Missoula i// is a city in the U.S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. It is located along the Clark Fork River near its confluence with the Bitterroot River in western Montana and at the convergence of five mountain ranges, thus is often described as the "Hub of Five Valleys". The 2010 Census put the population of Missoula at 66,788 and the Missoula Metropolitan Area at 109,299. As of July 1, 2012 estimated population had grown to 68,394. As of July 1, 2012 the Missoula metropolitan area's population was estimated to be 110,977. Since 2000, Missoula has been the second most populous city in Montana.
Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory. By 1866, the settlement had moved five miles upstream and renamed Missoula Mills, later shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to western settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy. The arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. An element of prestige could be claimed ten years later when what was already called the City of Missoula was chosen by the Montana Legislature as the site for the new state's first university. Along with the U.S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university would remain staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena in the past. Analysis in economic history is undertaken using a combination of historical methods, statistical methods, and by applying economic theory to historical situations and institutions. The topic includes business history, financial history and overlaps with areas of social history such as demographic history and labor history. Quantitative (econometric) economic history is also referred to as Cliometrics.
The United Kingdom has the sixth-largest national economy in the world (and third-largest in Europe) measured by nominal GDP and eighth-largest in the world (and second-largest in Europe) measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). The UK's GDP per capita is the 22nd-highest in the world in nominal terms and 22nd-highest measured by PPP. In 2012, the UK was the 11th-largest exporter in the world and the sixth-largest importer. In 2012 the UK had the third-largest stock of inward foreign direct investment and the second-largest stock of outward foreign direct investment. The British economy comprises (in descending order of size) the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK has one of the world's most globalised economies.
The service sector dominates the UK economy, contributing around 78% of GDP, with the financial services industry particularly important. London is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York and has the largest city GDP in Europe. The UK aerospace industry is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry depending on the method of measurement. The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the economy and the UK has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D. The automotive industry is also a major employer and exporter. The British economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas production; its reserves were valued at an estimated £250 billion in 2007. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with the South East of England and southern Scotland the richest areas per capita.
Safeway is an American supermarket chain; it is the second largest supermarket chain in North America, after The Kroger Company, and has 1,678 stores located throughout the western and central United States and northwestern Mexico as of December 2011[update]. It also operates some stores in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Eastern Seaboard. The company is headquartered in Pleasanton, California. Supermarket News ranked Safeway No. 4 in the 2011 "Top 75 North American Food Retailers" based on 2010 fiscal year estimated sales of $41 billion. Based on 2009 revenue, Safeway is the 11th largest retailer in the United States.
The Skaggs Family, starting from a small frontier town in southern Idaho, came to have an important impact on merchandising across much of the United States. During most of the 20th century, the Skaggs name became prominent on hundreds of store fronts throughout the West. But as that name now fades from the commercial scene, it is important to show how a number of widely known commercial chains owe their origin to this one, entrepreneurial family.
If one examines the origins of a wide range of grocery and drug store enterprises across the West and Midwest, the Skaggs names is likely to arise. The father was a relatively poor Baptist minister, but he and six of his sons, with varying degrees of collaboration, introduced in the early decades of the 20th century, two very important changes in merchandising: the low-margin, cash-and-carry approach to business and the process of rapidly growing a multitude of common outlets, now called chain stores. Their entrepreneurial zeal became a major retailing force resulting in large, well-known retail chains that carried not only the Skaggs name itself, but names like Safeway, Osco, PayLess, Albertsons, Longs Drug Stores, Katz and others.