the residence of the Tuscaloosa Children's Theatre Company and the Tuscaloosa Community Dancers. Additionally, its hosts the Arts Council's Bama Art House movie series . The Bama Theatre hosts a Jewish Film Festival in the spring, as well as several traveling film festivals. Additionally, the Bama Theatre has recently been serving as a concert venue, hosting recent performances by Joan Baez, Aimee Mann, the Drive-By Truckers, Umphrey's Mcgee, Ryan Adams, Chuck Leavell and many other performing artists. Coleman Coliseum is a 15,383-seat multi-purpose arena that basically serves as the city of Tuscaloosa's municipal civic center. Because the City of Tuscaloosa does not have a municipal civic center, the demand for events grew rapidly and the Coliseum doubled its capacity in the 1970s due to this. In the 1990s marquee concerts and events that the arena had seen in the previous two decades grew scarce as the facility became more outdated and became mostly devoted to Crimson Tide athletic events. In the hope that the University could pull more excitement for events at the facility, the Coliseum underwent a significant renovation in 2005, which cost over $24 million. The coliseum has hosted a diversity of events including commencement exercises, a visit by President Ronald Reagan, alumni gatherings, student convocations, concerts, operas, ballets, appearances by political figures, WCW Saturday Night, etc. Travis Tritt filmed his "Bible Belt" country music video there. Stars who have performed on its stages include The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, Elton John, Grateful Dead, Tom Petty, Led Zeppelin, Ray Charles, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, Alan Jackson, Reba McEntire, Jay Leno, Hank Williams, Jr., Daughtry, and many, many more. In December 2010, construction on the Tuscaloosa Amphitheater officially wrapped up with the dedication ceremony taking place days after. The 7,470 capacity Tuscaloosa Amphitheater is only blocks away from the lively downtown district and sits at the end of the fabulous Riverwalk on the banks of the Black Warrior River. Since its dedication ceremony in March 2011, performers such as Kenny Chesney, Widespread Panic, Steely Dan, Jeff Dunham, 3 Doors Down and Miranda Lambert have graced the stage. It has also held events such as the Blues and Brews Music Festival and a Pro Boxing Match. Actor and stand up comedian Charlie Sheen stated he intended on doing a stand up show at the amphitheater in the near future. Nightlife in Tuscaloosa is primarily split between two areas, The Strip and downtown. The Strip consists of an area of bars, restaurants, and retail shops along University Boulevard, about one mile from campus. One of the oldest bars on The Strip (before its recent renovation) is the Houndstooth Sports Bar (named the Number 1 Sports Bar in America by Playboy Magazine). Tuscaloosa's rock 'n' roll dive bar, Egan's, sits across the street, while other bars such as The Bear Trap, The Jupiter (which touts the biggest indoor music venue), and Red Shed and more surround them. Galette's, which has no sign, is frequented by the University's Greek population. During the school year, and especially football season, the Strip pulsates with students, alumni, locals and visitors being walking distance from Bryant-Denny Stadium, where the Crimson Tide plays its football games. Roughly a mile from The Strip is Tuscaloosa's downtown district. It's more spread out than the strip and offers a variety of bars and restaurants. Younger people tend to frequent the Temerson Square area, off University (4th Street and 23rd Avenue) in downtown Tuscaloosa. You will find professors, students and professionals mingling together at The Downtown Pub and The Alcove International Tavern (the only smoke free bar in Tuscaloosa). Little Willie's is a small blues and jazz bar, while its bigger sister bar next door, Wilhagen's, has large screen televisions and an assortment of bar games to play. Innisfree is perhaps the most crowded bar on any given night, packed with an assortment of current students and young professionals. The city of Tuscaloosa's nightlife is a key reason why The University of Alabama consistently finds itself ranked in the Top 25 Party Schools, year in and year out. Bars are open well into the morning, even drawing in Mississippi State students from nearby Starkville. Eateries in Tuscaloosa range from the upscale Kozy's Fine Dining and Cypress Inn to a steak house, Nick's in the Sticks. Downtown offers various restaurants to appeal to a range of customers including Depalma's, Five, Hooligan's, and Carmelo Cafe. Biscuits and grits are served at the Waysider, a landmark filled with Crimson Tide paraphernalia, or across the river at Northport's City Cafe or Northport Diner. Ribs are available at many locations, most famously Dreamland There are numerous BBQ locations—including Archibald's, Woodrow's, Mike and Eds, Moe's Original BBQ, and Jim 'N Nick's. Around the University campus, there are a number of restaurants with varying specialties frequented by students and locals alike, including Rammer Jammer's, Swen, Ruan Thai, Surin of Thailand(The Midnight Sushi) and the proverbial favorite during warmer months, Summer Snow. There are also very many cultural restaurants in the city as well - including Shiraz International Grill and Yakamoz Turkish Restaurant. Prior to each football game is a massive gathering at the UA Quad, where people gather starting on Friday for tailgating and the University of Alabama holds pep rallies on the Gorgas library steps. The Quad has hosted ESPN's Gameday several times and also is a place to meet Alabama football legends on game day and perform the "Elephant Stomp" (a pre-game parade) to Bryant-Denny Stadium with the Alabama mascot "Big Al" and the Million Dollar Band. On the first Thursday of each month, the Tuscaloosa art galleries open their doors for "Art and Soul" — highlighting local artists. There is a shuttle service that runs between this event and Northport's "Art Night." The City of Tuscaloosa holds parades annually for holidays such as New Year's Day, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, St. Patrick's Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Veterans Day, and Christmas Day. Holy Spirit Roman Catholic Church also hosts an annual religious procession/parade for Our Lady of Guadalupe on the Virgin of Guadalupe feast day in December, which reflects on both the catholic and Hispanic community. Other annual city festivals worth noting are: The Tuscaloosa County Parks and Recreation Authority, known by the acronym PARA, is a county agency that receives a large amount of its funding from the city, and operates several parks and activity centers within the city. PARA maintains its parks through its Park Operations division, this division is best known for its outstanding refuse technicians, whose sole duty is to clear the many parks of litter and garbage that accumulates from normal use. These technicians use Ford F-350 Super-Duty dump trucks to haul away many tons of refuse weekly. Without those men, the PARA parks would surely be overrun with unsanitary garbage conditions and would no longer be usable. Notable PARA refuse technicians include Grover Faulkner, Cody Hall, and Mike Owen. PARA is also known for its participation in work therapy programs with the local VA. More information on PARA can be found on its website, Additional public recreational sites are owned and maintained by the University of Alabama and federal agencies such as Corps of Engineers. The University of Alabama Arboretum is located on 60 acres (243,000 m2) of land at the intersection of Veterans Memorial Parkway and Pelham Loop Road, adjacent to the VA Hospital. The arboretum's primary emphasis is on Alabama's native flora and fauna. It includes 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of walking trails through native piney woods and oak-hickory climax forest, a wildflower garden containing more than 250 species, ornamental plants, an experimental garden, a bog garden, an open-air pavilion, and a children's garden. Two greenhouses contain collections of orchids, cacti, and tropical plants. Tuscaloosa is known for its collegiate athletics — particularly the University of Alabama Crimson Tide football team. The University of Alabama also currently fields championship–caliber teams in baseball, golf, women's gymnastics, and softball. These teams play in athletics facilities on the university campus, including Bryant-Denny Stadium (capacity of 102,000+), Coleman Coliseum (formerly Memorial Coliseum), Sewell-Thomas Stadium, Rhoads Stadium, Foster Auditorium and the Ol' Colony Golf Complex. Stillman College fields teams in football, men's and women's basketball, baseball and softball, among other sports. In the past decade, Stillman has gone through a renaissance of renovations, including a new football stadium, Stillman Stadium. Previous professional teams calling Tuscaloosa home included the World Basketball Association's Druid City Dragons in 2006, and Tuscaloosa Warriors football team in 1963, with both folding after one season. In 2008, Tuscaloosa hosted the USA Olympic Triathlon trials for the Beijing Games. Tuscaloosa is home to 2008 Olympic boxing heavyweight bronze medalist, Deontay Wilder. Wilder is the last U.S. Olympic men's boxing team member to medal in the sport, and is known as "The Bronze Bomber". He currently has an undefeated record of 26-0 with all 26 wins coming by way of knockout. In 2009, scenic shots were filmed all around Tuscaloosa for Todd Phillips' comedy, "Due Date", starring Robert Downey Jr. and Zach Galifianakis. The filmmakers also said that the Tuscaloosa Convention and Visitors Bureau plans to establish a film commission that will work to bring more filmmakers to Tuscaloosa. Tuscaloosa is mentioned in the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. It is suggested in the first chapter that Boo Radley spend time in Tuscaloosa because it might make him less highly strung. The Tuscaloosa News is the major daily newspaper serving the city. The Tuscaloosa News also publishes several websites and Tuscaloosa Magazine. The primary news website is focuses on University of Alabama sports. The Tuscaloosa News' offices are located west of downtown on a bluff overlooking the Black Warrior River. The Planet Weekly is the largest of the several alternative weekly newspapers published in the area. Additionally, each of the three colleges in the area are served by student-published periodical, the largest being The Crimson White, the independent, student-run newspaper of the University of Alabama and one of several UA-affiliated student publications. Kids Life Magazine is a free publication which focuses on family friendly events in the Tuscaloosa area. Tuscaloosa is part of the Birmingham-Tuscaloosa-Anniston television market, which is the 40th largest in the nation. All major networks have a presence in the market. WCFT 33 is the ABC affiliate, WIAT 42 is the CBS affiliate, WBRC 6 is the Fox affiliate, WVTM 13 is the NBC affiliate, WBIQ 10 is the PBS affiliate, WTTO 21 is the CW affiliate, and WABM 68 is the MyNetworkTV affiliate and WVUA 7 is the This TV affiliate, it is also owned by the University of Alabama and is the only station that originates its broadcast in Tuscaloosa. Tuscaloosa is the 234th largest radio market in the nation. In January 2007, of the top-ten-rated radio stations, two were urban, three were country, two were contemporary, and one each was gospel, oldies, and talk radio. Tuscaloosa serves as home base to Alabama Public Radio, the state's largest public radio network. APR's main studios are housed at the University of Alabama, and the flagship signal, WUAL-FM, originates from a transmitter south of town. WUAL serves Tuscaloosa, portions of the Birmingham metro area and several counties of west-central Alabama. The University of Alabama also houses WVUA-FM, a 24/7 college radio station run completely by students. Clear Channel Communications and Cumulus Media Networks both own and operate a cluster of radio stations in Tuscaloosa, that form the majority of the market. Tuscaloosa is home to one of the four 3-D IMAX theaters in the state of Alabama, located inside of the Cobb Hollywood 16 Theater, which was once the largest movie theater in the state of Alabama. The Ferguson Center on the University of Alabama campus also contains a movie theater, which is popular among the students. The Bama Theatre in downtown also screens select films. The Carmike Bama 6 Theater, formerly located at the "Bama Mall" (now known as McFarland Plaza) recently closed its doors as a result of the Regal Hollywood 16's growing popularity. DCH Regional Medical Center is the main medical facility in Tuscaloosa. Operated by the publicly controlled DCH Healthcare Authority, the 610-bed hospital opened in 1916 as the Druid City Infirmary. The emergency department at DCH operates a trauma center (though it is not verified as one by the American College of Surgeons, however) that serves all of west central Alabama and is one of the busiest in the state. The DCH Healthcare authority also operates Northport Medical Center in neighboring Northport. Other major medical centers in Tuscaloosa include the 702-bed Veterans Affairs Medical Center-Tuscaloosa and the 422-bed Bryce Hospital, Mary S. Harper Geriatric Psychiatry Center, and Taylor Hardin Secure Medical Facility. Tuscaloosa is connected to other parts of the country via air, rail, road and sea. The city lies at the intersection of several highways, including three federal highways (US 11, US 43, and US 82), three Alabama state highways (AL 69, AL 215, and AL 216) and two duplexed (conjoined) Interstates (I-20/I-59). Interstate 359 spurs off from I-20/I-59 and heads northward, ending in downtown Tuscaloosa. AL 297 will be the future loop road around Tuscaloosa. Tuscaloosa also contains one toll road on the Black Warrior Parkway (I-20/I-59), charging $1.25 for automobiles, and one toll bridge (Black Warrior Parkway bridge). Greyhound Bus Lines provides passenger bus service to Tuscaloosa. Its station is located at 2520 Stillman Blvd in downtown Tuscaloosa. The Tuscaloosa Transit Authority operates the Tuscaloosa Trolley System. The Tuscaloosa Trolley provides local public bus transportation with four fixed routes that operate Monday through Friday from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. The trolley's paint job is an illusion; it is an El Dorado Transmark RE bus, painted to look like a trolley. The Tuscaloosa Regional Airport, on the north side of the Black Warrior River west of downtown Northport, is equipped with two lighted runways (6499' and 4001') and provides full facilities for the general aviation which the airport mainly serves. The airport also supports private jetcraft and commercial charter flights, but passengers of regularly scheduled commercial aircraft from Tuscaloosa embark at either the convenient and well equipped Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport, located 53 miles (85 km) away on the east side of downtown Birmingham, or the much larger and busier Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, located 210 miles (340 km) away in Atlanta, Georgia. Heliports include the Bryant Culberson Heliport and the Tuscaloosa Police Department Heliport. Amtrak provides passenger rail service to Tuscaloosa though the Crescent line, which connects the area to major cities along the east coast from New York to New Orleans. The Amtrak station is situated at 2105 Greensboro Avenue, one mile (1.6 km) south of downtown. Norfolk Southern Railway and Alabama Southern Railroad provide freight services to the area. KCS previously provided service to the area before leasing its lines to Watco in July 2005. Port of Tuscaloosa, Alabama is a river port located in the City of Tuscaloosa and administered by the Alabama State Port Authority. The Black Warrior River is bounded along nearly its entire course by a series of locks and dams. They form a chain of narrow reservoirs, providing aids to navigation and barge handling as well as hydroelectric power and drinking water. The Black Warrior River watershed is a vital river basin entirely contained within Alabama, America's leading state for freshwater biodiversity. Near Tuscaloosa, the river flows out of the rocky Cumberland Plateau and enters the sandy East Gulf Coastal Plain. Barge transportation in and out of the Port of Tuscaloosa and other commercial navigation make the Black Warrior a silent giant in the state of Alabama's economy. Though the Port of Tuscaloosa is a small one, it is one of the larger facilities on the Black Warrior River at waterway mile marker 338.5. There are no railway connections at this port as they primarily concentrate on the shipment of dry bulk commodities, including lignite, coal and coal coke. The federal government and the City of Tuscaloosa share the ownership of the Port of Tuscaloosa; the operation of the port is leased out to Powell Sales and has been run by them since 1997. At waterway mile marker 343.2 on the opposite side of the river is a steel company with its own tracks at the rear of the plant connecting with the Kansas City Southern Railroad for barge shipments of iron and steel products such as ingots, bars, rods, steel slabs, plates and coils. Tuscaloosa Steel Corporation was one of the first U.S. steel companies to implement the Steckel Mill Technology. The Port of Tuscaloosa grew out of the system of locks and dams on the Black Warrior River built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1890s. Its construction opened up an inexpensive transportation link to the Gulf seaport of Mobile, Alabama that stimulated the mining and metallurgical industries of the region that are still in operation. The Army Corps of Engineers has maintained a system of locks and dams along the Black Warrior River for over a century to allow navigability all the way up to Birmingham. Barge traffic thus routinely runs through Tuscaloosa to the Alabama State Docks at Mobile, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Via the Tenn-Tom Waterway, the city is connected to the Ohio River valley and beyond. Some of the more notable points of interest in the city of Tuscaloosa include: The Tuscaloosa Sister Cities Commission was formed in 1986. The city currently has sister city relationships with cities in three countries: AmSouth Bank building A view of Rose Tower from the Riverwalk DCH Medical Tower A rare snowstorm Cadence Bank Alston Building Tuscaloosa Regional Airport Veterans Memorial Park Temerson Square Fountain at Annette Shelby Park Kudzu in downtown Northwood Lake Bryce Hospital Mile marker 0 of Interstate 359 in 2003. Hugh R. Thomas Bridge Old Tuscaloosa Federal Courthouse denotes that the person was born there. Emergency Tornado Aid Government Business Arts and Culture Others
Tuscaloosa County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama. It is named in honor of the pre-Choctaw chief Tuskaloosa. As of the 2010 census, its population was 194,656. The county is the second-largest in the state in terms of area (trailing only Baldwin County) and sixth-largest in terms of population (behind Jefferson, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery,and Shelby counties). Its seat and largest city is Tuscaloosa, the former state capital from 1826 to 1845. It is also the largest county in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county is the home of the University of Alabama. Tuscaloosa County was established on February 6, 1818. Tourist attractions include University of Alabama football, the Bear Bryant Museum, the Kentuck Art Festival, International City Fest, and Tuscaloosa Christmas Afloat. Principal agricultural products in Tuscaloosa County have included hay, corn, cotton, soybeans, wheat and snapdragons. Major companies in the county have included JVC, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International, Uniroyal-Goodrich, and Phifer Inc. On April 8, 1998, an F3 tornado struck northeast of Tuscaloosa. This windstorm injured two people and damaged five homes including mobile homes. It rotated seventeen miles (27 km) from Holman to north of Northport. Thirty-seven homes were also in destruction. Moments later, an F5 tornado struck northeastern Tuscaloosa near the Black Warrior River before entering western Jefferson County. On April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa was hit by a half-mile (800 m) wide tornado that resulted in at least 44 deaths, over 1000 injuries, and massive devastation. Officials at DCH Hospital (alone) in Tuscaloosa have reported treating more than 1000 injured people in the tornado aftermath. Officials also stated that "more than 50 children arrived alone" at the hospital, raising questions about the possible loss of their parents, and 30 of these children have been transferred to pediatric trauma wards, indicating serious injuries. Mayor Walter Maddox was quoted saying that "We have neighborhoods that have been basically removed from the map." On April 29, President Obama, upon touring the tornado damage in Tuscaloosa, said "I have never seen devastation like this". The tornado was part of the April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak. Tuscaloosa County is located in the west central part of the state, in the region commonly known as West Alabama. The county straddles the boundary between the Appalachian Highlands and the Gulf Coastal Plain and consequently boasts a diverse geography. According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 1,351.23 square miles (3,499.7 km2), of which 1,324.37 square miles (3,430.1 km2) (or 98.01%) is land and 26.85 square miles (69.5 km2) (or 1.99%) is water. *I-20 (AL).svgI-59 (AL).svg Interstate 20/Interstate 59 As of the census of 2000, there were 164,875 people, 64,517 households, and 41,677 families residing in the county. The population density was 124 per square mile (48 persons/km2). The population core of the county lies in Tuscaloosa-Northport conurbation (including Coaling, Coker, and Holt CDP). The combined 2000 Census population of this area (not including their undesignated suburban census areas) is 103,367, accounting for 62.7% of the county in population, while only accounting for 6.9% in area. Consequently, the population density of the central population core is 1,137 persons per square mile (439 persons/km2), while the density of the county outside the central population core is only 44 persons per square mile (17 persons/km2). There were 71,429 housing units at an average density of 54 per square mile (21/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 68.12% White, 29.31% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.92% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, and 0.82% from two or more races. Nearly 1.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 census the largest ancestry groups in Tuscaloosa County were: 31.2% English, 29.31% African, 8.9% Irish, 7% German, 2.9% Scots-Irish and 2% Scottish. There were 64,517 households, out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them; 47.20% were married couples living together, 14.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.40% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.40% under the age of 18, 16.50% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 20.80% from 45 to 64, and 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,436, and the median income for a family was $45,485. Males had a median income of $34,807 versus $24,128 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,998. About 11.30% of families and 17.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.50% of those under age 18 and 13.20% of those age 65 or over. Tuscaloosa is served by the following elected state officials: The current District Court Judges are: The current Circuit Court Judges in no particular order are: The current Clerk of the Circuit Court is Magaria H. Bobo The current Sheriff is Edmund M. "Ted" Sexton. The chief law enforcement officer of Tuscaloosa County, which comprises the Sixth Judicial Circuit is: On the federal level, Tuscaloosa County is divided between the fourth and seventh congressional districts of Alabama, represented by Robert Aderholt (R) and Terri Sewell (D), respectively. It is also in the northern federal court district of Alabama. Tuscaloosa County voted for John McCain over Barack Obama in the 2008 Election by a margin of 58-42%. The Tuscaloosa County School System serves students in the county who live outside the city limits of Tuscaloosa. The system has been in operation since 1871. The system is managed by a Board of Education, composed 7 members elected by district by the voter of the county outside the limits of the city of Tuscaloosa, and a superintendent appointed by the board to manage the day-to-day operations of the system. In school year 2005-2006, 16,318 students were enrolled by the system. There are 16 elementary schools, 7 middle schools, 5 high schools and the Tuscaloosa Regional Detention Center and Sprayberry Regional Educational Center for gifted and special needs children. Currently four new schools are scheduled to open August 2008. The Tuscaloosa City School System serves students who live in the city of Tuscaloosa. Post secondary education is provided by the University of Alabama and Stillman College, both located in the city of Tuscaloosa and both being four year schools. The TV Alabama Tower and the WTTO Tower near Windham Springs are guyed TV masts. These are the tallest constructions in Tuscaloosa County. note: populations are from 2010 Census unless noted
The University of Alabama (UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System. Founded in 1831, UA is one of the oldest and the largest of the universities in Alabama. UA offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist, and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology, library and information studies, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages, and social work. The university is ranked first among public institutions and fourth out of all universities in the 2012-2013 enrollment of National Merit Scholars with 241 enrolled in the fall 2012 freshman class. As one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a vast cultural imprint on the state, region and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the American Civil War and the African-American Civil Rights Movement. The University of Alabama varsity football program (nicknamed the Crimson Tide), which was inaugurated in 1892, ranks as one of 10 winningest programs in US history. In a 1913 speech then-president George H. Denny extolled the university as the "capstone of the public school system in the state [of Alabama]," lending the university its current nickname, The Capstone. The official name of the institution is The University of Alabama, where the "the" is capitalized and officially a part of the name of the institution. The accepted abbreviation of the official name is UA. While it is not uncommon for "Tuscaloosa" to be appended to the university's name to distinguish it from sister UA System institutions UAB and UAH, this name—and accompanying abbreviation, UAT—is unofficial and not accepted. In 1818, Congress authorized the newly created Alabama Territory to set aside a township for the establishment of a "seminary of learning". When Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819, a second township was added to the land grant, bringing it to a total of 46,000 acres (186 km²). The General Assembly of Alabama established the seminary on December 18, 1820, named it "The University of the State of Alabama", and created a Board of Trustees to manage the construction and operation of the university. The board chose as the site of the campus a place which was then just outside the city limits of Tuscaloosa, the state capital at the time. The new campus was designed by William Nichols, also the architect of newly completed Alabama State Capitol building and Christ Episcopal Church. Influenced by Thomas Jefferson's plan at the University of Virginia, the Nichols-designed campus featured a 70-foot (21 m) wide, 70-foot (21 m) high domed Rotunda that served as the library and nucleus of the campus. The university's charter was presented to the first university president in the nave of Christ Episcopal Church. UA opened its doors to students on April 18, 1831, with the Reverend Alva Woods as President. An academy-style institution during the Antebellum period, the university emphasized the classics and the social and natural sciences. There were around 100 students per year at UA in the 1830s. However, as Alabama was a frontier state and a sizable amount of its territory was still in the hand of various Native American tribes until the 1840s, it lacked the infrastructure to adequately prepare students for the rigors of university education. Consequently, only a fraction of students who enrolled in the early years remained enrolled for long and even fewer graduated. Those who did graduate, however, often had distinguished careers in Alabama and national politics. Early graduates included Benjamin F. Porter and Alexander Meek. As the state and university matured, an active literary culture evolved on campus and in Tuscaloosa. UA had one of the largest libraries in the country on the eve of the Civil War with more than 7,000 volumes. There were several thriving literary societies, including the Erosophic and the Phi Beta Kappa societies, which frequently had lectures by such distinguished politicians and literary figures as United States Supreme Court Justice John A. Campbell, novelist William Gilmore Simms, and Professor Frederick Barnard (later president of Columbia University). Discipline and student behavior was a major issue at the university almost from the day it opened. Early presidents attempted to enforce strict rules regarding conduct. Students were prohibited from drinking, swearing, making unauthorized visits off-campus, or playing musical instruments outside of a one-hour time frame. Yet riots and gunfights were not an uncommon occurrence. To combat the severe discipline problem, president Landon Garland lobbied and received approval from the legislature in 1860 to transform the university into a military school. As such, many of the cadets who graduated from the school went on to serve as officers in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. As a consequence of that role, Union troops burned down the campus on April 4, 1865 (only 5 days before Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House on 9 April), which was unrelated to Sherman's March to the Sea several months earlier and farther east, in Georgia. Despite a call to arms and defense by the student cadet corps, only four buildings survived the burning: the President's Mansion (1841), Gorgas House (1829), Little Round House (1860), and Old Observatory (1844). The university reopened in 1871 and in 1880, Congress granted the university 40,000 acres (162 km²) of coal land in partial compensation for $250,000 in war damages. The military structure was dropped approximately a decade after the school was officially opened to women in 1892 after much lobbying by Julia Tutwiler to the Board of Trustees. During World War II, UA was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. The first attempt to integrate the university occurred in 1956 when Autherine Lucy successfully enrolled on February 3 as a graduate student in library sciences after having secured a court order preventing the university from rejecting her application on the basis of race. In the face of violent protests against her attendance, Lucy was suspended (and later outright expelled) three days later by the board of trustees on the basis of being unable to provide a safe learning environment for her. The university was not successfully integrated until 1963 when Vivian Malone and James Hood registered for classes on June 11. Governor George Wallace made his infamous "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door", standing in the front entrance of Foster Auditorium in a symbolic attempt to stop Malone and Hood's enrollment. When confronted by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and federal marshals sent in by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Wallace stepped aside. President John F. Kennedy had called for the integration of the University of Alabama, as well. Although Hood dropped out of school after two months, he subsequently returned and, in 1997, received his PhD in philosophy. Malone persisted in her studies and became the first African American to graduate from the university. In 2000, the university granted her a doctorate of humane letters. Autherine Lucy's expulsion was rescinded in 1980, and she successfully re-enrolled and graduated with a master's degree in 1992. Later in his life, Wallace apologized for his opposition at that time to racial integration. In 2010, the university formally honored Lucy, Hood and Malone by rechristening the plaza in front of Foster Auditorium as Malone-Hood Plaza and erecting a clock tower – Autherine Lucy Clock Tower – in the plaza. On April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa was hit by a tornado with a rating of at least EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita scale. The tornado left a large path of complete destruction but spared the campus. Six students who lived on off-campus premises were confirmed dead by the university. Due to the infrastructural damage of the city (approx. 12% of the city) and the loss of life, the university cancelled the rest of the spring semester and postponed graduation. From a small campus of seven buildings in the wilderness on the main road between Tuscaloosa and Huntsville (now University Boulevard) in the 1830s, UA has grown to a massive 1,970-acre (800 ha) campus in the heart of Tuscaloosa today. There are 297 buildings on campus containing some 10,600,000 square feet (980,000 m2) of space. The school recently added 168 acres to its campus after purchasing the Bryce Hospital property in 2010. It also plans to acquire more land to accommodate the continuing growth of the enrollment. The university also maintains the University of Alabama Arboretum in eastern Tuscaloosa and the Dauphin Island Sea Lab on Dauphin Island, just off the Alabama gulf coast. According to Campus Squeeze's 20 Most Beautiful Colleges in the USA rankings, the University of Alabama's campus was ranked 17th among both public and private colleges. In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave the university a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "B+". The campus is anchored around the 22-acre (8.9 ha) Quad, which sits at the site of the original campus designed by William Nichols. The Quad is about the same size as that original campus and lies roughly at the geographic center of the modern campus (though recent asymmetrical expansion of the campus northward and eastward has shifted the exact geographic center away). It is cut in half by a line connecting the Gorgas Library on the north end and Denny Chimes, a campanile equipped with a 25-bell carillon, on the south. The west side of the Quad is filled by a grove of trees while the east side of the Quad is open field. Academic buildings are grouped into smaller clusters and quads surrounding the main Quad itself. Woods Quad, lying immediately north of the main Quad, was the center of the rebuilt post-Civil War campus before the center shifted back to the Quad. Woods Quad is home to Clark Hall, the home of the College of Arts & Sciences, and the homes of several of the fine arts and humanities departments. East of Quad, the buildings historically housed the natural science and math departments, before more modern facilities opened in the northeast of the campus. (Today, only the physics & astronomy, math, and psychology departments called the Quad home.) Engineering Row, the traditional home of the departments of the College of Engineering, is located to the northeast. Northwest of the Quad are buildings housing humanities and social sciences departments. To the west of the Quad lie the buildings of the colleges of commerce and education. Finally, the College of Communication and Information Sciences, the College of Human Environmental Sciences, and the School of Social Work flank the Quad to the south from west to east, respectively. As the university has grown more academic buildings have moved further out from the Quad. The Science and Engineering Complex on the northeast periphery of the campus will house many science and engineering departments. The facilities of the School of Law, the School of Music (a division of the College of Arts and Sciences), the College of Nursing, and the College of Community Health Sciences are located on the far eastern edges of campus. The College of Continuing Education is located in Parham Hall further south of the Quad. Further out from the Quad are more student support services and research facilities that are not vital to the day to day needs of students. The Ferguson Center, the student center on campus is located north of Woods Quads. One of the three main dining halls is located in "The Ferg". The other two dining halls are located closer to the dorms on the north and south sides of campus (Lakeside Dining Hall on the north and Burke Dining Hall on the south). Most residence halls are located on the north and south sides of campus. Commuter parking decks on located on the periphery of campus, as are student recreational facilities, such as the intramural fields and the Campus Recreation Center. Athletic facilities generally flank the far southern and far eastern edges of campus. Bryant-Denny Stadium is in the southwestern edge of the campus and Coleman Coliseum is in the southeastern edge of campus, near the law school. The entire campus has been served since 2007 by the CrimsonRide shuttle bus system. UA is home to several museums, cultural facilities and historical landmarks. The Alabama Museum of Natural History at Smith Hall exhibits Alabama's rich natural history. The oddest artifact there could be the Sylacauga meteorite, the largest known extraterrestrial object to strike a human being who survived. The Paul W. Bryant Museum houses memorabilia and exhibits on the history of UA athletic programs, most notably the tenure of football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant. Athletic trophies and awards are displayed at the Mal Moore Athletic Building near the Bryant Museum. The Sarah Moody Gallery of Art at Garland Hall hosts revolving exhibitions of contemporary art, including from the university's own permanent collection. The Ferguson Art Gallery at the Ferguson Center also hosts revolving art exhibitions. The Jones Archaeological Museum at Moundville exhibits the history of Mississippian culture in Alabama. Numerous historical landmarks dot the campus, including the President's Mansion, Denny Chimes, Foster Auditorium (a National Historical Landmark), the Gorgas–Manly Historic District, and Maxwell Observatory. Campus culture facilities include the Bert Man Jrs. Theater, the Marion Gallaway Theater, Morgan Auditorium, and the Frank M. Moody Music Building, which houses the Tuscaloosa Symphony Orchestra and the UA Opera Theatre, as well as three resident choirs. The University of Alabama is an autonomous institution within the University of Alabama System, which is governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama and headed by Chancellor of the University of Alabama. The board was created by the state legislature to govern the operations of the university. Its responsibilities include setting policy for the university, determining the mission and scope of the university, and assuming ultimate responsibility for the university to the public and the legislature. The board is self-perpetuating and currently composed of 15 members and two ex officio members. The makeup of the board is dictated by the Constitution of the State of Alabama, and requires that the board be made up of three members from the congressional district that contains the Tuscaloosa campus, and two members from every other congressional district in Alabama. Board members are elected by the board and are confirmed by the Alabama State Senate. Board members may serve three consecutive six-year terms. The President of the University of Alabama is the principal executive officer of the university and is appointed by the chancellor with approval of the Board of Trustees. The president reports directly to the chancellor, and is responsible for the daily operations of the university. The president's office is located on the third floor of the Rose Administration Building, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's Mansion on campus. Judy L. Bonner became the 28th university president in 2012. The university faculty numbers 1,175 and the staff numbers 3,513. 829 held the rank of assistant professor or higher. 922 faculty members were full-time. 527 were tenured with 244 on tenure track. 13.8% (114) were minorities and 34.7% (287) were women.][ There are 13 academic divisions at the University of Alabama (see the table). Eight of those divisions (A&S, C&BA, C&IS, Education, Engineering, HES, Nursing, and Social Work) grant undergraduate degrees. Degrees in those eight divisions at the master's, specialist, and doctoral level are awarded through the Graduate School. The law school offers J.D. and LL.M. degree programs. CHS provides advanced studies in medicine and related disciplines and operates a family practice residency program. Medical students are also trained in association with the University of Alabama School of Medicine, from which they receive their degree. The College of Continuing Studies provides correspondence courses and other types of distance education opportunities for non-traditional students. It operates a distance education facility in Gadsden. Founded in 1971 and merged into the College of Arts and Sciences in 1996, the New College program allows undergraduate students more flexibility in choosing their curriculum while completing a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Sciences degree. The program allows students to create a "depth study" in a particular field chosen by the student. The student completes approved independent studies alongside their normal coursework. The objective of New College is to inspire interdisciplinary learning at the undergraduate level. The Honors College is a non-degree granting division that encompasses all the university's honors programs. The University of Alabama System's financial endowment was valued at $995 million in the National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO) 2011 ranking, up 16.5% from its 2010 value. UA's portion of the system's endowment was valued at over $515 million in September 2008. In 2002, the university embarked on a $500 million capital campaign entitled "Our Students. Our Future." The focus of the campaign was stated to be "student scholarships, faculty support, campus facilities and priority needs" by adding $250 million to university endowment and an additional $250 to the non-endowed funds. The "quiet phase" (which lasted until 2006) of the campaign raised $299 million. In November 2007, the university announced that it had raised $428 million. The $500 million goal was surpassed in May 2008 and when the campaign officially concluded in 2009, it had raised $612 million. It was recently reported that The University of Alabama's 2010 financial endowment was valued at $631,947,260. The University of Alabama is a large, four-year primarily residential research university accredited by the South Association of Colleges and Schools. Full-time, four-year undergraduates comprise a large amount of the total university enrollment. The undergraduate instructional program emphasizes professional programs of study as well as the liberal arts, and there a high level of co-existence between the graduate and undergraduate program. The university has a "high level" of research activity (below the highest "very high level" classification) and has a "comprehensive doctoral" graduate instructional program in the liberal arts, humanities, social sciences and STEM fields, though it lacks health and veterinary sciences professional programs. UA conferred 6,003 degrees in academic year 2009–2010, including 4,284 bachelor's degrees, 1,339 master's degrees, 209 doctorates and 171 professional degrees. Latin honors are conferred on graduates completing a bachelor's degree for the first time (including at other universities) with an overall grade point average of at least 3.5. Cum laude honors are conferred to graduates with a GPA of 3.5 or greater and less than 3.7 (without rounding). Magna cum laude honors are conferred with a GPA of 3.7 or greater and less than 3.9. Summa cum laude honors are conferred with a GPA of 3.9 or higher. The university follows a standard academic calendar based on the semester system, which divides the academic year, starting in mid-August, into two 15-week semesters (fall and spring) and the summer. The fall semester ends in December and the spring term lasts from January to early May. The summer, which lasts from mid-May to August, is divided into a 3-week "mini-semester" in May and two four-week sessions in June and July, respectively. In fall 2012, the university had an enrollment of 33,602, consisting of 28,026 undergraduates, 4917 graduate students, and 659 professional degree students from all 67 Alabama counties and all 50 states. 96.8% of all students were US citizens or permanent residents and 3.2% were nonresident aliens. Students from 61 foreign countries comprised 2.6% of the student body. The five Alabama counties with the highest enrollment of students are Jefferson, Tuscaloosa, Madison, Shelby and Mobile, while the five states (beside Alabama) with the highest enrollment of students are Georgia, Florida, Texas, Tennessee and Virginia. In fall 2012, the university received 26,409 applications for first-time freshman enrollment, from which 14,019 applications were accepted and 6,371 freshmen enrolled. 22% of the incoming freshman class submitted SAT scores; the middle 50 percent of those who reported their SAT scored between 1490 and 1870 (500-620 Reading, 500–640 Math, 490–610 Writing). 75% submitted ACT sores; the middle 50 percent of those who reported their ACT scored between 22 and 30 (21–28 Math, 22–31 English, 6–8 Writing). 85% of incoming freshman had a high school GPA of 3.00 or higher. In fall 2012, 32% of undergraduates were enrolled in A&S, 22% in C&BA, 9% in C&IS, 8% in Education, 11% in Engineering, 10% in HES, 6% in Nursing, 1% in Social Work, and 1% in Continuity Education. The University of Alabama ranked 12th in the nation among public universities in the enrollment of National Merit Scholars in 2007. UA graduates include 15 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Goldwater Scholars, 12 Truman Scholars, 13 Hollings Scholars, two Javits Fellows, one Gates Scholar, one Portz Scholar, and one Udall Scholar.][ Numbers of UA graduates have been named to the USA Today All-USA College Academic Team. The University of Alabama has consistently ranked as a top 50 public university in the nation by the U.S. News & World Report and has a selectivity rating of "more selective". In the 2012 USNWR rankings, UA was 77th in the National Universities category (32nd among the public schools in the category). In 2012, the University of Alabama moved up in the state rankings from number 5 to number 4 only to be behind Auburn University, Samford University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. A ranking of colleges and universities by the Center for College Affordability and Productivity in the May 19, 2008 edition of Forbes magazine ranked the UA seventh in the nation among public universities and 42nd overall. Several of UA's colleges are ranked individually. In the 2011 USNWR ranking, the business school was ranked 57th (including a ranking of 27 for the accounting program) and the engineering school was ranked 98th. In March 2009, PRWeek magazine recognized the public relations program with an honorable mention in its award for PR Education Program of the Year 2009. In the 2013 USNWR law school rankings, the UA law school was ranked 21st. In the 2011 USNWR Best Graduate Schools rankings, the business school ranked 63rd, the education school ranked 63rd, and the engineering school ranked 113th. The University of Alabama has over 3 million volumes, not including uncataloged government documents, in its total collection, of which 2.5 million volumes are held by the University Libraries. Six separate libraries are part the University Libraries system. The Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library, which sits on the Main Quad, is the oldest and largest of the university libraries. Gorgas Library holds the university's collections in the humanities and social sciences, as well as the university's depository of US government documents. The library opened in 1939 as a four-story Greek Revival structure on the site of the original university Rotunda and was named after the long-time university librarian and wife of eighth university president Josiah Gorgas. A seven-story addition was built behind the library in the 1970s. The Angelo Bruno Business Library, located in the Business Quad, is named after the co-founder of the Bruno's grocery chain who gave the university $4 million to create a library focusing on commerce and business studies. Opened in 1994, the 64,000-square-foot (5,900 m2), three-story facility holds over 170,000 volumes. Bruno Library also houses the 9,500-square-foot (880 m2) Sloan Y. Bashinsky Sr. Computer Center. The Eric and Sarah Rodgers Library for Science and Engineering, located in the Science and Engineering Quad, is named after two popular, long-time professors of engineering and statistics, respectively. It opened in 1990, combining the Science Library collection in Lloyd Hall and the Engineering Library collection in the Mineral Industries Building (now known as HM Comer Hall). Rodgers Library was designed with help from IBM to incorporate the latest in informatics. McLure Education Library was founded in 1954 in a remodeled student union annex (across the street from the old Student Union, now Reese Phifer Hall) and named in 1974 after John Rankin McLure, the longtime Dean of the College of Education. The W.S. Hoole Special Collections Library, which holds the university's collection of rare and historical documents and books, is located in Mary Harmon Bryant Hall. The Library Annex holds seldom-used books and journals, as well as other volume which need special protection, that would otherwise take up valuable space in the libraries. Other libraries on campus are independent of the University Libraries. The 66,000-square-foot (6,100 m2) Bounds Law Library, located at the Law Center, holds more than 300,000 volumes. Established in 1978, the Health Sciences Library, located at the University Medical Center, serves students at the College of Community Health Sciences. Its 20,000-volume collection include clinical medicine, family practice, primary care, medical education, consumer health, and related health care topics. Located in Farah Hall (home of the Department of Geography) the Map Library and Place Names Research Center holds over 270,000 maps and 75,000 aerial photographs. The William E. Winter Reading Room of the College of Communication and Information Sciences is located in Reese Phifer Hall and holds over 10,000 volumes. The School of Social Work Reading Room is located in Little Hall and just around 200 volumes. UA is one of the 126 members of the Association of Research Libraries, which yearly compiles internal rankings. In 2011, the University of Alabama ranked 56th among all criteria, a marked improvement over a 2003 ranking of 97th. In the fall of 2011, the University of Alabama Trustees approved a resolution to expand Gorgas Library by 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2), doubling the seating capacity from 1,139 to 2,278. This expansion will also signal the beginning of the construction of an Academic Honors Plaza, between the library and Clark Hall. The plaza will include green-space, fountains, benches, and decorative lighting. In FY 2010, UA received $68.6 million in government research contracts and grants. The Alabama International Trade Center and the Center for Advanced Public Safety are two research centers at UA. The University of Alabama is a member of the SEC Academic Consortium. Now renamed the SECU, the initiative was a collaborative endeavor designed to promote research, scholarship and achievement amongst the member universities in the Southeastern conference. The SECU formed its mission to serve as a means to bolster collaborative academic endeavors of Southeastern Conference universities. Its goals include highlighting the endeavors and achievements of SEC faculty, students and its universities and advancing the academic reputation of SEC universities. In 2013, the University of Alabama participated in the SEC Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia which was organized and led by the University of Georgia and the UGA Bioenergy Systems Research Institute. The topic of the Symposium was titled, the "Impact of the Southeast in the World's Renewable Energy Future." With more than 30,000 students enrolled, the university has a substantial student life component. With enrollment increasing in the 2000s, faculty have been added to limit increases in student to instructor ratio. Student housing, and other facilities are being added to accommodate the growth. The board of trustees chose to locate the UA campus in a field a mile away from the center of the town of Tuscaloosa (a considerable distance in the early 19th century Alabama). The board consciously chose to make on-campus residence an integral part of the student experience at UA. Dormitories were among the first buildings erected at Alabama (the remains of one (Franklin Hall) is now the Mound on the Quad), and student residential life has been emphasized at UA ever since. Today nearly 30% of students live on campus, including over 90% of first-year freshmen. The Office of Housing and Residential Communities manages 18 housing communities for undergraduate students. Housing options range from traditional dormitories with community bathroom to suite-style dorms to full-amenity apartments. Housing is clustered for the most part on the northern and southern sides of campus, with the newest housing on the northern side of campus. Due the rapid increase in enrollment in recent years and freshman residence requirement, most housing on campus is reserved for freshmen, with housing given to upperclassmen where room is available. Most upperclassmen, and all graduate students, married students and students with family live off campus. The Student Government Association is the primary student advocacy organization at UA. The SGA is governed by the SGA Constitution and consists of a legislative branch, an executive branch and a judicial council. The legislative branch is composed of the Senate and the First Year Council. The Senate is composed of 50 members elected by proportional representation of the total student enrollment from each of the degree-granting colleges (i.e. all but Honors, Community Health Sciences, and Continuing Studies). The Senate is headed by a speaker that is chosen from among the membership of the Senate. The executive branch is composed of the Executive Council and the Executive Cabinet. The Executive Council is composed of the seven constitutional officers who are elected by the entirety of the student body and the appointed Chief of Staff while the Executive Cabinet is composed of non-constitutional appointed executive officers. The Executive Council is also empowered by the constitution to created with the assent of the Senate any number of appointed director positions to assist in the council in the fulfillment of its duties. The Judicial Council is composed of the Chief Justice, who is elected by the whole of the student body, and any number of appointed associate justices and judicial clerks. Other important student advocacy organizations include the Graduate Student Association, the Student Bar Association, and the Honors College Assembly. Since its founding in 1914, a secretive coalition of fraternities and sororities, commonly known as "The Machine", has wielded enormous influence over the Student Government Association. Occurrences of harassment, intimidation, and even criminal activities aimed at opposition candidates have been reported. Many figures in local, state, and national politics have come out of the SGA at the University of Alabama. Esquire devoted its April 1992 cover story to an exposé of The Machine. The controversy led to the university disbanding the SGA in 1993, which wasn't undone until 1996. Greek letter organizations (GLOs) first appeared at the university in 1847 when two men visiting from Yale University installed a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon. When DKE members began holding secret meetings in the old state capitol building that year, the administration strongly voiced its disapproval. Over a few more decades, 7 other fraternities appeared at UA: Alpha Delta Phi in 1850, Phi Gamma Delta in 1855, Sigma Alpha Epsilon in 1856 (this was the founding chapter), Kappa Sigma in 1870, Sigma Nu in 1874, Sigma Chi in 1876, and Phi Delta Theta in 1877. Anti-fraternity laws were imposed that year, but were lifted in 1890s. Women at the university founded the Zeta Chapter of Kappa Delta sorority in 1903. Alpha Delta Pi soon followed. In fall 2009, the university sanctioned 29 men's and 23 women's GLOs. Additionally, an unknown number of non-sanctioned GLOs also existed. Four governing boards oversee the operations of the university-sanctioned GLOs: the Interfraternity Council (IFC), the Panhellenic Association, the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and the Unified Greek Council (UGC). In 2012, 23% of male undergraduates were in university-sanctioned fraternities, including 28% of male freshman. 33% of women undergraduates, including 43% of female freshman were in university-sanctioned sororities. The number of men in GLOs more than doubled from 2002 to 2009, with fifteen fraternities reporting active memberships of more than one hundred (where as recently as 2001 none reported memberships greater than 100). Following 2008 fall recruitment, almost all Panhellenic sororities participating through all rounds had potential new member class sizes of 80 or more; nearly all Panhellenic sororities also now have more than 200 total members. To accommodate growth in the student population since 2005, the university has sanctioned three new fraternities and two new sororities. Additionally, four new sorority houses will be added built behind the President's Mansion. Several honors societies are present at the University of Alabama. Some honor societies are national organizations with local chapter while other are local organizations. Numerous media outlets are operated by or in conjunction with the university. Student-produced media outlets are all managed by the Office of Student Media, itself controlled by the university-sanctioned Media Planning Board. However, all student publications are editorially independent of the university. The OSM oversees the production of one newspaper, one yearbook, three scholarly publications, and the student-run radio station. The Crimson White is the student-produced newspaper. Published four times a week during the academic year and weekly during the summer, the CW normally distributes 15,000 copies per publication. The CW received a 2010 Mark of Excellence Award for "Best All-Around Daily Student Newspaper at a Four-Year College or University" in the Southeast region by the Society of Professional Journalists. The CW won the Mark of Excellence Award again in 2011 and a Gold Crown Award from the Columbia Scholastic Press Association for its spring 2011 issues. The Crimson White was also inducted into the College Media Hall of Fame for its coverage of the April 2011 tornado that caused massive damage in Tuscaloosa. First published in 1892, Corolla is the official yearbook of the university. It is produced annually by students and is the oldest student-run publication on campus. The Black Warrior Review is the university's widely distributed and influential literary journal managed and published by graduate students (primarily from the English and Creative Writing departments). Founded in 1974, BWR publishes local, regional, and nationally known writers, poets, and visual artists. Since 1990, UA has also published the Marr's Field Journal, an undergraduate literary journal published by and composed of material from UA 's undergraduates. Like its "big brother," MFJ publishes fiction, poetry, and graphic art. The Southern Historian is a journal of Southern history written, edited, and produced entirely by graduate students in the Department of History. Southern Historian features articles on all aspects of Southern history, culture and book reviews in all fields of U.S. History. WVUA-FM, "90.7 The Capstone", formerly known as "New Rock 90.7", is one of the older college radio stations in the nation, tracing its roots back to 1940. It carries a variety of music programming and broadcasts the games of several of the university's sports teams. The University of Alabama's intercollegiate athletic teams are known as the Alabama Crimson Tide (this name can be shortened to Alabama, the Crimson Tide, or even the Tide). The nickname Crimson Tide originates from a 1907 football game versus Auburn University in Birmingham where, after a hard-fought game in torrential rain in which Auburn had been heavily favored to win, Alabama forced a tie. Writing about the game, one sportswriter described the offensive line as a "Crimson Tide", in reference to their jerseys, stained red from the wet dirt. Alabama competes in the Southeastern Conference (Western Division) of the NCAA's Division I. Alabama fields men's varsity teams in football, basketball, baseball, golf, cross country, swimming and diving, tennis, and track and field. Women's varsity teams are fielded in basketball, golf, cross country, gymnastics, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. The Athletic facilities on campus include the Bryant-Denny Stadium, named after legendary football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and former UA President George Denny, and the 14,619-seat Coleman Coliseum. Alabama maintains athletic rivalries with Auburn University and the University of Tennessee. The rivalry with Auburn is especially heated as it encompasses all sports. The annual Alabama-Auburn football game is nicknamed the Iron Bowl. While the rivalry with Tennessee is centered around football for the most part, there is no shortage of acrimony here, especially given the recent history between then-UT Coach Phillip Fulmer and his relationship to the Tide's most recent NCAA probation. There are also rivalries with Louisiana State University (football and baseball), University of Mississippi (football and men's basketball), Mississippi State University (football, men's basketball), University of Georgia (women's gymnastics), and the University of Florida (football, softball). The University of Alabama football program, started in 1892, has won 23 SEC titles and 15 national championships (including 9 awarded by the Associated Press and 8 by the Coaches Poll). The program has compiled 31 10-win seasons and 59 bowl appearances, winning 32 of them – all NCAA records. Alabama has produced 18 hall-of-famers, 97 All-Americans honored 105 times, and 1 Heisman trophy winner (Mark Ingram, Jr.). The Crimson Tide's current home venue, Bryant-Denny Stadium, opened in 1929 with a capacity of around 12,000. The most recent addition of the stadium was completed in 2010. An upper deck was added in the south end zone, completing the upper deck around the stadium. The current official capacity of the stadium is 101,821. The previous addition was the north end zone expansion, completed 2006. The Tide has also played many games, including the Iron Bowl against rival Auburn University, at Legion Field in Birmingham. Nearly synonymous with Alabama football is legendary coach Paul "Bear" Bryant whose record at the University of Alabama was 232–46–9. He led the Crimson Tide to 6 national titles in 1961, 1964, 1965, 1973, 1978, and 1979, which is tied with Notre Dame's legendary coach Knute Rockne. Additionally, the 1966 team was the only one in the country to finish with a perfect record, but poll voters denied the 12–0 Alabama team the three-peat as Michigan State and Notre Dame played each other to a 10–10 tie in what was considered the "Game of the Century" and subsequently split the national championship. On December 12, 2009, sophomore running back Mark Ingram was awarded the Heisman Trophy as college football's best player. In so being named, Ingram became the first Heisman Trophy winner for the University of Alabama. Alabama defeated Texas 37–21 in the BCS Championship game on January 7, 2010, capping a perfect season, an SEC Championship, and winning its first national championship in the BCS era. Alabama defeated Louisiana State University 21-0 on January 9, 2012 to win it's second BCS National Championship. Alabama won its third BCS National Championship in January 2013 defeating Notre Dame 42-14 becoming the first school to win three BCS Titles. The school's fight song is "Yea Alabama", written in 1926 by Lundy Sykes, then editor of the campus newspaper. Sykes composed the song in response to a contest by the Rammer Jammer to create a fight song following Alabama's first Rose Bowl victory. The song as it currently played by the Million Dollar Band during games (the form known to most people) is simply the chorus of the larger song. While the opening line of song is taken to be Yea Alabama, Crimson Tide!, the correct opening line is Yea, Alabama! Drown 'em Tide! The Alabama Alma Mater is set to the tune of Annie Lisle, a ballad written in the 1850s. The lyrics are usually credited as, "Helen Vickers, 1908", although it is not clear whether that was when it was written or if that was her graduating class. The University of Alabama has had a strong cultural and historical impact not only in Alabama but in the United States as a whole. In film, probably the most famous reference to the university is in the 1994 film Forrest Gump (adapted from a novel of the same name by alumnus Winston Groom), in which the title character, portrayed by actor Tom Hanks, attends the University of Alabama and plays football there under Bear Bryant. The 1995 film Crimson Tide, starring Denzel Washington and Gene Hackman, makes multiple references to the UA football program (as evident by the title). Numerous alumni have made references to their alma mater. Alumnus Joe Scarborough has broadcast his MSNBC morning show, The Morning Joe live from campus. Alumna Sela Ward's character on the show CSI:New York makes mention of her desire for "[the Alabama Crimson Tide] to win another BCS championship" in an episode. In music, multiple songs make reference to the university or the Crimson Tide, such as Steely Dan's song "Deacon Blues", Buddy Jewell's song "Sweet Southern Comfort", Trace Adkins' song "Ala-Freaking-Bama", and Tim McGraw's 2009 song, "Southern Voice".
Legion Field is a stadium in Birmingham, Alabama, United States, primarily designed to be used as a venue for American football, but is occasionally used for other large outdoor events. The stadium is named in honor of the American Legion, a U.S. organization of military veterans. At its peak it seated 83,091 people for football and had the name "Football Capital of the South" emblazoned from the facade on it's upper deck. Colliqually called "The Old Grey Lady" and "The Grey Lady on Graymont", today after the removal of the upper deck, Legion Field seats approximately 71,594 spectators. Legion Field currently serves as the home field of the UAB Blazers, who compete in Conference USA. Construction of a 21,000 seat stadium began in 1926 at the cost of $439,000. It was completed in 1927 and named Legion Field in honor of the American Legion. In the stadium's first event, 16,800 fans watched Howard College shut out Birmingham-Southern College 9-0 on November 19, 1927. Over the years, the stadium grew. Capacity was increased to 25,000 in 1934 and to 45,000 in 1948. The bowl was enclosed. In 1961, a 9,000 seat upper deck was added to the east side of the stadium, increasing capacity to 54,600. In 1965, a new press box was built in the stadium and capacity was further increased to 68,821. In 1969, lights were added to the stadium to allow for night games, and Legion Field hosted the first nationally televised night game. In 1970, the natural grass turf was replaced with Poly-Turf, which was replaced by Astroturf in 1975. Seating capacity was increased to 75,808 in 1977 and further increased to 83,091 in 1991. The turf was changed to Bermuda grass in 1995 in order to host soccer events for the Summer Olympics taking place in Atlanta. In 2006, the field went back to an artificial surface, Field Turf. In 2004, a structural evaluation determined that the 9,000 seat upper deck would need major remediation to meet modern building codes. With little prospect of adequate repairs on the way, the University of Alabama withdrew the few home games it still scheduled for Birmingham. The city removed the upper deck in 2005 since the capacity was greater than the need for its tenants. Legion Field currently serves as the home stadium for the UAB Blazers as well as the site of the annual BBVA Compass Bowl. Legion Field is best known for hosting the season-ending game between Alabama and Auburn each year from 1948 to 1988. Because of Birmingham's major industry of iron and steel manufacturing, the game became known as the "Iron Bowl." From the series' resumption in 1948 to 1987, each team rotated claiming home-field rights. Tickets were divided 50/50 like the Florida/Georgia game & the Texas/Oklahoma game until 1989, when Auburn moved their home games in the series to Jordan-Hare Stadium, although they did play one last home game at Legion Field in 1991. Alabama followed suit in 2000. Alabama holds a 32-15 advantage over their in-state rival in games played at Legion Field. Due to its size and location, both Alabama and Auburn have used this stadium for other football games. Prior to 1999, the University of Alabama played at least three home football games there every season, including the entire 1987 home schedule, plus the Iron Bowl, due to construction at Bryant-Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa. The capacity of Legion Field was larger than that of Bryant-Denny and the city of Birmingham was more accessible than Tuscaloosa for much of the 20th century. After the addition of the east upper deck to Bryant-Denny Stadium in 1998, the capacity of Bryant-Denny exceeded that of Legion Field. Due to the disrepair of Legion Field and the added capacity in Tuscaloosa, Alabama moved major conference games on campus. In the ensuing years, Alabama decreased the number of games scheduled in Birmingham. The last home game for Alabama at Legion Field was against the University of South Florida on August 30, 2003. Though they had a couple of games scheduled at Legion Field in 2005 and 2008, the disrepair to the stadium and the structural issues to the upper deck led Alabama to end their contract with the city of Birmingham in 2004 and move all home games to Tuscaloosa. [1] Auburn also used Legion Field for some home games due to the size and the difficulty for teams to travel to Auburn for much of the 20th century. Auburn played their home game against Tennessee at Legion Field until 1978 and against Georgia Tech until 1970. Legion Field has hosted a number of other college football games. The annual Magic City Classic between Alabama A&M University and Alabama State University has been played here since 1946. The Steel City Classic featuring Miles College and Stillman College are played at Legion Field. The MEAC/SWAC Challenge was played at Legion Field, moved to Orlando for years 2008 through 2010. Birmingham-Southern College played against Mississippi College's junior varsity team in Legion Field on September 6, 2007, in their first football game since 1939. In terms of postseason play, the Southwestern Athletic Conference uses the stadium for their conference championship. The Southeastern Conference played their first two conference title games here in 1992 and 1993. This stadium has also hosted four different bowl games in its history: Legion Field has served as the home stadium for various professional football teams in Birmingham. It served as home field for the Birmingham Americans (1974) and Birmingham Vulcans (1975) of the World Football League (1974–1975), the Alabama Vulcans of the American Football Association (1979), the Birmingham Stallions of the United States Football League (1983–1985), and the Birmingham Fire of the World League of American Football (later NFL Europe) in 1991–92. In 1995, it was the home field of the Birmingham Barracudas for their single season of play as part of the short-lived expansion of the Canadian Football League into the United States. In 2001, it was the home field for the single season of the Birmingham Thunderbolts of the XFL. There has also been at least one NFL preseason game here, on August 27, 1988 when the Washington Redskins defeated the Atlanta Falcons 34-17. In 1968, the Boston Patriots played one "home" game against the New York Jets at Legion Field. The Jets, featuring former Alabama quarterback Joe Namath, won the game 47-31. Legion Field has hosted various high school football games throughout its history. From 1996 until 2008, Legion Field was used by the Alabama High School Athletic Association for the Super Six high school football championships. Legion Field has been filled to capacity on several occasions during the time that it was more commonly used by schools of the SEC. Although UAB has not been able to sell-out the stadium during its tenure as a football school (mainly due to structural instability in the stadium and underperformance by UAB's football teams over the past few years), it has attracted several tens of thousands of fans of higher-profile games, particularly those against teams not in Conference USA. . Recently, Legion Field had been used successfully as a site for major soccer events, including preliminary matchups in the 1996 Summer Olympics – the opening match between the United States and Argentina drew 83,810 spectators, the stadium's all-time record for any event. All of the concluding-round soccer games moved to Athens, Georgia after preliminary games had been played in various other cities. Legion Field had also hosted exhibition games by the U.S. men's and women's national soccer teams, and in 2005 it hosted a World Cup qualifier between the U.S. and Guatemala. When the City of Birmingham changed back to an artificial turf field in 2006, the United States Soccer Federation announced that it will no longer be scheduling men's national team games for playing in Legion Field. Legion Field has also been used as a concert venue, hosting famous artists of many different genres, such as Ruben Studdard. In 1979 and 1980, the facility played host to the Drum Corps International World Championships. Legion Field Scoreboard Exterior View from Graymont Avenue Bear Bryant Monument in Front of Stadium Satellite image taken in January 2004 Photo of the stadium before the upper deck was demolished.
Coleman Coliseum is a 15,383-seat multi-purpose arena in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on the campus of the University of Alabama. It is the current home of the Alabama Crimson Tide men's basketball and women's gymnastics teams and previously served as the home of the women's basketball and women's volleyball programs in the past. Opened in 1968 as Memorial Coliseum as a replacement for Foster Auditorium (the current name was adopted in 1988), the coliseum is located at the center of the University of Alabama's athletic complex, which also includes Sewell-Thomas Stadium, Sam Bailey Track & Field Stadium, the Hank Crisp Indoor Facility, the Mal M. Moore Athletic Facility and the football building and practice fields. In addition to its primary duties as an athletic facility, the coliseum has on numerous occasions served as venue for artistic performances, musical concerts, and presidential appearances. Coleman Coliseum is named for Jefferson Jackson Coleman, a prominent University of Alabama alumnus. Jefferson Coleman was the first pledge of Theta Sigma Fraternity that would later become the basis for starting the current National Delta Chi Fraternity Chapter at The University on February 12, 1927. Jefferson went on to serve The University in many capacities, from Business Manager of the football team to Director of Alumni Affairs, for almost 50 years. Until his death in 1995 he was the only person that had attended every Alabama bowl game, starting with the Rose Bowl on January 1, 1926. In 1990, The University honored him by renaming Memorial Coliseum after him. In addition, he served Delta Chi nationally by serving in various positions, most notably as “AA” from 1954 to 1956. For his meritorious and inconspicuous service, Jeff was inducted into The Order of the White Carnation. The coliseum opened its doors for the first time on January 30, 1968, for the traveling Broadway show The Roar of the Greasepaint - The Smell of the Crowd. Two days later, the men's basketball team hosted its game at the arena, against the Samford Bulldogs. On May 17, 1977, American jam band the Grateful Dead played a two set (plus encore) show at the venue; their once and only appearance in Tuscaloosa. President Ronald Reagan visited Coleman Coliseum during his 1984 presidential re-election campaign. Since the City of Tuscaloosa does not have a municipal civic center, the demand for events grew rapidly and the Coliseum doubled its capacity in the 1970s due to this. In the 1990s marquee concerts and events that the arena had seen in the previous two decades grew scarce as the facility became more outdated and became mostly devoted to Crimson Tide athletic events. In the hope that the University could pull more excitement for events at the facility, the Coliseum underwent a significant renovation in 2005, which cost over $24 million. Coleman Coliseum is also noted for the historic Alabama-LSU basketball game that took place on February 7, 1970. LSU's Pete Maravich scored a career-high 69 points in a 106-104 loss to Alabama. Maravich came into the game against Alabama with two pulled muscles and late in the contest, he injured an ankle. Despite the injuries, LSU's senior guard scored 47 points in the second half to finish with 69, setting an NCAA record for most points against a Division I opponent. Maravich broke the record of 68 established by Niagara's Calvin Murphy 14 months earlier. Maravich completed 26 of 57 field goals (45.6 percent) and completed 17 of 21 free throws (81.0 percent). After the game, Maravich pursued a fan before being restrained. Press Maravich, LSU's coach and Pete's father, stated that the fan had hit Pete on the back. Maravich's record lasted almost 21 years, until Kevin Bradshaw of U.S. International scored 72 against Loyola Marymount on January 5, 1991. On Nov.14,1971,Elvis Presley performed an afternoon show at the arena. He returned to the arena on June 3,1975. The last time he performed at the arena was on August 30,1976, a year before he died. Effective with the 2010–11 school year, Coleman Coliseum is home to the Crimson Tide men's basketball and women's gymnastics teams. Other Alabama programs to use the facility have been: In addition to sports, Coleman Coliseum has been used for other events including concerts (seating capacity 16,000), commencement ceremonies, alumni gatherings, student convocations, operas, ballets and political rallies. The Coliseum has been used as an annual bass tournament weigh-in spot, and a Travis Tritt music video was filmed here. The stadium hosted the NCAA Basketball Tournament three times, as a regional site in 1974 and as a sub-regional in 1975 and 1981. The Coliseum houses the athletic department offices for all varsity sports with three exceptions. The women's basketball and volleyball offices are located at Foster Auditorium while the football offices are housed in the Mal M. Moore Athletic Facility. It features an elegant suite that serves as the President's reception area, an equipment room, weight rooms, a steam bath, a training room, food service areas, the athletic department's photo studio, and locker room for staff and the athletes. Coleman is also home to the UA athletic department's ticket office. It is recognizable on television for its "striped" ceiling (a result of bands of acoustical tiles) and the two scoreboards behind each end line, both of which intersperse ads, video boards and scoring information with the familiar "R-O-L-L T-I-D-E" in large illuminated letters. The letters formerly served as a noise meter during games, with the "E" in "TIDE" being red, as a sort of overload light. Now, all eight letters on both ends are constantly illuminated, and the final E is white, like the rest of the letters. Before the 2009-10 season, the facility underwent major renovations and these boards were removed and replaced with a center-hung scoreboard.
Denny Field may refer to:
Alabama Tuscaloosa

The Tuscaloosa metropolitan area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of three counties in west central Alabama, anchored by the city of Tuscaloosa. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 219,461 (though the July 1, 2011 Census estimate placed the population at 221,553).

As of the census of 2000, there were 192,034 people, 74,863 households, and 48,931 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 63.05% White, 34.61% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.22% of the population.

Tuscaloosa (/tʌskəˈlsə/ TUSK-ə-LOO-sə) is a city in and the seat of Tuscaloosa County in west central Alabama (in the southeastern United States). Located on the Black Warrior River, it is the fifth-largest city in Alabama, with an estimated population of 93,357 in 2012. Founded in 1819, the city was named after Tuskaloosa, the chieftain of a Muskogean-speaking people who battled and was defeated by Hernando de Soto in 1540 in the Battle of Mabila, and served as Alabama's capital city from 1826 to 1846.

Tuscaloosa is the regional center of industry, commerce, healthcare, and education for the area of west-central Alabama known as West Alabama. It is the principal city of the Tuscaloosa Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Tuscaloosa, Hale and Pickens counties and has an estimated metro population in 2012 of 233,389. Tuscaloosa is also the home of the University of Alabama, Stillman College and Shelton State Community College. While the city attracted international attention when Mercedes-Benz announced it would build its first automotive assembly plant in North America in Tuscaloosa County, the University of Alabama remains the dominant economic and cultural engine in the city.

Crimson and White

The Alabama Crimson Tide football team represents the University of Alabama (variously Alabama, UA, or 'Bama) in the sport of American football. The Crimson Tide competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) and the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The Crimson Tide is among the most storied and decorated programs in NCAA history. Since beginning play in 1892, the program recognizes 15 of the national championships awarded to the team, including 10 wire-service (AP or Coaches) national titles in the poll-era, the most of any current FBS program. From 1958 to 1982, the team was led by Hall of Fame coach Paul "Bear" Bryant, who won six national championships with the program. Despite numerous national and conference championships, it was not until 2009 that an Alabama player received a Heisman Trophy, when running back Mark Ingram became the university's first winner.

The Iron Bowl of Basketball is a basketball rivalry game between the Auburn University Tigers and the University of Alabama Crimson Tide. Both teams play in the shadow of their prestigious football programs and though both teams have been far less successful in basketball than their football counterparts, the basketball edition of the Iron Bowl is still a fierce rivalry well known throughout the South. The name of this rivalry draws its name from their football rivalry, the Iron Bowl. The rivalry is known for being very streaky with both schools tending to win several in-a-row before trading that trend to the other. Though most matchups involve neither team ranked, there have been a few notables games in which one or both schools have been ranked facing each other. Alabama leads the all-time series 90-57.

The Third Saturday in October, also known as the Alabama–Tennessee football rivalry, is an American college football rivalry game played annually by the Alabama Crimson Tide football team of the University of Alabama and Tennessee Volunteers football team of the University of Tennessee, approximately 315 miles (507 km) apart. It is known as the Third Saturday in October because the game was traditionally played on it prior to the 1992 football season, when the Southeastern Conference split into its Eastern and Western divisions. From 1995 to 2012, it has only been scheduled for that date six times.

Overall, Alabama leads the series with an official 50–38–7 record (51–37–8 on the field).

This article will go through a wide range of topics of the geography of the state of Alabama. It is 30th in size and borders four U.S. states: Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida. It also borders the Gulf of Mexico.

Extending entirely across the state of Alabama for about 20 miles (32 km) northern boundary, and in the middle stretching 60 miles (97 km) farther south, is the Cumberland Plateau, or Tennessee Valley region, broken into broad tablelands by the dissection of rivers. In the northern part of this plateau, west of Jackson county, there are about 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of level highlands from 700 to 800 feet (210 to 240 m) above sea level. South of these highlands, occupying a narrow strip on each side of the Tennessee River, is a country of gentle rolling lowlands varying in elevation from 500 to 800 feet (150 to 240 m). To the northeast of these highlands and lowlands is a rugged section with steep mountain-sides, deep narrow coves and valleys, and flat mountain-tops. Its elevations range from 400 to 1,800 feet (120 to 550 m). In the remainder of this region, the southern portion, the most prominent feature is Little Mountain, extending about 80 miles (129 km) from east to west between two valleys, and rising precipitously on the north side 500 feet (150 m) above them or 1,000 feet (300 m) above the sea.


The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is an area comprising the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles and varied cuisines that have helped distinguish it in some ways from the rest of the United States. The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly English, Scotch-Irish and Scottish), African, and some Native American components. Several Southern states (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) were English Colonies that sent delegates to sign the Declaration of Independence and then fought against the English along with the Northern Colonists during the Revolutionary War. The basis for much Southern culture derives from the pride in these states being among the 13 original colonies (and much of the population of the South had fore-fathers who emigrated west from these colonies). Manners and customs reflect the early population of the South's relationship with England as well as that of Africa and to some extent the native populations.

Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by an early support for the doctrine of states' rights, the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Lower South; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; and the legacy of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as "Jim Crow", that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny blacks of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s. In more modern times, however, the South has become the most integrated region of the country and race-relations on par with those elsewhere. Since the late 1960s blacks have held and currently hold many high offices, such as mayor and police chief, in many cities such as Atlanta and New Orleans.


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