Note: Varies by jurisdiction
Note: Varies by jurisdiction
A serial killer is traditionally defined as a person who has killed three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time (a "cooling off period") between the murders, and whose motivation for killing is usually based on psychological gratification. Some sources, such as the FBI, disregard the "three or more" criteria and define the term as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually, but not always, by one offender acting alone" or, including the vital characteristics, a minimum of two murders. Most of the killings involve sexual contact with the victim, but the FBI states that motives for serial murder include "anger, thrill, financial gain, and attention seeking". The murders may have been attempted or completed in a similar fashion and the victims may have had something in common; for example, occupation, race, appearance, sex, or age group.
Serial killers are not the same as mass murderers, nor are they spree killers, who commit murders in two or more locations with virtually no break in between; however, cases of extended bouts of sequential killings over periods of weeks or months with no apparent "cooling off" period or "return to normalcy" have caused some serial killer experts to suggest a hybrid category of "spree-serial killer".
The English term and concept of "serial killer" is commonly attributed to former FBI Special agent Robert Ressler in the 1970s. Author Ann Rule postulates in her 2004 book Kiss Me, Kill Me that the English-language credit for coining the term serial killer goes to LAPD detective Pierce Brooks, creator of the ViCAP system. In his book Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters, criminal justice historian Peter Vronsky argues that while Ressler might have coined the term serial homicide within law in 1974 at Bramshill Police Academy in Britain, the terms serial murder and serial murderer appear in 1966 in John Brophy's book The Meaning of Murder. Moreover, Vronsky reports that the term serial killer does not appear in Anne Rule's seminal book on Ted Bundy, The Stranger Beside Me, published in 1980, when the term was not yet in popular use.
Some commonly found characteristics of serial killers include:
There are exceptions to these criteria, however. For example, Harold Shipman was a successful professional (a General Practitioner working for the NHS). He was considered a pillar of the local community, even winning a professional award for a children's Asthma clinic and was interviewed by Granada Television's World in Action. Dennis Nilsen was an ex-soldier turned civil servant and trade unionist who had no previous criminal record when arrested. Neither were known to have exhibited many of these signs. Vlado Taneski was a career journalist who was caught after a series of articles he wrote gave clues that he had murdered people; Taneski was a crime reporter. Russell Williams was a successful and respected career Royal Canadian Air Force Officer who was convicted of the murder of two women, along with fetish burglaries and rapes.
Some serial killers additionally exhibit various degrees of psychopathy, though this is not always the case. Psychopaths lack empathy and guilt, are egocentric and impulsive, and theoretically do not conform to social, moral and legal norms. Instead, psychopaths often follow a distinct set of rules which they have created for themselves. They may appear to be normal and often quite charming, a state of adaptation that psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley called the "mask of sanity". In the DSM-IV, psychopathy is listed under Axis II Personality disorders NOS. It is a disorder mainly defined by traits of both antisocial personality disorder and narcissism. In the near future, the concept of psychopathy requires revision because the new version of the DSM (DSM-V) no longer includes narcissism. Borderline personality disorder is another Axis II PD which is often associated with serial killers. Forensic specialists and researchers most commonly use the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; developed by Robert D. Hare) to assess psychopathy and differentiate it from antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The PCL-R is an expert-rated checklist that scores people on interpersonal/affective traits (Factor 1) and behavioral/impulsive traits (Factor 2). The studies have shown that while 50–80 percent of criminals were diagnosed with ASPD, only 15–30 percent scored as primary psychopaths on the PCL-R test.
Serial killers exhibiting degrees of ASPD, however, are often aware of how to hide many of the characteristics listed above in order to blend with the rest of society. Serial killer Ed Kemper became particularly notorious for doing this when he tricked psychiatrists into believing he was "cured" seven years after being admitted to the Atascadero State Hospital for the murders of his two grandparents. Three years after his release, Kemper went on to murder at least eight additional victims.
Many serial killers have faced similar problems in their childhood development. Hickey's Trauma Control Model explains how early childhood trauma can set the child up for deviant behavior in adulthood; the child's environment (either their parents or society) is the dominant factor in whether or not the child's behavior escalates into homicidal activity.
Family, or lack thereof, is the most prominent part of a child's development because it is what the child can identify with on a regular basis. "The serial killer is no different than any other individual who is instigated to seek approval from parents, sexual partners, or others." This need for approval is what influences children to attempt to develop social relationships with their family and peers, but if they are rejected or neglected, they are unable to do so. This results in the lowering of their self-esteem and helps develop their fantasy world in which they are in control. According to the Hickey's Trauma Control Model the development of a serial killer is based on an early trauma followed by facilitators (this can be porn, drugs, alcohol, or any number of things as what constitutes as a facilitator is dependent on individual circumstances) and disposition (an inability to attach being one common factor).
Family interaction also plays an important role in a child's growth and development. "The quality of their attachments to parents and other members of the family is critical to how these children relate to and value other members of society." Wilson and Seaman (1990) conducted a study on incarcerated serial killers and what they felt was the most influential factor that contributed to their homicidal activity. Almost all of the serial killers in the study had experienced some sort of environmental problems during their childhood, such as a broken home caused by divorce, or a lack of discipline in the home. It was common for the serial killers to come from a family that had experienced divorce, separation, or the lack of a parent. Furthermore, nearly half of the serial killers had experienced some type of physical and sexual abuse and even more had experienced emotional neglect. When a parent has a drug or alcohol problem, the attention in the household is on the parents rather than the child. This neglect of the child leads to the lowering of their self-esteem and helps develop a fantasy world in which they are in control. Hickey's Trauma Control Model supports how the neglect from parents can facilitate deviant behavior especially if the child sees substance abuse in action. This then leads to disposition (the inability to attach), which can further lead to homicidal behavior unless the child finds a way to develop substantial relationships and fight the label they receive. If a child receives no support from those around him or her, then he or she is unlikely to recover from the traumatic event in a positive way. As stated by E. E. Maccoby, "the family has continued to be seen as a major—perhaps the major—arena for socialization".
Children who do not have the power to control the mistreatment they suffer sometimes create a new reality to which they can escape. This new reality becomes their fantasy that they have total control of and becomes part of their daily existence. In this fantasy world, their emotional development is guided and maintained. According to Garrison (1996), "the child becomes sociopathic because the normal development of the concepts of right and wrong and empathy towards others is retarded because of the child's emotional and social development occurs within his self-centered fantasies. A person can do no wrong in his own world and the pain of others is of no consequence when the purpose of the fantasy world is to satisfy the needs of one person" (Garrison, 1996). Boundaries between fantasy and reality are lost and fantasies turn to dominance, control, sexual conquest, and violence, eventually leading to murder. Fantasy can lead to the first step in the process of a dissociative state, which, in the words of Stephen Giannangelo, "allows the serial killer to leave the stream of consciousness for what is, to him, a better place".
Criminologist Jose Sanchez reports, "the young criminal you see today is more detached from his victim, more ready to hurt or kill ... The lack of empathy for their victims among young criminals is just one symptom of a problem that afflicts the whole society." Lorenzo Carcaterra, author of Gangster (2001), explains how potential criminals are labeled by society, which can then lead to their offspring also developing in the same way through the cycle of violence. The ability for serial killers to appreciate the mental life of others is severely compromised, presumably leading to their dehumanization of others. This process may be considered as an expression of the intersubjectivity associated with a cognitive deficit regarding the capability to make sharp distinctions between other people and inanimate objects. For these individuals, objects can appear to possess animistic or humanistic power while people are perceived as objects. Before he was executed, serial killer Ted Bundy stated media violence and pornography had stimulated and increased his need to commit homicide, although this statement was made during last-ditch efforts to appeal his death sentence. However, correlation is not causation (a disturbed physiological disposition, psychosis, lack of socialization, or aggressiveness may contribute to both fantasy creation and serial killing without fantasy creation generally contributing to serial killing for instance). There are exceptions to the typical fantasy patterns of serial killers, as in the case of Dennis Rader, who was a family man and the leader of his church.
The FBI's Crime Classification Manual places serial killers into three categories: organized, disorganized, and mixed (i.e., offenders who exhibit organized and disorganized characteristics). Some killers descend from being organized into disorganized behavior as their killings continue.
Organized nonsocial offenders usually have above average intelligence, with a mean IQ of 113. They often plan their crimes quite methodically, usually abducting victims, killing them in one place and disposing of them in another. They often lure the victims with ploys appealing to their sense of sympathy. For example, Ted Bundy would put his arm in a fake plaster cast and ask women to help him carry something to his car, where he would beat them unconscious with a tire iron, and carry them away. Others specifically target prostitutes, who are likely to go voluntarily with a stranger. They maintain a high degree of control over the crime scene, and usually have a solid knowledge of forensic science that enables them to cover their tracks, such as burying the body or weighing it down and sinking it in a river. They follow their crimes in the news media carefully and often take pride in their actions, as if it were all a grand project. The organized killer is usually socially adequate, has friends and lovers, and sometimes even a spouse and children. They are the type who, when/if captured, are most likely to be described by acquaintances as kind and unlikely to hurt anyone. Bundy and John Wayne Gacy are examples of organized serial killers.
Disorganized serial killers, on the other hand, often have average to below average intelligence, with a mean IQ of 92.5. They are usually far more impulsive, often committing their murders with a random weapon available at the time, and usually not attempting to hide the body. They are likely to be unemployed, a loner, or both, with very few friends. They often turn out to have a history of mental illness, and their modus operandi (M.O.) or lack thereof is often marked by excessive violence and
sometimes necrophilia and/or sexual violence.
Some people with a pathological interest in the power of life and death tend to be attracted to medical professions or acquiring such a job. These kinds of killers are sometimes referred to as "angels of death" or angels of mercy. Medical professionals will kill their patients for money, for a sense of sadistic pleasure, for a belief that they are "easing" the patient's pain, or simply "because they can". One such killer was nurse Jane Toppan, who admitted during her murder trial that she was sexually aroused by death. She would administer a drug mixture to patients she chose as her victims, lie in bed with them and hold them close to her body as they died.
Female serial killers are rare compared to their male counterparts, while all serial killers are relatively rare. The FBI states that serial murder is "estimated to comprise less than one percent of all murders committed in any given year". Other sources state that female serial killers historically represent nearly one in every six known serial murderers in the United States between 1800 and 2004 (64 females from a total of 416 known offenders): over 15% of all known American serial killers have been women, with a collective number of victims between 427-612. Eric W. Hickey states that although popular perception sees "Black Widow" female serial killers as something of the Victorian past, in his statistical study of female serial killer cases reported in the USA since 1826, approximately 75% occurred since 1950.
Some studies have concluded that female serial killers tend to murder men for material gain, are usually emotionally close to their victims, and generally need to have a relationship with the victim, hence the traditional cultural image of the "Black Widow". Some recent studies, however, indicate that since 1975, increasingly strangers are marginally the most preferred victim of female serial killers, and only 26% of female serial killers kill for material gain only. Victims are not confined to males/husbands, as one "analysis of 86 female serial killers from the U.S. found that the victims tended to be spouses, children or the elderly". In the U.S., 51% of all female serial killers murdered at least one woman and 31% percent murdered at least one child. The methods they use for murder are frequently covert or low-profile, such as murder by poison (the preferred choice for killing). They commit killings in specific places, such as their home or a health-care facility, or at different locations within the same city or state. Other methods used by female serial killers include shootings (used by 20%), suffocation (16%), stabbing (11%), and drowning (5%). Although female serial killers are often reported as murdering for money or other material gain, others frequently do it for attention, as an addiction, or as a result of psychopathological behavioral factors. While some female serial killers have been diagnosed with Münchausen syndrome, "little research has been conducted focusing on the societal influences—particularly gender roles and expectations of women—which contribute to these women committing multiple murders". Each killer will have her own proclivities, needs and triggers, as specific reasons can only be obtained from the killer herself. "In a review of published literature on female serial murder, sexual or sadistic motives are believed to be extremely rare in female serial murderers, and psychopathic traits and histories of childhood abuse have been consistently reported in these women." A new study by Eric W. Hickey (2010) of 64 female serial killers in the United States indicated that sex was one of several motives in 10% of the cases, enjoyment in 11% and control in 14%. In some cases, women have been involved as an accomplice with a male serial killer as a part of a serial killing "team".
Kelleher and Kelleher (1998) created several categories to describe female serial killers. They used the classifications of black widow, angel of death, sexual predator, revenge, profit or crime, team killer, question of sanity, unexplained and unsolved. In using these categories, they observed that most women fell into the categories of black widow and team killer. In describing murderer Stacey Castor, forensic psychiatrist Dr. James Knoll offered a psychological perspective on what defines a "black widow" type. In simple terms, he described it as a woman who kills two or more husbands or lovers for material gain. Though Castor was not officially defined as a serial killer, it is likely that she would have killed again. Peter Vronsky (2007) maintains that female serial killers today often kill for the same reason males do: as a means of expressing rage and control. He suggests that sometimes the theft of the victims’ property by the female "Black Widow" type serial killer appears to be for "material gain" but really is akin to a male serial killer’s collecting of totems (souvenirs) from the victim as a way of exerting continued control over the victim and reliving it.
A notable exception to the typical characteristics of female serial killers is Aileen Wuornos, who killed outdoors instead of at home, used a gun instead of poison, killed strangers instead of friends or family, and killed for personal gratification. The most prolific female serial killer in all of history is allegedly Elizabeth Báthory. Countess Elizabeth Báthory de Ecsed (Báthory Erzsébet in Hungarian, August 17, 1560 – August 21, 1614) was a countess from the renowned Báthory family. After her husband's death, she and four collaborators were accused of torturing and killing hundreds of girls and young women, with one witness attributing to them over 600 victims, though the number for which they were convicted was 80. Elizabeth herself was neither tried nor convicted. In 1610, however, she was imprisoned in the Csejte Castle, where she remained bricked in a set of rooms until her death four years later.
An article which addressed some of the misperceptions of female criminality has appeared in the forensic literature. The Perri and Lichtenwald article addresses the current research regarding female psychopathy and includes case studies of female psychopathic killers featuring Münchausen syndrome by proxy, cesarean section homicide, fraud detection Homicide, female kill teams, and a female serial killer.
The racial demographics regarding serial killers are often subject to debate. In the United States, the majority of reported and investigated serial killers are white males, from a lower-to-middle-class background, usually in their late twenties to early thirties. However, there are African American, Asian, and Hispanic (of any race) serial killers as well, and, according to the FBI, based on percentages of the U.S. population, whites are not more likely than other races to be serial killers. Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on "All-American" white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become "truth" in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.
Some authors state that African American serial killers are as prevalent, or more so, in proportion to the African American population. According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a "sizeable portion". Anthony Walsh writes, "While it is true that most serial killers are white males, white (Anglo) males are actually slightly underrepresented in the serial killer ranks in terms of their proportion of the general male population" and that "[w]hatever the true proportion of black serial killers in the United States is or has been, it is greater than the proportion of African Americans in the general population." Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with "bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside" may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.
The motives of serial killers are generally placed into four categories: visionary, mission-oriented, hedonistic and power or control; however, the motives of any given killer may display considerable overlap among these categories.
Visionary serial killers suffer from psychotic breaks with reality, sometimes believing they are another person or are compelled to murder by entities such as the Devil or God. The two most common subgroups are "demon mandated" and "God mandated".
Herbert Mullin believed the American casualties in the Vietnam War were preventing California from experiencing the Big One. As the war wound down, Mullin claimed his father instructed him via telepathy to raise the number of "human sacrifices to nature" in order to delay a catastrophic earthquake that would plunge California into the ocean. David Berkowitz ("Son of Sam") is also an example of a visionary killer. He claimed a demon transmitted orders through his neighbor's dog and instructed him to commit murder.
Mission-oriented killers typically justify their acts as "ridding the world" of a certain type of person perceived as undesirable, such as homosexuals, prostitutes, or people of different ethnicity or religion; however, they are generally not psychotic. For example, the Zebra killers in the San Francisco Bay Area specifically targeted Caucasians. Some see themselves as attempting to change society, often to cure a societal ill.
This type of serial killer seeks thrills and derives pleasure from killing, seeing people as expendable means to this goal. Forensic psychologists have identified three subtypes of the hedonistic killer: "lust", "thrill" and "comfort".
Sex is the primary motive of lust killers, whether or not the victims are dead, and fantasy plays a large role in their killings. Their sexual gratification depends on the amount of torture and mutilation they perform on their victims. The serial sexual murderer has a psychological need to have absolute control, dominance, and power over his victims, and the infliction of torture, pain, and ultimately death is used in an attempt to fulfill his need. They usually use weapons that require close contact with the victims, such as knives or hands. As lust killers continue with their murders, the time between killings decreases or the required level of stimulation increases, sometimes both.
Kenneth Bianchi, one of the "Hillside Stranglers", murdered women and girls of different ages, races and appearance because his sexual urges required different types of stimulation and increasing intensity. Jeffrey Dahmer searched for his perfect fantasy lover—beautiful, submissive and eternal. As his desire increased, he experimented with drugs, alcohol, and exotic sex. His increasing need for stimulation was demonstrated by the dismemberment of victims, whose heads and genitals he preserved, and by his attempts to create a "living zombie" under his control (by pouring acid into a hole drilled into the victim's skull). Dahmer once said, "Lust played a big part of it. Control and lust. Once it happened the first time, it just seemed like it had control of my life from there on in. The killing was just a means to an end. That was the least satisfactory part. I didn't enjoy doing that. That's why I tried to create living zombies with … acid and the drill." He further elaborated on this, also saying, "I wanted to see if it was possible to make—again, it sounds really gross—uh, zombies, people that would not have a will of their own, but would follow my instructions without resistance. So after that, I started using the drilling technique." He experimented with cannibalism to "ensure his victims would always be a part of him".
The primary motive of a thrill killer is to induce pain or terror in their victims, which provides stimulation and excitement for the killer. They seek the adrenaline rush provided by hunting and killing victims. Thrill killers murder only for the kill; usually the attack is not prolonged, and there is no sexual aspect. Usually the victims are strangers, although the killer may have followed them for a period of time. Thrill killers can abstain from killing for long periods of time and become more successful at killing as they refine their murder methods. Many attempt to commit the perfect crime and believe they will not be caught. Robert Hansen took his victims to a secluded area, where he would let them loose and then hunt and kill them. In one of his letters to San Francisco Bay Area newspapers, the Zodiac Killer wrote "[killing] gives me the most thrilling experience it is even better than getting your rocks off with a girl". Coral Watts was described by a surviving victim as "excited and hyper and clappin' and just making noises like he was excited, that this was gonna be fun" during the 1982 attack. Slashing, stabbing, hanging, drowning, asphyxiating, and strangling were among the ways Watts killed.
Material gain and a comfortable lifestyle are the primary motives of comfort killers. Usually, the victims are family members and close acquaintances. After a murder, a comfort killer will usually wait for a period of time before killing again to allow any suspicions by family or authorities to subside. They often use poison, most notably arsenic, to kill their victims. Female serial killers are often comfort killers, although not all comfort killers are female. Dorothea Puente killed her tenants for their Social Security checks and buried them in the backyard of her home. H. H. Holmes killed for insurance and business profits. Professional killers ("hitmen") may also be considered comfort serial killers. Richard Kuklinski charged tens of thousands of dollars for a "hit", earning enough money to support his family in a middle-class lifestyle (Bruno, 1993).
Some, like Puente and Holmes, may be involved in and/or have previous convictions for theft, fraud, non payment of debts, embezzlement and other crimes of a similar nature. Dorothea Puente was finally arrested on a parole violation, having been on parole for a previous fraud conviction.
The main objective for this type of serial killer is to gain and exert power over their victim. Such killers are sometimes abused as children, leaving them with feelings of powerlessness and inadequacy as adults. Many power- or control-motivated killers sexually abuse their victims, but they differ from hedonistic killers in that rape is not motivated by lust but as simply another form of dominating the victim. Ted Bundy traveled around the United States seeking women to control.
Many serial killers claim that a violent culture influenced them to commit murders. Ted Bundy stated that hardcore pornography was responsible for his actions. Others idolise figures for their deeds or perceived vigilante justice, such as Peter Kürten, who idolised Jack the Ripper, or John Wayne Gacy and Ed Kemper, who both idolised John Wayne.
Theories for why certain people commit serial murder have been advanced. Some theorists believe the reasons are biological, suggesting serial killers are born, not made, and that their violent behavior is a result of abnormal brain activity. Holmes and Holmes believe that "until a reliable sample can be obtained and tested, there is no scientific statement that can be made concerning the exact role of biology as a determining factor of a serial killer personality." The "Fractured Identity Syndrome" (FIS) is a merging of Charles Cooley's "looking glass self" and Erving Goffman's "virtual" and "actual social identity" theories. The FIS suggests a social event, or series of events, during one's childhood or adolescence results in a fracturing of the personality of the serial killer. The term "fracture" is defined as a small breakage of the personality which is often not visible to the outside world and is only felt by the killer.
"Social Process Theory" has also been suggested as an explanation for serial murder. Social process theory states that offenders may turn to crime due to peer pressure, family, and friends. Criminal behavior is a process of interaction with social institutions, in which everyone has the potential for criminal behavior. A lack of family structure and identity could also be a cause leading to serial murder traits. A child used as a scapegoat will be deprived of their capacity to feel guilt. Displaced anger could result in animal torture, as identified in the Macdonald triad, and a further lack of basic identity.
The "military theory" has been proposed as an explanation for why serial murderers kill, as some serial murderers have served in the military or related fields. According to Castle and Hensley, 7% of the serial killers studied had military experience. This figure may be a proportional under-representation when compared to the number of military veterans in a nation's total population. For example, according to the United States census for the year 2000, military veterans comprised 12.7% of the U.S. population; in England, it was estimated in 2007 that military veterans comprised 9.1% of the population. Though by contrast, about 2.5% of the population of Canada in 2006 consisted of military veterans.
There are two theories that can be used to study the correlation between serial killing and military training: Applied learning theory states that serial killing can be learned. The military is training for higher kill rates from servicemen while training the soldiers to be desensitized to taking a human life. Social learning theory can be used when soldiers get praised and accommodated for killing. They learn, or believe that they learn, that it is acceptable to kill because they were praised for it in the military. Serial killers want accreditation for the work that they have done.
In both military and serial killing, the offender or the soldier may become desensitized to killing as well as compartmentalized; the soldiers do not see enemy personnel as "human" and neither do serial killers see their victims as humans. The theories do not imply that military institutions make a deliberate effort to produce serial killers; to the contrary, all military personnel are trained to recognize when, where, and against whom it is appropriate to use deadly force, which starts with the basic Law of Land Warfare, taught during the initial training phase, and may include more stringent policies for military personnel in law enforcement or security. They are also taught ethics in basic training. A number may have been conscripts, such as Arthur Shawcross.
Among modern serial killers who have some background or experience in the military are some notable examples. David Russell Williams was a colonel in the Royal Canadian Air Force who escalated from panty heists to serial rape to serial murder. Robert Lee Yates killed prostitutes in Washington state while he was in the U.S. Army. Serial killer Randy Steven Kraft killed U.S. Marines after he was discharged for mental health reasons; he reasoned: "If I couldn't be a Marine, they can't either". Jeffrey Dahmer served in the U.S. Army as a Combat medic until he was medically discharged. John Reginald Christie served in the British Army during World War I, and later served in the London Metropolitan Police during World War II. Dennis Nilsen was a cook with the British Army, and later served in the Metropolitan Police and the civil service. Few of these individuals experienced combat situations during their military careers; some exhibited mental or behavioral problems separate from or prior to their military experiences.
In 2008, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) published a handbook entitled Serial Murder which was the product of a symposium held in 2005 to bring together the many issues surrounding serial murder, including its investigation.
According to the FBI, identifying one, or multiple, murders as being the work of a serial killer is the first challenge an investigation faces. Especially if the victim(s) come from a marginalized or high risk population and is normally linked through forensic or behavioral evidence (FBI 2008). Should the cases cross multiple jurisdictions, the law enforcement system in the United States is fragmented and thus not configured to detect multiple similar murders across a large geographic area (Egger 1998). The FBI suggests utilizing databases and increasing interdepartmental communication. Keppel (1989) suggests holding multi-jurisdictional conferences regularly to compare cases giving departments a greater chance to detect linked cases and overcome linkage blindness. One such collaboration, the Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database Project was proposed at the 2012 FDIAI Annual Conference. Utilizing Radford's Serial Killer Database as a starting point, the new collaboration, hosted by FGCU Justice Studies, has invited and is working in conjunction with other Universities to maintain and expand the scope of the database to also include spree and mass murders. Utilizing over 150 data points, multiple-murderer methodology and victimology; researchers and Law Enforcement Agencies can build case studies and statistical profiles to further research the Who, What, Why and How of these types of crimes.
Leadership, or administration, should play a small or virtually non-existent role in the actual investigation past assigning knowledgeable or experienced homicide investigators to lead positions. The administration's role is not to run the investigation but to establish and reaffirm the primary goal of catching the serial killer, as well as provide support for the investigators. The FBI (2008) suggests completing Memorandums of Understanding to facilitate support and commitment of resources from different jurisdictions to an investigation. Egger (1998) takes this one step further and suggests completing mutual aid pacts, which are written agreements to provide support to each other in a time of need, with surrounding jurisdictions. Doing this in advance would save time and resources that could be used on the investigation.
Organization of the structure of an investigation is key to its success, as demonstrated by the investigation of the Green River Killer. Once a serial murder case was established, a task force was created to track down and arrest the offender. Over the course of the investigation, for various reasons, the task force's organization was radically changed and reorganized multiple times – at one point including more than 50 full-time personnel, and at another, only a single investigator. Eventually, what led to the end of the investigation was a conference of 25 detectives organized to share ideas to solve the case.
The FBI handbook provides a description of how a task force should be organized but offers no additional options on how to structure the investigation. While it appears advantageous to have a full-time staff assigned to a serial murder investigation, it can become prohibitively expensive. For example, the Green River Task Force cost upwards of two million dollars a year, and as was witnessed with the Green River Killer investigation, other strategies can prevail where a task force fails.
A common strategy, already employed by many departments for other reasons, is the conference, in which departments get together and focus on a specific set of topics. With serial murders, the focus is typically on unsolved cases, with evidence thought to be related to the case at hand.
Similar to a conference is an information clearing-house in which a jurisdiction with a suspected serial murder case collects all of its evidence and actively seeks data which may be related from other jurisdictions. By collecting all of the related information into one place, they provide a central point in which it can be organized and easily accessed by other jurisdictions working toward the goal of arresting an offender and ending the murders.
Already mentioned was the task force, FBI 2008, Keppel 1989) which provides for a flexible, organized, framework for jurisdictions depending on the needs of the investigation. Unfortunately due to the need to commit resources (manpower, money, equipment, etc.) for long periods of time it can be an unsustainable option.
In the case of the investigation of Aileen Wournos, the Marion County Sheriff coordinated multiple agencies without any written or formal agreement. While not a specific strategy for a serial murder investigation, this is certainly a best practice in so far as the agencies were able to work easily together toward a common goal.
Finally, once a serial murder investigation has been identified, utilization of an FBI Rapid Response Team can assist both experienced and inexperienced jurisdictions in setting up a task force. This is completed by organizing and delegating jobs, by compiling and analyzing clues, and by establishing communication between the parties involved.
During the course of a serial murder investigation it may become necessary to call in additional resources; the FBI defines this as Resource Augmentation. Within the structure of a task force the addition of a resource should be thought of as either long term, or short term. If the task force's framework is expanded to include the new resource, then it should be permanent and not removed. For short term needs, such as setting up road blocks or canvassing a neighborhood, additional resources should be called in on a short term basis. The decision of whether resources are needed short or long term should be left to the lead investigator and facilitated by the administration (FBI 2008). The confusion and counter productiveness created by changing the structure of a task force mid investigation is illustrated by the way the Green River Task Force's staffing and structure was changed multiple times throughout the investigation. This made an already complicated situation more difficult, resulting in the delay or loss of information, which allowed Ridgeway to continue killing (Guillen 2007). The FBI model does not take into account that permanently expanding a task force, or investigative structure, may not be possible due to cost or personnel availability. Egger (1998) offers several alternative strategies including; using investigative consultants, or experienced staff to augment an investigative team. Not all departments have investigators experienced in serial murder and by temporarily bringing in consultants, they can educate a department to a level of competence then step out. This would reduce the initially established framework of the investigation team and save the department the cost of retaining the consultants until the conclusion of the investigation.
The FBI handbook (2008) and Keppel (1989) both stress communication as paramount. The difference is that the FBI handbook (2008) concentrates primarily on communication within a task force while Keppel (1989) makes getting information out to, and allowing information to be passed back from patrol officers a priority. The FBI handbook (2008) suggest having daily e-mail or in person briefings for all staff involved in the investigation and providing periodic summary briefings to patrol officer and managers. Looking back on a majority of serial murderer arrests, most are exercised by patrol officers in the course of their every day duties and unrelated to the ongoing serial murder investigation (Egger 1998, Keppel 1989). Keppel (1989) provides examples of Larry Eyler, who was arrested during a traffic stop for a parking violation, and Ted Bundy, who was arrested during a traffic stop for operating a stolen vehicle. In each case it was uniformed officers, not directly involved in the investigation, who knew what to look for and took the direct action that stopped the killer. By providing up to date (as opposed to periodic) briefings and information to officers on the street the chances of catching a serial killer, or finding solid leads, are increased.
A serial murder investigation generates staggering amounts of data, all of which needs to be reviewed and analyzed. A standardized method of documenting and distributing information must be established and investigators must be allowed time to complete reports while investigating leads and at the end of a shift (FBI 2008). When the mechanism for data management is insufficient, leads are not only lost or buried but the investigation can be hindered and new information can become difficult to obtain or become corrupted. During the Green River Killer investigation, reporters would often find and interview possible victims or witnesses ahead of investigators. The understaffed investigation was unable to keep up the information flow, which prevented them from promptly responding to leads. To make matters worse, investigators believed that the journalists, untrained in interviewing victims or witnesses of crimes, would corrupt the information and result in unreliable leads (Guillen 2007).
Historical criminologists have suggested that there may have been serial murders throughout history, but specific cases were not adequately recorded. Some sources suggest that legends such as werewolves and vampires were inspired by medieval serial killers. In Africa, there have been periodic outbreaks of murder by Lion and Leopard men. In Tanganyika, the Lion men committed an estimated 200 murders in a single three-month period.
Liu Pengli of China, cousin of the Han Emperor Jing, was made Prince of Jidong in the sixth year of the middle period of Jing's reign (144 BC). According to the Chinese historian Sima Qian, he would "go out on marauding expeditions with 20 or 30 slaves or with young men who were in hiding from the law, murdering people and seizing their belongings for sheer sport". Although many of his subjects knew about these murders, it was not until the 29th year of his reign that the son of one of his victims finally sent a report to the Emperor. Eventually, it was discovered that he had murdered at least 100 people. The officials of the court requested that Liu Pengli be executed; however, the emperor could not bear to have his own cousin killed, so Liu Pengli was made a commoner and banished.
In the 15th century, one of the wealthiest men in Europe and a former companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc, Gilles de Rais, sexually assaulted and killed peasant children, mainly boys, whom he had abducted from the surrounding villages and had taken to his castle. It is estimated that his victims numbered between 140 and 800. The Hungarian aristocrat Elizabeth Báthory allegedly tortured and killed as many as 650 girls and young women before her arrest in 1610.
Thug Behram, a gang leader of the Indian Thuggee cult of assassins, has frequently been said to be the world's most prolific serial killer. According to numerous sources, he was believed to have murdered 931 victims by means of strangulation with a ceremonial cloth between 1790 and 1830. According to some estimates the Thuggees murdered 1 million people between 1740 and 1840.
In his 1886 book Psychopathia Sexualis, psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing noted a case of a serial murderer in the 1870s, a Frenchman named Eusebius Pieydagnelle who had a sexual obsession with blood and confessed to murdering six people.
The unidentified killer Jack the Ripper killed at least five prostitutes, and possibly more, in London in 1888. Those crimes gained enormous press attention because London was the world's greatest center of power at the time, so having such dramatic murders of financially destitute women in the midst of such wealth focused the news media's attention on the plight of the urban poor and gained coverage worldwide. He has also been called the most famous serial killer of all time.
American serial killer H. H. Holmes was hanged in Philadelphia in 1896 after confessing to 27 murders. Joseph Vacher was executed in France in 1898 after confessing to killing and mutilating 11 women and children.
Collecting art created by convicted serial killers has become a special pastime for some. John Wayne Gacy drew and painted art from prison, much of which he gave away. Some people took the work just to trash or burn it, especially after discovering that many of his images depicted his own victims. In 2005, serial killer Alfred Gaynor's art was offered on an online auction. One of his more popular works, titled "A Righteous Man's Reward", was a drawing depicting the figure of Jesus.
There is a huge market for "true crime" and mystery murder novels, some of the more successful authors being Truman Capote, Philip Carlo, Patricia Cornwell, James Patterson, Ann Rule, Harold Schechter, and Peter Vronsky. The novella titled Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson, can be seen as a metaphor for the complex personality of the organized serial killer type that later disintegrates into the disorganized version. One of the greatest themes of this book, however, is the possibility that the dualistic conflict seen in Jekyll/Hyde could happen to anyone. Tod Robbins' 1912 novel Mysterious Martin is an early example of a horror novel focused on a serial killer. Other notable literature with a serial killer theme includes Bret Easton Ellis' American Psycho, Davis Grubb's The Night of the Hunter, Jim Thompson's The Killer Inside Me and Thomas Harris' books Red Dragon, The Silence of the Lambs, Hannibal and Hannibal Rising, all featuring Hannibal Lecter, a brilliant psychiatrist who is also a cannibalistic serial killer.
Since the development of film as an artform, portrayals of violence became an integral part of filmmaking. One of Thomas Edison's first phonograph recordings dealt with the confessions of serial killer H. H. Holmes. The creation of a monster helps society cope with the darker side of humanity but may lead to desensitization of media violence. The already vast and continuing production of serial-killer based works shows that the serial killer persona fascinates portions of Western culture.
Serial killers are featured as stock characters in many types of media, including books, films, television programs, songs and video games. Films featuring serial killers include M, Psycho, Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer, The Silence of the Lambs, The Watcher, Mr. Brooks, Dirty Harry, Zodiac, Seven, The Beachcomber, Copycat, Halloween, Scream, Frailty, Man Bites Dog, The Hitcher, Monster, Kalifornia, Felidae, The Killer Inside Me, Child's Play (1988 film) and many others.
One of the most well-known opponents of collectors of serial killer remnants, Andrew Kahan, is said to have coined the term "murderabilia". He is the director of the Mayor's Crime Victims Office in Houston and is backed by the families of murder victims, and "Son of Sam" laws existing in some states that prevent murderers from profiting from the publicity generated by their crimes.
Notorious and infamous serial killers number in the hundreds, and a subculture revolves around their legacies. "Murderabilia", or memorabilia centered around famous serial killers, includes the paintings, writings, and poems of these killers. Recently, marketing has capitalized even more upon interest in serial killers with the rise of various merchandise such as trading cards, action figures, and books such as The Serial Killer Files: The Who, What, Where, How, and Why of the World's Most Terrifying Murderers by Harold Schechter, and The A-Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers by Schecter and David Everitt. Some serial killers literally attain celebrity status in the way they acquire fans, and may have previous personal possessions auctioned off on websites like eBay. A few examples of this are Ed Gein's 150-pound stolen gravestone, and Bobbie Joe Long's sunglasses.
Modern singers and bands, some more popular than others, have felt the fascination and horror toward certain celebrity serial killers, writing their own songs about them. Chicago based metal band Macabre boast an entire back-catalogue of songs about serial killers, even referring to their own particular style of music as Murder Metal.
The television show Criminal Minds follows the cases of an FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit as it pursues serial killers.
The television series Dexter revolves around Dexter Morgan, a police blood-spatter pattern analyst who moonlights as a vigilante serial killer, attempting to channel his homicidal urges in a "positive" direction by killing other murderers who have slipped through the cracks of the legal system. It is based on the novel Darkly Dreaming Dexter.
The television series The Mentalist has as its central antagonist a serial killer known as Red John, who until the end of the Fifth Season has murdered about 28 people, including the wife and daughter of the protagonist, the CBI consultant Patrick Jane. Discovering the identity of Red John and take revenge of him is the main goal of Jane and the series itself.
The Moonlight Murders, a term dubbed by the news media, refer to the unsolved violent crimes committed in and around Texarkana in the spring of 1946 by an unidentified serial killer known as the Phantom Killer or Phantom Slayer. The unknown killer is credited with attacking eight people, five which were killed, within ten weeks, usually three weeks apart. The attacks happened on weekends between February 22, 1946 through May 3, 1946. Contrary to popular belief, the killer did not attack during a full moon but did strike late at night. The murders sent the town in a state of fear throughout the summer. At dusk, the city was locked-down and heavily armed while police patrolled streets and neighborhoods. Although many businesses lost customers at night, stores sold out of guns, ammo, locks, and many other protective devices. The murders were reported nationally by several publications, some of which include the Associated Press, Dallas Morning News, Dallas Times Herald, The Denver Post, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, International News Service, The Kansas City Star, magazineLife, the Mutual Broadcasting System, New Orleans Times-Picayune, Shreveport Times, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Washington Times-Herald, and internationally by The Times in London. The 1976 film The Town That Dreaded Sundown is loosely based on the events, despite its claim that "only the names have been changed".
The Phantom first struck late Friday night around 11:55 p.m. on February 22 and early Saturday morning. His first victims were Jimmy Hollis, 24, and his girlfriend, Mary Jeanne Larey,[Note 1] 19, who were parked on a secluded road known as a lovers' lane. The attack happened on a lateral road off of Richmond road, a mile north of the Beverly addition. According to a 14-page statement by Hollis, dated October 15, 2007, the attack happened about 50 feet off Richmond road on an unpaved street, about 100 yards from the last row of city homes. A 1945 Texarkana City Directory indicates that the residential development of Beverly stopped in about the 600 block of Richmond road, which means the attack occurred somewhere near Taylor street, contrary to the belief that it happened near the intersection of Richmond and Robison.
The couple arrived at the scene around 11:45 p.m. After about ten minutes, a man walked up to Hollis' driver-side door and flashed a flashlight in the window. Hollis expected to see a policeman, but noticed a man wearing a white hood over his face with holes cut out for the eyes and mouth. Hollis told the man, "Fellow, you've got me mixed up with someone else. You've got the wrong man." The man had a pistol and told him something like, "I don't want to kill you fellow, so do what I say," and ordered them to get out of the car. They both got out through the driver-side door. The man told Hollis to "take off your [expletive deleted] britches." Larey pleaded with Hollis to please take them off, believing that if he did they wouldn't be hurt, but after Hollis removed his trousers he was struck twice in the head with a heavy blunt object. Larey explained in an interview three months later with Texarkana Gazette reporter Lucille Holland [became later Mrs. Jan Uytterlinde] that the noise was so loud she thought he had been shot, but learned later it was the sound of his skull cracking.
Larey then picked up Hollis' pants and pulled out his wallet and told the assailant "he doesn't have any money." The assailant told her she was lying and that she had a purse. Larey told him that she didn't and was knocked to the ground. She said she felt like she was hit with an iron pipe. The assailant ordered her to get up, and when she did, he told her to run. As Larey started running towards a ditch, the assailant told her not to go that way but to run up the road. While she was running, she stated she heard Hollis groaning, and that the man continued to beat and stomp him. The assailant then ran after Larey, who was having trouble running from wearing high heels. She saw an older car parked further up the street facing their vehicle. She quickly looked inside to see if anyone was in there who could help her, and after seeing no one inside, she started to run again but was overtaken by the attacker. The man asked her why she was running. She told him he told her to run. Larey stated that "he called me a liar again and then I knew that he was going to kill me." He knocked her down and assaulted her sexually. Larey stated he did not rape her, but abused her terribly. Later reports indicated the assailant sexually assaulted her with the barrel of his gun.
She managed to get up and told the assailant to "go ahead and kill me." She ran half a mile, believing she was still being chased, to a Beverly residence at 805 Blanton street where she screamed for help and banged on the front door. A car passed, but did not stop when she called after it. She ran to the back of the house and woke up the owners who then notified the authorities. Bowie County Sheriff W. H. "Bill" Presley and three other officers arrived at the scene, but the attacker had already driven off. They found Hollis' pants 100 yards away from the attack.
Larey was taken to the hospital for minor cuts and received stitches for head wounds while Hollis was hospitalized for several days with three skull fractures. Larey was taken home that evening by sheriff's deputies. She stated she didn't know why the attacker did not chase after her or kill her. She later learned that the injured Hollis made his way to Richmond road and flagged down a passing motorist who contacted a local funeral home ambulance. Larey stated that she thought the attacker may have been scared off by headlights. She told Lucille Holland in their interview that she told the attacker to kill her because she would rather have been dead than to be touched or abused. She also explained that she didn't understand why officers did not believe her when she told them on the night of the attack that the attacker was black and that she didn't know who he was. She said that officers attempted to coerce her into stating she knew the assailant. Hollis and Larey described him as a man with a white mask over his head, with cutout places for his eyes and mouth. Although Hollis believed he was a dark-tanned white man, Larey believed he was a light-skinned Negro "because of the way he pronounced the curse words he growled." They agree he was about six feet tall.
The details of the attack were published in the Texarkana Daily News, a now-defunct evening newspaper, on Saturday, February 23, 1946, on the front page with the headline "Masked Man Beats Texarkanian and Girl". By March 9, no developments had been made but the department continued to search for clues to the identity of the attacker. The case was considered an isolated incident and further attacks were not expected. The next attack would take place a month later on March 24.
Larey moved to Frederick, Oklahoma two months later to live with her aunt and uncle. After the first double murder, she made a trip from Frederick to Texarkana hoping that her story would help police connect the incidents and catch the killer. She was questioned by the Texas Rangers who continued to insist that she knew who her attacker was. Later, after the second double murder, Texas Ranger Joe Thompson flew to Frederick to question her again.
Following Starks' murder, Hollis and Larey declared their attacker was the same phantom gunman that killed five people. Hollis said "I think the man is a young white man; under thirty years old." He also stated "I know he's crazy. The crazy things he said made me feel that his mind was warped," and "Evidently he thought he had killed me that night. Right after it happened, I told the deputy sheriff and the city attorney that that man was dangerous. He is a potential murderer. The next person he gets will be killed. It wasn't long after that when the first two bodies were found out on West Seventh street. I think there are three people alive today who escaped from that man. The woman who is in the hospital now [Katie Starks], Mrs. Larey and I."
Almost a week after the murder of Virgil Starks, and before the attack on Hollis and Larey was officially connected to the double murders, Texarkana Gazette executive editor J.Q. Mahaffey called a pilot named Paul Burns to request a favor. "He asked me if I could fly one of his reporters, Lucille Holland, to Frederick, Oklahoma to interview one of the first victims of the Phantom Killer, Mary Jeanne Larey," Burns revealed to the Gazette in 1996. He continued, "I told J.Q. to get her to the airport quickly so we could make the flight before dark. The aircraft, a Luscombe Silvaire, was not certified to fly after sundown because it had no lights on it. We took off and headed west up the Red River toward Frederick, which is northwest of Wichita Falls. I began to run into a strong head wind and soon realized I would have to refuel along the route." Burns did not refuel because the wind was so strong he feared maintaining control of the plane would be too dangerous. "Bucking a strong head wind and getting low on fuel, I had to land at Ardmore Airport. I managed to land on the grass beside a hanger, refueled and soon we were in the air again." Darkness was not far off but, "Lucille wanted very much to get there and keep her appointment with the Phantom's victim. So we continued on," Burns stated. The airport in Frederick was a cow pasture with a couple of hangers. "With no lights to guide us, I buzzed over Frederick a couple of times in the dark, in hopes of attracting the airport manager's attention. He heard us and came out to the airport."
Lucille Holland got her interview with Mrs. Larey that night. Mrs. Larey revealed to her details of the attack and the attacker. She also stated that the police and Texas Rangers did not believe she didn't know the attacker and even tried to coerce her into telling them who he was. The interview was published the next morning in the Texarkana Gazette on the front page on May 10, 1946.
Richard L. Griffin, 29, and his girlfriend of six weeks, Polly Ann Moore, 17, were found dead in Richard's 1941 Oldsmobile sedan on Sunday morning, March 24, 1946 between 8:30 and 9:00 by a passing motorist. The motorist saw the parked car on a lovers' lane named Rich road (now South Robison) near a railroad spur 100 yards south of US Highway 67 West close to a nightspot called Club Dallas. At that time, it was about a mile west outside the city limits. The motorist at first thought they were asleep. Griffin was found between the front seats on his knees with his head resting on his crossed hands and his pockets were turned inside out. Miss Moore was found sprawled face-down in the back seat. Griffin had been shot twice while still in the car and both had been shot once in the back of the head and were fully clothed. Moore's purse was beside her in the back seat and contained the photo of her that was used in the following morning's paper. The motorist contacted the city police who then contacted Bowie County Sheriff W. H. Presley. According to a police report written by Arkansas State Trooper Max Tackett, one of the lead investigators of the Phantom cases, Moore was killed on a blanket in front of the vehicle before being placed back inside.
In a mix-up, Moore's body was picked up before an examination could determine if she had been sexually assaulted. Both bodies were taken to the Texarkana Funeral Home. The couple were last seen having dinner with Griffin's sister and her boyfriend around 10 p.m. Saturday night in a cafe on West Seventh street, also known as US Highway 67 West. They were also seen earlier Saturday at 2 p.m. by friends in another West Seventh street cafe. On Monday, March 25, the front page of the morning paper read "Couple Found Shot to Death in Auto".
Bowie County Sheriff W. H. Presley, leader of the investigation, was with his old friend Texas City Police Chief Jack N. Runnels when the call came in and they sped to the scene. They immediately launched a city-wide investigation along with the Texas and Arkansas city police, the Department of Public Safety, Miller and Cass County sheriffs' departments and the FBI. No money was found on Griffin nor was any found in Moore's purse. Family members claimed that they did not carry much money with them. By Monday morning the Texas Rangers were called in.
Polly Ann was identified when Sheriff Presley called Homer Carter, the city marshal of Atlanta, Texas, for the initials P.A.M. which were found on her 1945 Atlanta High School class ring. Officials spent most of Sunday exploiting the very few clues that were left behind. Presley declared that no break in the case was left in sight. Among the uncovered clues were a section of ground 20 feet from the car saturated in dry blood, blood spotted throughout the vehicle, and congealed blood on the running board which flowed through the bottom of the door. A blanket was also found in the car and a .32 cartridge shell, believed to be shot from a Colt, inside the blanket. No gun was found at the scene, which ruled out a murder-suicide, and since it had rained overnight it was believed that any footprints left by the killer were washed away.
Texas Ranger Jimmy Greer arrived in Texarkana Monday night around 9 p.m. He and the rest of the investigators combed for more clues on Tuesday. They concluded the only apparent motive was robbery. The investigators continued to work overtime on the crime the papers called "baffling". The lack of definite clues hampered their investigation. The bloody sand that was found seven steps in front of the car was sent to laboratories of the State Department of Public Safety in Austin, Texas along with the blood-soaked clothing of the victims to be determined if the blood belonged to one of the victims or a third party. They continued their investigations as they waited for the blood test results.
By Thursday, March 28, the investigators were growing weary after five consecutive days of questioning suspects, which by that time was about 200 people, chasing over a hundred false leads and tips and going back over the meager clues. They managed to get three suspects in custody because of bloody clothing, two of which were released on explanations that satisfied the officers. The third suspect was being held in Vernon, Texas for further grilling. Dick Oldhan, another Ranger, was called in and arrived Wednesday from Tyler, Texas to help in the investigation.
In the March 27 edition of Texarkana Gazette an announcement was made that told readers You Can Help Solve Murders:
Sheriff Bill Presley and his deputies have a difficult task ahead of them as they attempt to solve the shocking double murder discovered Sunday morning. Texarkana residents can help in this investigation and at the same time if they are not careful, they can hinder the investigation and cause the officers to spend many hours following blind trails. Persons who have information which might furnish a clue to the identity of the slayer or slayers or which might indicate a motive for the crime should not divulge such information on street corners or at cold drink stands but should immediately make it available to the officers. Do not spread rumors regardless of how much basis for fact there is in them. Do not say 'I heard' or 'they say', because the chances are that the person listening will repeat your information and enlarge upon it. Before long the story grows to such proportions as to necessitate a detailed investigation by the officers, thereby perhaps pulling them off the true trail and sending them up a blind alley. Stick to facts that you know of your own personal knowledge and relay those facts as quickly as possible to the officers.
By Saturday, March 30, Sheriff Presley and Chief of Police Jack N. Runnels posted a $500 reward in an effort to gain any new information on the Griffin and Moore case that would lead to the arrest and conviction of the slayer or slayers. Officers stated that all leads and clues found thus far in the mystery shooting was fruitless. The results from the blood-stained sand was expected to arrive the day before, but due to delays at the laboratory, the results had not come in. By April 11, the officers were all still hard at work on the double murder case. Presley said that his department and other law authorities had not relaxed for one minute since the discovery of the crime. He also stated that the $500 reward was still being offered and that no tip, no matter how small, was left without a thorough investigation.
On Saturday night, April 13, Betty Jo Booker, 15, was playing her Bundy E-flat alto saxophone in her regular weekly gig with her band, The Rythmaires, at the VFW Club on W. 4th and Oak street. It was not a place for kids because beer was served, but rules were agreed upon by Betty's parents and the band leader, Jerry Atkins. She did not finish until about 1:30 a.m. Sunday. She waited for her friend-since-kindergarten, Paul Martin, 16, to pick her up. Paul was in town after moving away to Kilgore two years prior. Paul had hung out with her earlier that day before the dance and was to pick her up and take her to a slumber party across town. Betty's classmates said that earlier that day she told them that she didn't want to go out with Paul but felt obligated since he was an old friend.
Betty Jo and Paul were killed early Sunday, April 14. Paul's body was found at about 6:30 a.m. by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Weaver and their son who were headed to Prescott. They drove 200 yards to the nearest residence of Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Word to notify them and contact the police. Paul's body was found lying on its left side by the northern side of North Park road. Blood was found further down on the other side of the road by a fence. According to an old rough-drawn map of the discoveries, the body was found somewhere near the 6700 block of North Park road today. Paul was shot four times—one through the nose to the left of the nasal arch, a second through the left fourth rib from behind, a third in the right hand and the fourth bullet entered the back of the neck and exited the front right part of his head to the right of the middle line level of the upper portion of the ear.
Betty Jo's body wasn't found until approximately 11:30 a.m., almost two miles away from Martin's body. The body was found by Jack Boyd and his brother Jim Boyd, his father James, and his uncles Seth and George Boyd along with their friend Ted Schoeppey who had joined in a search party because they were friends of the girl's family. Jack, along with his dad and uncles, were members of the Men's Bible Class as well as Sheriff W. H. Presley at First United Methodist Church on Fourth and State Line Avenue. Sheriff Presley came into Sunday School that morning and asked the group to help search for Betty Jo because her friend's body had been found but hers had not. George Boyd spotted the body behind a tree 25 yards off the north side of Morris Lane (now Moores Lane) about 200 yards off Summerhill road (near Fernwood Drive today) saying a number of times "Oh my God, there she is!"
The body was lying on its back, fully clothed with a buttoned overcoat and her right hand was in the pocket. Betty was shot twice, once through the left fifth rib from the front and once in the face through the left cheek by the nose. The weapon used was the same as that of the first double murder, a .32 automatic Colt pistol. The reports in the following day's newspaper claimed that the bodies were not abused, but later reports claimed that Betty was raped. Paul's 1946 Ford club coupe was found about three miles away from her body and 1.55 miles away from his body on the west side of the road. It was parked 400 yards (1,200 ft./.22 miles) from the park's main entrance across where the Spring Lake Park School used to be with the keys still in it. The authorities were not sure who was shot first. Sheriff Presley along with Texas Ranger Captain Manuel Trazazas "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas said that examinations of the bodies indicated that they both had put up a terrific struggle. Paul's friend, Tom Albritton, said he didn't believe an argument had happened between Paul and Betty, and that he didn't have any enemies.
Jerry Atkins, Betty's band leader who was a senior, had an arrangement with Betty's parents to take her to and from the dances. He and another band member, Ernie Holcomb, took turns giving her and other band members rides. It was Ernie's turn that night, but he said Betty told him that she had a ride with an old friend. Jerry was woken up the next morning at 6:00 with a telephone call. It was a female asking if he knew where Betty Jo was. Jerry told her that Ernie took her home, but the girl said she was supposed to go to a party but never came. Jerry had no knowledge of her arrangements. He went to sleep and was awakened by another call around 8:00. The new female caller asked the same questions. Jerry asked her if she had checked with Betty's parents. The girl told Jerry that she was picked up by an old friend named Paul and that they were both supposed to come to a party but never showed up.
A radio news bulletin announced that a young male teen was found shot to death at Spring Lake Park. Hundreds of people flocked to the area. Throughout the day, cars jammed the highway and roads in the park as people tried to view the crime scenes. Shocked by the news, several hundred residents assembled around the sheriff's office to be on the spot in case a suspect was apprehended.
As in the first double murder, Sheriff Presley and his long-time friend Chief of Police Jack N. Runnels were the first officers on the scene. Presley said that this crime coincided in many details to the first double murder. After collecting all of the evidence they could find, they called in virtually every law enforcement agency in the city, county, state and federal governments, various county and city officers from Bowie, Miller, Little River and Cass counties, as well as the Texas and Arkansas state police, Texas Rangers, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. M. T. "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas, the captain of the Company B Texas Rangers from Dallas, Texas, as well as six other Texas Rangers (Stewart Stanley, Jim Geer, Dick Oldham, Earnest Daniel, N. K. Dixon, Tulley E. Seay) came to Texarkana to help in the investigation.
Suspects were consistently brought in throughout the day by city police. About 500 people gathered around the Bowie County sheriff's office to be on the spot if the killer was apprehended. Many friends, schoolmates and others went to the Bowie County Sheriff's Office to lend any helpful information. Among those were Jerry Atkins and other girls from Booker's band. Atkins and the other girls talked to Captain Gonzaullas and Sheriff Presley for a long time. Atkins suggested that Betty Jo should have had her saxophone with her and since no saxophone was found, it became a very important lead. The make and serial number (#52535) were obtained and widely circulated to pawn shops and music dealers in many states, but her saxophone would not be found until six months later. Suspects were continually questioned during the night, but by Monday morning, Gonzaullas said that although some progress had been made there were still many missing links.
By the end of Monday night, a $600 reward was offered to anyone with "solution-breaking information": $500 from Presley and Runnels for the Griffin/Moore case, and $100 from Oliver Dreyer (whose house was near where Martin's body was found) for either double murder cases. Dreyer said that if the reward were paid in one of the cases, a similar amount would be paid for the other. Gonzaullas declared that rewards to individuals would help stimulate information that could lead to an arrest. A committee to handle the reward fund was composed, with a chairman named John W. Holman. The following denominations were accepted: $25, $50, $100, $250, or $500. An appeal was made over the Texarkana Gazette & Daily News radio station, KCMC, for people desiring to contribute to the fund. By Tuesday morning, the reward total reached $2,200.
Although the investigators had in the past cracked some of the most publicized and difficult cases in Texas, Captain Gonzaullas said that the murders were among the most puzzling cases he had encountered in his 30 years of criminal investigation. He also stated that "We have certain information which we cannot disclose and we do not think the public should expect us to give out any information which would be injurious to our investigation." The Texarkana Gazette and Daily News cooperated with Captain Gonzaullas by withholding certain information which would have been detrimental to the investigation. Sheriff Presley and the Rangers stated that out of the many suspects questioned during that past two days and nights of ceaseless work, very little valuable information had been obtained. Presley stated, "We are required to follow all leads, regardless of how thin they might be, in the hope that they will lead to something tangible in the eventual solution of the mystery." The officers started to work in relays on Tuesday after many of them had become exhausted in their investigations. Gonzaullas stated that they were dealing with a shrewd criminal who had left no stones unturned in concealing his identity and activities. A voluntary midnight curfew was agreed upon Tuesday night by the Texarkana, Texas city council and the Bowie county commissioners court for all places of amusement.
By Wednesday, newspaper crews camped outside the door of the "questioning room". Reporters from the Dallas Morning News and Fort Worth Star Telegram had showed up. Captain Gonzaullas guarded new developments from being known, especially from the press. He dodged questions from reporters for 30 minutes but assured them that progress was being made. Three rooms in the Bowie County building were being utilized for questioning suspects from a 100-mile radius, both men and women, black and white. By April 24, no new developments had been made, but the Texas Rangers assured the town that they would remain in the city and stay on the case until the killer or killers were apprehended for both double murders. The Rangers had an airplane brought in to help facilitate their investigation for chasing leads and interrogating suspects out of town. By Thursday, April 25, the reward fund was raised to $6,425 from many various contributors.
By the following Tuesday night after the second double murder, rumors had already snowballed that the killer had been caught. Captain Gonzaullas and Sheriff Presley discounted them. By Wednesday, the following day, rumors had spread that a local minister had turned in his own son as a suspect to the killing of Paul Martin and Betty Jo Booker. Captain Gonzaullas said that the rumor was unfounded and that he was surprised at the credence locals had given it. He also stated that "The spreading of the rumor about a local minister turning in his son as a suspect has hindered the investigation because of the time it was necessary to consume tracking it down. The spreading of the rumor certainly was an injustice to the family and the boy, because it absolutely is not so. We do not have any minister's son in custody at this time, nor have we had one in custody or questioned a minister's son relative to this crime."
As rumors continued, they were being tracked and checked by the investigating officers to make sure that a clue wasn't being overlooked. Stories ranged from the killer turning himself in, to a third and even fourth double murder. Gonzaullas stated that Texarkanians were trying hard to help in the cases, but many of them were hindering it maliciously. He said that in too many instances the cases were being used as an instrument for grudges and spitefulness. "Things of that kind do the investigation no good. Rumors are vicious things and great injustice can be done by too much loose talk," said Gonzaullas. On Thursday, Gonzaullas and Presley issued a statement that if and when a break in the cases come, they will have it publicized in the Gazette and Daily News. Gonzaullas stated that "The newspapers are not printing rumors and have assured us they will not. Any information which the public hears about this case will not be official unless it comes from us through the newspapers. We will continue to work day and night on the investigation. We will appreciate information from citizens and all such information will be treated confidentially."
On the morning of October 24, two fence repairers, P. V. Ward and J. F. McNief, discovered Booker's missing saxophone still in its black leather case in the vicinity of where she was found while they were working on a barbed-wire fence. It was located ten steps off the opposite side of the lane and about 140 steps east from where the body was found. It was thrown over the barbed-wire fence into some underbrush bordering the south side of Morris (now Moores) Lane, opposite from the side the body was discovered. At the time of the discovery, the Phantom case was already considered as closed.
Ward, who first saw it, said, "It looked more like an old broken-down suitcase. As soon as I got to it and got a good look, I knew exactly what it was. I told Mack (McNief) to go and call the law." Mack called the police from Ochsenbein's Grocery Store. The case was investigated by Chief of Police Jack N. Runnels, as well as Deputy Sheriff Z. C. Henslee and officers Pete Carrara and Bill Bagwell. The music case was placed in a paste board box and returned to Chief Runnel's office. The saxophone was tarnished and the leather case's bottom was deteriorated as well as the blue plush lining. It was so decayed that pieces fell to the ground as it was being placed in the box.
Five hours after it was found, Betty's stepfather, Clark Brown, identified the case and instrument as belonging to Betty Jo. In it was a white and orange emblem symbolizing Texas High School as well as bits of music. "The Song of the Navy" was in a protected plastic folder which was probably played at the dance on the night of her death.
On Friday, May 3, sometime before 9 p.m., Virgil Starks, a farmer and welder, was in his modest, yet modern ranch-style home on his 500-acre farmland off Highway 67 East, almost 10 miles northeast of Texarkana. He turned on his favorite weekly radio show and his wife, Katie gave him a heating pad for his sore back. He sat in his armchair in the sitting room which was just off of the kitchen and the bedroom. While Katie Starks was in her bedroom lying on the bed in her nightgown, she heard something from the backyard and asked her husband to turn down the radio. Seconds later while Virgil was reading the May 3 edition of the Texarkana Gazette, two shots were pumped into the back of his head from a closed double-window three feet away. Katie Starks didn't hear the gunshot; instead she heard what "sounded like the breaking of glass". She thought Virgil dropped something and went to go see what happened. As she entered the doorway to the living room, she saw Virgil standing up and then suddenly slump back into his chair. She saw blood, then ran over to him and lifted up his head. When she realized he was dead, she ran to the phone to call police.
She rang the wall-crank phone two times before being shot twice in the face from the same window. One bullet entered her right cheek and exited behind her left ear. The other went in her lower jaw just below the lip, breaking it and splintering out several teeth before lodging under her tongue. She dropped to her knees but soon managed to get on her feet. She started to get a pistol from the living room, but she was blinded by her own blood. She heard the killer tearing loose the rusted screen wire on the back porch. Mrs. Starks thought she was going to be killed, so she stumbled toward her bedroom toward the front of the house to leave a note. The killer had ran around the back of the house and made his way up the steps and into the side-screened porch through the back screen door. She heard the killer coming through the window, so she turned around and ran from the kitchen through the dining room, through the bedroom, down a hallway, through another bedroom and then into the living room and out the front door, leaving behind a "virtual river of blood" and teeth throughout the house and across the street. Barefooted and still in her nightgown, which was soaked in her blood, she ran across the street to her sister's and brother-in-law's house. Since no one was home, she ran 50 yards more to A. V. Prater's house. Prater answered her call for help. She gasped, "Virgil's dead", then collapsed. He shot a rifle in the air to summon another neighbor, Elmer Taylor. Prater called to Taylor to bring his car because Mr. and Mrs. Starks had been shot. Taylor along with Mr. and Mrs. Prater and their baby rode with Mrs. Starks to Michael Meagher Hospital (now Miller County Health Unit) at 503 Walnut street. Mrs. Starks gave Mr. Taylor, the driver, one of her teeth with a gold filling. She was in a semi-conscious state, slumping forward on the front seat. Although she lost a considerable amount of blood, she showed no signs of going into shock and her heart rate remained normal. Miller County Sheriff W. E. Davis, who became head of the investigation, questioned Mrs. Starks in the operating room at Michael Meagher Hospital. The news was printed the next morning on Saturday May 4 on the front page reading "MURDER ROCKS CITY AGAIN; FARMER SLAIN, WIFE WOUNDED". Four days later, Sheriff Davis talked with Mrs. Starks again at the hospital. Mrs. Starks discounted a rumor that was circulating about Virgil hearing a car outside his home several nights in a row, and fearful of being killed.
The Miller County sheriff's department was notified just minutes after the alarm reached Hope city police. Arkansas state police officers Charley Boyd and Max Tackett got the call on their radio and were the first officers to arrive at the scene. Some of the reports were contradictory. One of the officers said that they found Starks still slumped in the blood-soaked chair. The chair had caught fire from the electric heating pad. "Smoke was filling the room and was coming up all around the man and between his legs." Yet Sheriff W. E. Davis, head of the investigation, said that when officers arrived at the scene, they found the chair on fire but Starks' body wasn't burned because it had fallen on the floor.
Immediately after reports of the slaying spread, blockades were put up several miles northeast and southwest on Highway 67 East. Sheriff Davis called in officers from the entire area to help in the investigation; some of which included two agents from the FBI, Captain Gonzaullas and other Rangers, Sheriff Presley and his deputies, Sheriff Jim Sanderson from Little River county, Arkansas State Police, local police and many others. In the house, investigators found a trail of blood with scattered teeth. On the dining room table was Mrs. Starks' work for making a dress. Gonzaullas, after seeing the "virtual river of blood", stated that "It is beyond me why she did not bleed to death." There were only two bullet holes in the window, leading Sheriff Davis to believe an automatic rifle was used. Investigators declared that after the killer shot Virgil, he waited patiently outside the window to shoot the wife.
Three clues were found at the scene. The first was that of the caliber of bullets, and the second was a flashlight found in the hedge underneath the window that Starks was shot from. The last clue was of bloody prints around the house; footprints on the kitchen floor, and smudged fingerprints in other places. Sheriff Davis stated that although this murder couldn't be directly linked to the Phantom because the caliber was a .22, "it is possible that the killer is one and the same man." Those who had been driving in the area near the time of the slaying, along with several men found within the vicinity, were picked up for questioning. Early Saturday morning, bloodhounds were brought in from Hope by the Arkansas state police. They found two trails that led to the highway before the scent was lost. That night, many officers patrolled lovers' lanes hoping to prevent another attack. By Sunday night, more state police officers were called in to help in the investigation and to aid in protecting the local civilians. Officers had detained at least 12 suspects but only kept three for further questioning. Forty-seven officers were working around the clock to solve the mysteries. Among them were sheriffs of four counties, Captain Gonzaullas and his staff of Texas Rangers, and Chief Deputy Tillman Johnson. The flashlight that was found at the scene was sent off to Washington, D.C. for further inspection by the FBI. Meanwhile, Mrs. Starks was showing improvements at Michael Meagher Hospital. The unofficial theory for a motive amongst the majority of the 47 officers was that of "sex mania", because large amounts of money in the home were not taken, nor was Mrs. Starks' purse which was lying on the bed containing money and jewels, and because nothing was stolen from the home. The title on the front page of the Texarkana Gazette on Sunday, May 5, 1946 read "SEX MANIAC HUNTED IN MURDERS".
On the night of Virgil's death, the reward fund was up to $7,025. That following Tuesday, a mobile radio station was being sent from Austin, Texas. Gonzaullas stated that the unit, which was "one of the best in the country," would be accompanied by a fleet of prowl cars equipped with three-way radio equipment, which would allow the officers to converse not only with headquarters but between cars as well. A clerk from the Bowie county selective service Board No. 1 stated that even though he contacted officers two weeks prior, no investigating officers had checked his files. Another clerk, from the Miller county draft board, also stated that no request for examination of her files had been made. Both explained that their reports would reveal information such as thumb prints, rifleman awards, and mental and physical conditions of the registrants. That night, during a radio-interview, Gonzaullas asked residents to help the investigation by refraining from spreading and repeating rumors. He stated that "These only take the officers from the main route of the investigation. It is so important that we capture this man that we cannot afford to overlook any lead, no matter how fantastic it may seem." On the next day, the mobile radio transmitting station arrived in Texarkana late in the afternoon, along with 10 police cars and 20 state police officers. Captain Gonzaullas placed it into operation immediately. A correspondent from the International News Service made reservations to come to the city and cover the story. Bob Carpenter from the Mutual Broadcasting Service from New York City arrived and was arranging a coast-to-coast broadcast directly from the KCMC studios (the Gazette and Daily News radio station) on 315 national stations. John Holman, chairman of the reward fund, asked people to send their donations in check form made out to either Texarkana National Bank or the State National Bank. He said that the reward monies will be kept in deposit slips and that it would make it easier to return the money back to the donators, if ever needed.
On Thursday morning, May 9, Sheriff W. E. Davis was notified that the flashlight which was found at the Starks' murder scene contained no fingerprints. On Wednesday, May 29, a colored picture on the front page of the Texarkana Gazette showed the flashlight that was found at Starks' home. It was the Texarkana Gazette's first spot-colored photograph. The description under the picture read:
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS TWO-CELL FLASHLIGHT?--This is a picture in detail of the flashlight found at the scene of the Starks murder. This is a two-cell, all metal flashlight, both ends of which are painted red. Three rivets hold the head of the flashlight to the body of the light. There has been only a limited number of these lights sold in this area. If you have owned or know of any one who owned one of these lights, report at once to Sheriff W. E. Davis, Miller county courthouse, Texarkana, Ark. You may be the one to aid in solving the phantom slayings.
In the May 11 edition of Texarkana Gazette, Sheriff Presley and Chief of Police Jack N. Runnels asked for any information on missing persons on the nights of the murders. "Somebody in Texarkana or in Bowie or Miller counties knows that somebody else was 'out of pocket' on the nights of Feb 22-23, March 23-24, April 13-14 and May 3, and Sheriff W. H. Presley and Chief of Police Jack Runnels want persons having such knowledge to report to them immediately," said the newspaper. In a joint statement, the officers stated:
We want every man and woman in these two counties to recall the dates of these murders and also to recall whether or not any person close to them was missing or out of pocket during those nights. Persons who have such information and have been withholding it when they know they should report it are leaving themselves open to possible charges of complicity in event the slayer is captured. Make no mistake about the fact that the slayer will be captured because we will not give up this hunt until he has been captured or killed. All information received will be treated confidentially. We urge you to come in and tell what you know. Don't be hesitant or fear that you are causing an innocent man embarrassment and trouble in as much all investigation will be confidential. This is no time to take any chance on information which might lead us to the slayer. This maniac must be captured. We believe that we are justified in going to any ends to halt this chain of murder. Bear in mind--this killer may strike at any one. He may strike at persons close to him. For that reason, we believe any person with information that may lead us to the murderer should act in the interest of self preservation.
On Saturday, May 11, a teletype machine arrived from Austin, Texas in the afternoon and was installed in the Bowie County Sheriff's office. It was in operation later that night. Gonzaullas explained that the machine will aid in the investigation by allowing them to be connected with other law enforcement offices in Texas. Bowie County Sheriff Presley and Miller County Sheriff Davis suggested raising a reward fund of $2,500 for information that would help them catch the killer of Virgil Starks. They mentioned that if the slayer of Mr. Starks was the same killer responsible for the other murders, then the Starks reward would be combined with the other rewards making it a sum of $10,000. Over a month later on Monday, June 10, Virgil Starks' father, Jack Starks, added a $500 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of his son's killer. By November 1948, authorities no longer considered the Starks' murder with the double murders.
By May 19, rumors were still being spread. Many people believed that the slayer was caught. Some of them believed he was being held at the Bowie county jail surrounded by Texas Rangers with submachine guns on their knees. Others believed he was flown to an out of town jail. The Gazette and News office was drowned with phone calls, both local and long distance, acquiring about the apprehension of the killer. "Newspapers Will Tell Public If Killer Is Caught," read one of the sub-headlines of the May 19 edition of Texarkana Gazette. Sheriff Presley declared that innocent people were being accused of being the Phantom and asked the residents to show more consideration for their fellow citizens. Presley stated, "These rumors positively are not true. We can understand why the people believe them. All of us are tense and are hopeful that at any hour officers will announce they have the killer in custody. The people must not become so anxious to rid themselves of the killer, however, that they brand innocent persons as the murderer and believe unfounded stories. The investigating officers have announced that when and if the killer is apprehended or killed the public will be given the full story through the newspapers. We reaffirm this statement. The newspapers are kept posted on developments in the investigation and they will announce all news immediately. We believe that the people have a right to know if the killer is caught or killed and we pledge ourselves to let the public have this information."
Although the first double murder caused some parents to warn their children about being out late, and the second double murder shocked the city and suggested curfews for businesses, the height of the town's hysteria snowballed after the murder of Virgil Starks. The Texarkana Gazette stated on Sunday, May 5, that the killer might strike again at any moment, at any place and at any one. While it was normal to leave your house unlocked, residents started locking their doors, pulling down shades, blocking windows, and arming themselves with guns. Some people would nail up sheets over their windows or even nail the window down. Some used screened-door braces as window guards. Part of the hysteria also came from the name of the killer being called a "phantom". During the next day after Mr. Starks' death, many residents bought firearms and locks. Stores soon sold out of locks, guns, ammunition, and window shades and Venetian blinds, making them become hard to find. Other items that sold well included window sash locks, screen door hooks, night latches, and other protective devices.
During that weekend, Texarkana residents kept police officers busy by flooding the station with reports of prowlers. An officer stated that nearly all of the alarms were the result of excitement, wild imagination and even near hysteria. Farmhouses and neighborhoods were blazing with lights. Several businesses, including cafes, theaters and night clubs, lost many customers. One business reported a 20% drop off. The evenings were hopping, but the streets were practically deserted when dawn approached. The city became a virtual ghost town. Because of the drop in business, liquor stores started closing at 9:30 and posted a statement in the paper saying, "We fully understand the state of mind in which Texarkana is now gripped. And we are selling no liquor to persons who already have been drinking. We do not wish to add further to the troubles of the police. Any person who drinks whiskey at this time to get drunk and wander about the streets of Texarkana is further complicating the works of the police and is placing himself in grave danger of being shot by people whose nerves are on edge from the recent murders." Since the citizens were jittery, nervous and armed with guns, Texarkana was a very dangerous place at night. In order for officers to keep from being shot while checking out anything suspicious, they would have to turn their siren on when they drove up. If you wanted to go to someone's house at night, you had to call in advance and let the person know to expect you. One nervous tavern proprietor shot a customer in the foot who was in search of beer.
On the front page of the Texarkana Gazette on Monday, May 6, a headline stated that the entire area was fighting jitters. Captain Gonzaullas helped fuel the hysteria when he announced on the radio Tuesday evening that Texarkanians should "Oil up their guns and see if they are loaded. Put them out of the reach of children. Do not use them unless it's necessary, but if you believe it is, do not hesitate." When asked what advice he could give to quiet the town's fear, he responded "I'd tell them to check the locks and bolts on their doors and get a double-barreled shotgun to take care of any intruder who tried to get in."
During that Tuesday night, many residents around East Ninth street were alarmed and called into the Gazette and News that they believed more murders had been committed because they heard sirens. The sirens turned out to be sound effects from a carnival. Want ads for guard dogs started popping up while others put out ads for selling their own watch dogs. Terrified wives would not go out after dark. One wife set booby traps in her home, which her husband would trip over. One setup included a table leaning up against the door with a pot full of nails which would spill over onto tin trays if the door opened. Other pots on the table would fall over and break causing enough noise to wake them up if the phantom were to enter. Some residents temporarily moved into hotels, while another wife would move into hotels at night and would move back home in the morning. Some husbands that had to go out of town would register his family into a hotel. Another wife would keep lights on during the day to keep any dark corner of her house lit up so shadows wouldn't disturb her. Families would get together and stay in one home, believing in the safety of numbers. Civilians had to watch what they said and what they did or else they would be branded as a suspect or questioned by the police.
On Thursday, May 9, the Two States Press, a weekly paper published on Thursdays, announced:
Texarkana people are jittery, plain frightened--and with reason. Within a period of six weeks five people have been murdered in cold blood and a sixth seriously wounded, escaping death by a seeming miracle. The question in the minds of most of the citizens is, when, where and how soon will another tragedy shock the community, and who will be the victim or victims, since two deaths seem to be the design of the killer?
Over a week after the death of Mr. Starks, police departments on both sides of the city were still being swamped with excited calls about prowlers and gunshots. Reports arranged from the possible to the ridiculous, yet officers still diligently checked every report. On Friday, May 10, officers rushed to a home on Olive street with reports of strange noises coming from an upstairs room. Officers found a cat thrashing about in a trash can. Again on Olive street, officers checked a report that a strange man was on someone's porch. It turned out that he had stepped out of the rain to wait for a bus. On Magnolia street, a report of a prowler bumping up against a house turned out to be hedges being blown against it. On Sixteenth street, a family called in that they heard a tapping at their door. It was later discovered that a messenger was delivering a special letter. There was a time when white-faced calves broke loose around County avenue and slept on lawns. Residents reported seeing "white-faced things in the dark." Gunshots that were heard turned out to be someone shooting at something they thought was a prowler (usually a shadow), accidental discharges from people loading their guns, and even backfires from vehicles.
As news announcements spread and suspects were searched in surrounding counties, the fear crossed over to many other cities, including Hope, Lufkin and Magnolia, even going as far as Oklahoma City. Residents in other cities were also stocking up on guns and even axes. Every three weeks when there were no murders, the town's fear began to drop little by little. The hysteria lasted throughout the summer and eventually faded three months later.
Although most of the town was in fear of the Phantom, some kids still went and parked on lonely roads. Some of them took matters in their own hands to apprehend the evasive slayer. One night, Tillman Johnson was patrolling a lonely road with Arkansas State Trooper Charley Boyd when they came up to a parked car. Johnson got out while Boyd stayed behind. Johnson walked up to the car and noticed a girl with her boyfriend. He said, "I am Tillman Johnson with the Miller County Sheriff's Department. Aren't you scared to be parked out here at night?" The girl replied, "You're the one that ought to be scared, Mister. It's a good thing you told me who you are." The girl then revealed that she had been pointing a .25 pistol at him the whole time.
On Friday night, May 10, Texarkana, Texas City Police officers chased a car for three miles that had been following a city bus. The police shot out the tires and arrested a high school star athlete named C. J. Lauderdale, Jr. When the officers questioned the teen at the station, he explained that he didn't know they were officers because they were driving an unmarked car. He said that he was following the bus because he was suspicious of one of the occupants who had gotten on from a private car. On Sunday, May 12, Captain Gonzaullas gave a warning to "teen age sleuths" in the Gazette, saying that "it's a good way to get killed."
Gonzaullas tried baiting the Phantom by recruiting teenagers, some of which were sons and daughters of Texas Rangers, to play as decoys in a parked car while officers waited nearby with guns. Another technique in hopes of catching the Phantom included officers volunteering to be decoys, some with real partners, others with mannequins. After the murders of Booker and Martin, some officers would hide out in trees in Spring Lake Park; but despite all efforts, the Phantom would never take the bait.
The unknown killer wasn't named until after the death of Betty Jo Booker and Paul Martin. In the April 16 edition of the Texarkana Daily News, a heading read, "Phantom Killer Eludes Officers as Investigation of Slayings Pressed". The story from the front page continued on page two with the title, "Phantom Slayer Eludes Police". The Texarkana Gazette contained a small title on April 17 which read, "Phantom Slayer Still at Large as Probe Continues". J.Q. Mahaffey, executive editor of the Texarkana Gazette in 1946, said that Calvin Sutton, the managing editor of the Gazette, had an acute sense for the dramatic in the news, which impelled him to turn to him and ask if they couldn't start referring to the unknown murderer as "The Phantom". "Why not? If the SOB continues to elude capture, he certainly can be called a phantom," replied Mahaffey.
The victims of the first attack, Jimmy Hollis and Mary Jeanne Larey, were the only victims to give a description of their attacker. They described him as being six feet tall with a white mask over his face with holes cut out for his eyes and mouth. Although Hollis believed he was a young dark-tanned white man under 30 years old, Larey believed he was a light-skinned African-American. The only other surviving victim was Katie Starks, but she never saw her assailant. Since Hollis and Larey were the only survivors to give a description, it can't be known if the killer wore a mask during the other attacks.
The killer attacked young couples in lonely or private areas just outside city limits using a gun with a .32 caliber. Even though the caliber used at the Starks' murder was .22, it was believed by the majority of lawmen that it was committed by The Phantom. He always attacked on the weekend, usually three weeks apart, and always late at night.
Texas Ranger Captain Gonzaullas was said to have stated that he and officers were dealing with a "shrewd criminal who had left no stone unturned to conceal his identity and activities," and that his efforts were both clever and baffling. He was also stated as saying the man he was hunting was a "cunning individual who would go to all lengths to avoid apprehension." After the murder of Virgil Starks, the majority of the 47 officers unofficially believed that the killer's motives were that of "sex mania". One of the officers stated, "I believe that a sex pervert is responsible." The headline of the May 5, 1946 edition of the Texarkana Gazette read "SEX MANIAC HUNTED IN MURDERS". At the murder scene of Virgil Starks, Bowie County Sheriff William "Bill" H. Presley said, "This killer is the luckiest person I have ever known. No one sees him, hears him in time, or can identify him in any way." Officers have said that the killer is apparently a maniac who is an expert with a gun. Victim and survivor Jimmy Hollis said, "I know he's crazy. The crazy things he said made me feel that his mind was warped."
The Texarkana Gazette stated:
If one and the same man is responsible for the five murders that have been committed in this vicinity since March 24, the Gazette feels that the public should know the type of man with which the community is dealing. With that thought in mind, the newspaper asked Dr. Lapalla for the following interview. This interview was sought and was given only in the interest of the public and the intent is not to alarm unduly anyone, but to give everyone the benefit of what is considered an expert opinion as to the mental behavior of the man sought in these crimes.
Dr. Anthony Lapalla, a psychiatrist at the Federal Correctional Institution in Texarkana, believed the killer was planning to continue to make unexpected attacks such as that of Virgil Starks on the outskirts of town. He also believed that the same person committed the murders of Virgil Starks, Betty Jo Booker, Paul Martin, Polly Ann Moore and Richard Griffin. He also believed the killer was between the ages of middle 30s to 50 years old. He said that the killer was apparently motivated by a strong sex drive and that he was a sadist. He said that a person who would commit such crimes is intelligent, clever, shrewd and often not apprehended. According to Lapalla's theories, the killer knew at all times what was being done in the investigation and knew that the lonesome roads were being patrolled, which is why he chose the house on the farmland. He pointed out that his statements were surmised theories that were based on a large number of people who have committed similar crimes. He said in many cases the killer is never apprehended and in some instances he will divert attention to other distant communities where it is believed the crimes are committed by a different individual or else he will overcome the desire to kill and assault women.
Lapalla said that the murderer is probably not a "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" and that he could be leading a normal life, appearing to be a good citizen. He also said that he probably is not a veteran because if the man had served in the armed forces for even a year, the maniacal tendencies would be apparent. He said that the murderer was not necessarily a resident of the area, despite his knowledge of the area. He said that all of the attacks show evidence of cool and cunning planning and that the killer could be from another community and had acquainted himself with the area. He said that the strengthening of the police force would not scare him away but that he would willingly leave due to the difficulty of committing a crime. "This man is extremely dangerous. He works alone and no one knows what he is doing because he tells no one," Lapalla said, adding that the killer may have reasoned in past crimes that the only way to remain unidentified is to kill all persons at the scene. Lapalla did not believe the killer was a black man because "in general, negro criminals are not that clever."
Throughout the investigations of the Phantom Killer case, almost 400 suspects were arrested.
In the Hollis and Larey case, no suspects were apprehended.
In the Griffin and Moore case, over 200 persons were questioned and about the same number of false tips and leads were checked. Three suspects were taken into custody for bloody clothing, two of which were released after officers received satisfying explanations. The remaining suspect was held in Vernon, Texas for further investigation, but was later freed of suspicion.
In the Martin and Booker case, a taxi driver quickly became a major suspect because the cab was seen in the vicinity of the crime scene that morning, but the driver was soon "washed out" as investigations continued. Friends, acquaintances, and several suspects were questioned in three rooms of the Bowie County building by officers who worked in 24-hour relays. Suspects were brought in from a 100-mile radius, both male and female; both white and black. Officers received a lead from Jerry Atkins, Booker's band leader, by claiming that Betty had a saxophone with her. Since no saxophone was found, the missing instrument became an important clue in finding a suspect.
On Saturday, April 27, a man was arrested in Corpus Christi, Texas for trying to sell a saxophone to a music store. On Thursday, April 25, the thirty year-old man walked into a music store without an instrument and asked the sales person if they wanted to buy an alto Bundy saxophone. The girl told him that she would need to speak to her manager. The man replied, "What do you have to talk to him about it for? You work here, don't you?" The girl claimed that the man seemed nervous. Once the manager was summoned, the man fled. The store contacted the police. The man was arrested two days later at a waterfront hotel after purchasing a .45 revolver from a pawn shop. On Tuesday, April 30, the sales girl identified him as the same man who tried selling the saxophone. Although no saxophone was found in his possession, the police found a bag of bloody clothing in his hotel room. The man claimed that the blood was from a cut he had received on his forehead in a bar fight.
After several days of grilling, Captain Gonzaullas stated, "Everything the man tells us is being checked and double checked, and everything he has told us this far has been found to be true. He has answered all of our questions without hesitancy, and we are making every effort to find out if he is telling the truth or is covering up information. We are convinced that thus far the man has told the truth, and if all of his story is found to be true beyond the shadow of a doubt, we can no longer hold him as a suspect." Gonzaullas also stated, "Our duty is not only to apprehend violators of the law, but also to protect innocent persons. When we make an arrest in this case and charges are filed, there must be no mistake. We must get the right man or no man at all." On Friday, May 3, the Gazette reported Gonzaullas' announcement that, "This man has been completely eliminated. He has been checked and double checked and he couldn't have had anything to do with the murder cases here."
In the Starks case, several people who were found in the vicinity of the home were stopped and questioned. Twelve were detained but nine were soon released. The other three were kept for further questioning. Eventually, all detainees were released.
On Wednesday, May 8, it was announced that an escaped German prisoner of war was considered as a suspect. He was hunted as "a matter of routine." He was described as a stocky 24 year-old, weighing 187 pounds, with brown hair and blue eyes. The POW stole a car in Mount Ida, Arkansas and attempted to buy ammunition in several eastern Oklahoma towns.
Meanwhile, late at night on Tuesday, May 7, a 45 year-old black man named Herbert Thomas was flagged down by a hitchhiker in Kilgore. The man said that he needed a ride to Henderson because his mother was seriously ill and offered $5. Thomas said that he wouldn't have given the man a ride but felt like he needed to because the man told such a sad story. When they neared Henderson, the man pulled out a pistol and told Thomas to keep driving or he would kill him like the five people he killed in Texarkana, mentioning Paul Martin and Betty Jo Booker by name. The man told Thomas that he was not done killing and was planning on killing more. He said he was going to return to Texarkana and kill Martin's father. The suspect apparently didn't know that Martin's father was already dead. The man then made Thomas stop in Lufkin and told him to drive back to Kilgore and that if he followed him, he would trail him and kill him. The man stole back the $5 as well as an additional $3. Thomas drove back to Kilgore and reported the incident to the police. Thomas described the man as being 5'8, about 130 lbs., approximately 27 or 28 years old, with red hair and wore khaki trousers and a GI jacket.
During that same night, in Lufkin, a local resident named Robert Atkinson spotted a peeping tom in his window. Atkinson grabbed a flashlight and chased after him but the man escaped. Atkinson then got in his car and went looking for him. Atkinson caught the man he believed was the peeping tom, but the man convinced him that he wasn't the window peeper and that he had just taken his girlfriend home. Atkinson later heard the story about Thomas and decided to notify the police of his experience. Atkinson said the man he saw was 5'9, wore khaki and had hair that could've been dark red. Gonzaullas stated that, "We don't believe that the man who killed the five people here in the past six weeks would boast about his crimes and then let the Negro go."
It's unsure whether the man in each instance was the same man. The police kept searching for the POW, but it was said that he had "vanished into thin air".
On Friday, May 10, in Atoka, Oklahoma, a man walked up to a woman's house and opened her screen door. He asked Mrs. Harmon if he could have some turpentine, food, and money. Mrs. Harmon told the man that she had very little turpentine and had no money or food. The man then grabbed Mrs. Harmon by the hair and dragged her out onto the porch. He told her that he might as well kill her since he had already killed three or four person and that he was going to rape her. He then heard a horse galloping towards them and told her, "There comes a man on a horse. If you report this to officers I'll come back and kill you." After the man ran off, the woman took her child with her to a neighbor's house further up the street and reported it to the police. Soon after her report, a widespread search for the man included 20 officers and 160 residents. She described the man as a 5'9-10 white man about 40 or 45 years old, about 150 to 155 pounds, with dark hair, and was in bad need of a shave. He carried an open, five-inch bladed pocket knife and was wearing gloves, a faded and worn blue shirt with khakis, and had an old, dirty, dark-colored flopped hat.
Police arrested a suspect that closely fitted the description on Sunday. The suspect had gloves that Mrs. Harmon identified as the same gloves worn by her attacker. The man was also wearing blue clothes and khakis. The pocket knife the 33 year-old was carrying, though, had a blade much shorter than five inches. This man was also clean shaven. After investigating the suspect, officers didn't believe the man was the Phantom. According to the man's story about bumming around the country, he couldn't have been in Texarkana during the slaying of Virgil Starks. The man said that he left Pine Bluff in the latter part of April and went to Colorado. Officers said that they were going to thoroughly check his story. They kept him in jail for three weeks so his beard would grow back, which would allow Mrs. Harmon to positively identify him as her attacker.
On Thursday, May 23, 1946, a 21 year-old ex Army Air Force B-24 machine-gunner by the name Ralph B. Baumann told Los Angeles police that he thought he might have been the Phantom. "I've been in a coma; running from something. Maybe murder. I want to clear it up. If I didn't kill five people in Texarkana, I want to settle down and be a stunt man in Hollywood. I'm happiest when I'm living in danger." Previously, he had went to the Los Angeles Examiner and told a reporter, "I want to sell you some murder information. I know who and where the Texarkana Killer is. Give me $5 and let me have an hour's start and I'll put the information in a sealed envelope." The reporter called the police after reading: On a certain day in March, I was in a Texarkana theater watching a Pathé news picture of war. When a party of persons acted wise and said "overacting" it kind of got me. I followed them home. I killed them within a period of three days.
Police arrested the red-head at a downtown shooting gallery; he had just shot his 23rd bulls-eye in a row with a .22 rifle. Baumann said, "I'm my own suspect." He claimed to have been in a coma for several weeks. He said that he woke up from the coma on May 3 with his rifle missing and heard about a suspect matching his description. He then hitch-hiked to Los Angeles feeling like he was running from murder. Baumann said that he was discharged from the AAF for being a psychoneurotic in 1945. The chief of police said, "I feel that the man is certainly a mental case. The Texarkana killings could have been the work of a mental case and so far as we know this man could have done it. But we have absolutely no facts. They will have to be developed, if they exist." Gonzaullas stated that several parts of the man's story had little basis in fact.
Police arrested an unnamed black man in his 30s whose tire tracks were found on the other side of the road from Paul Martin's corpse. After failing a polygraph exam, officers decided to have him hypnotized. The man was taken to a psychiatrist and hypnotist named Travis Elliott. Elliott talked to the man in a private session for a while. Sheriff Presley asked Elliott if the man could be hypnotized. "Yes, but you have the wrong man. He has no criminal tendencies," replied Elliott.
Elliott, later speaking about the session, said "The technique I used on this man was to get him to completely relax. I got him started counting by ones, twos, threes, etc., to a hundred and then backwards. I had established in his mind that I was his friend. He knew he was in very serious trouble and he knew he was innocent. When he went under, he was counting by threes backward. He was completely relaxed. The critical stage is the next state when you say the subject is cataleptic. The longer you keep them in the state of catalepsy, the deeper they sink into the third state. I kept him ten minutes in this state of catalepsy. He was in a state of extreme exhaustion. Sweat was on his face. Observing that even Bill [Sheriff Presley] was still somewhat skeptical of hypnosis, whether or not the man was truly hypnotized or faking, I resorted to a fail safe demonstration. Through suggestion, I removed all feeling, reflex actions, etc., from the subject's right arm and stuck a burning cigarette to his arm--absolutely no reaction. Bill was thoroughly convinced."
Elliott asked the man if he killed Betty Jo Booker, he replied "no". He then asked him if he knew who did; the man said "no". On the night of the murder of Betty Jo Booker and Paul Martin, it was revealed that the suspect spent some time with a friend, dropped him off at home, then pulled over the side of North Park road to urinate. He then visited his paramour, but after the plans didn't work out, he went home and then to bed. Sheriff Presley and his officers then checked the details of the man's story and cleared him as a suspect.
Max Tackett, a 33 year-old Arkansas State Police officer rookie at the time, realized that a car had been stolen on the nights of the murders and a previously stolen car was found abandoned. On Friday, June 28, 1946, Tackett found a car that had been reported stolen in a parking lot. He staked out the car until someone came back to it. He arrested a 21 year-old woman. She said she had just married her husband in Shreveport, but he was currently in Atlanta, Texas trying to sell another stolen car. Homer Carter, chief of police in Atlanta, told Tackett that a man had tried selling a stolen car to one of his citizens. Tackett asked the citizen if he would recognize the suspect, but the man said that he wouldn't. Tackett noticed that the citizen had a distinct look which included a cowboy hat and boots. Tackett told the citizen, "You wouldn't recognize him, but he would recognize you." Max then asked the citizen if he would be willing to walk with him into several public places. Tackett had the idea that the suspect wouldn't want to see the citizen and would try to avoid him. On a Saturday in July, Tackett walked into the Arkansas Motor Coach bus station on Front Street, near Union Station, with the citizen. Tackett saw a man run out the back of the building. He chased after him and caught him on the fire escape. The man, Youell Swinney wouldn't talk, but his wife Peggy confessed in great detail that he was the Phantom Killer and that he killed Betty Jo Booker and Paul Martin.
By law in 1946, Peggy couldn't be made to testify against her husband, and because she was considered as an unreliable witness, Youell wasn't arrested for murder. Instead, with only circumstantial evidence, Swinney was sent to prison for being a habitual offender for car theft.
As in other famous crimes, including the case of Jack the Ripper, the police dealt with numerous false confessions. Tillman Johnson recounted a story about traveling to Shreveport after being notified that the Shreveport police was holding a man in custody for confessing to the crimes. The man was at a bar telling his story to a news reporter. The reporter promised the man a fifth of whiskey if he would "tell all." When Johnson arrived, he noticed the man as a Texarkana alcoholic who had confessed to it before. Calling the man out by name, Johnson said, "You know you didn't kill those people. What'd you go and do this for?" The drunkard replied "Well, hell, I got a fifth of whiskey out of it."
Tackett recalled that nine people tried to convince him that they were the Phantom. He said, "But in every case they could not have been for their stories didn't jibe with what we knew were the detailed facts in the case. You don't tell everything you know about a case. When it gets into the paper, the real criminal finds out how much you know and the confessors will fit those facts into their confessions. You keep yourself two or three pertinent facts to protect yourself from crackpots."
Jimmy Hollis was a 24 year-old insurance agent at the time of the attack. He lived at 3502 N. State Line Avenue; a house which no longer exists. On the night of his attack, he was at the movies on a double date with his brother, Bob, who was also an insurance agent. After the movie, he dropped his brother and his date off. As he and Mary were headed to her house, they stopped on a lateral road off of Richmond where the attack occurred. Jimmy suffered three fractures in his skull and was hospitalized for several days at Texarkana Hospital (also known as Pine street Hospital) which stood at W. 5th and Pine street and no longer exists. He was in very serious critical condition. After four days, he was showing slight improvement but was still not fully conscious. He was released from the hospital on Saturday, March 9. His doctor told him it would be "some time" before he is completely well again and that he was not to work for six months. By the middle of May, he was still recovering from his injuries. Three months after the attack, he stated "I still get nervous when I think about it. At night, on the street, even downtown." Hollis was questioned several times by officers after the other killings. Starting at the end of April, he spent a week with Mary in Frederick, Oklahoma before residing in Shreveport, Louisiana where he considered to take a job as an accountant and bookkeeper.
Mary, a brunette, was 19 when she was attacked and lived at East Hooks courts. She had just been on a double date at the movies with Jimmy's brother and his girlfriend. On the way home, Bob and his date didn't want to ride all the way to Mary's house, so they were dropped off. Jimmy and Mary then headed to the lovers' lane just off of Richmond, where the attack occurred. She was beaten and sexually assaulted with the perpetrator's pistol. She suffered a head wound which was stitched up at the hospital. Afterwards, she had nightly nightmares about her attacker. She then moved to Frederick, Oklahoma to live with her aunt and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Long. Her aunt said that for the first time in Mary's life she was extremely nervous and would not go upstairs by herself or sleep alone.
Three months later, Texarkana Gazette reporter Lucille Holland was flown to Frederick by a man named Paul Burns to interview her. By the time of the interview, officers had not publicly linked Larey's attack with the recent murders. The report appeared in the May 10 edition of the Texarkana Gazette. Mary said "I would know his voice anywhere. It rings always in my ears. Why didn't he kill me too? He killed so many others." Mary revealed the description of the attacker and believed he was a light-skinned black man, indifference to what Jimmy believes. After the first double murder, Larey went to Texarkana to talk to the police in hopes they would connect the incidents and help identify the murderer, but the Rangers questioned her and insisted she knew who her attacker was. After the second double murder, a Texas Ranger went to Frederick to question her again. Larey, native to Oklahoma, died in Billings, Montana of cancer in 1965 at the age of 38.
Richard Griffin was born August 31, 1916. He was a 29 year-old war veteran who was discharged from the Seabees in November 1945. He was a carpenter and painter and handled his own contracting. Richard was living with his mother, Mrs. R. H. Griffin, at 155 Robison Courts which was built for servicemen returning from World War II and no longer exists after undergoing demolition. Griffin attended school in Linden, Texas and Union Chapel, Cass County. Griffin was last seen around 10 p.m. on Saturday, March 23, in a West 7th street (US Highway 67 West) cafe with his sister, Eleanor, and her boyfriend J. A. Proctor. He was also seen earlier at another West 7th street cafe by friends around 2 p.m. He was found fully clothed on his knees between the front seats of his 1941 Oldsmobile sedan with his pockets turned inside out and his head resting on his crossed hands. He was shot once in the back of the head.
Griffin's body was sent to the Texarkana Funeral Home and was then sent to Union Chapel Methodist church in Cass county at 2:30 p.m. on Tuesday, March 26, for funeral services officiated by former pastor Rev. Mr. Everett, assisted by the current Rev. Mr. Curtwright. He is buried in Union Chapel Cemetery in Cass County. He was survived by his mother, two brothers (Welborn and David) and two sisters (Miss Eleanor Griffin and Mrs. Merle Curtis).
Polly Moore was born November 10, 1928. Moore, a seventeen year-old brunette, graduated from Atlanta, Texas high school in 1945 at the age of 16 and worked for the Red River Arsenal (now Red River Army Depot) as a checker since July of that year. She lived at a boardinghouse with her cousin, Mrs. Ardella Campbell, on the Texas side at 1215 Magnolia St. The home no longer exists as it was demolished for the construction to widen State Line Avenue. She had dated Richard for six weeks at the time of her death. Friends described her as being "homey" as she didn't go out with boys much. She was last seen by friends on Saturday with Richard at 2 p.m. at a W 7th street café and then later at 10 p.m. at another café on W 7th street. She was having dinner with Richard's sister and her boyfriend. She was found fully clothed wearing her class ring with the inscription "P.A.M. -- '45", which helped identify her. She was sprawled face down across the back seat in Richard's car with a gunshot wound in the back of her head. The picture of her used in the next morning's newspaper was found in her purse which was beside her in the back seat. The picture is of her at her former home in Douglassville, Texas with her arm wrapped around a black and white dog.
Her body was taken to the Texarkana Funeral Home and was then sent to Hanner Funeral Home in Atlanta, Texas. She is buried at Bryans Mill Cemetery in Cass County, Texas. She was survived by her mother, Lizzie Moore, one brother, Melton, and grandmother, Della Melton.
Paul Martin was born in Smackover, Arkansas on May 8, 1929. He was a 16 year-old junior at the time of his death. He worked in his family's ice plant in Kilgore when he was young. His brother, R. S. Martin, Jr., said he was a quiet kid. He was a member of Beech Street Baptist church, the same church as Betty Jo. He completed the ninth grade at Arkansas Junior High school. He then attended Gulf Coast Military Academy at Gulfport, Mississippi in 1945 before going to school at Kilgore. He and Betty Jo were friends since Fairview kindergarten on the Arkansas side before she moved to the Texas side in 1944. Paul soon moved to Kilgore afterwards.
Before his death, Paul came to Texarkana from Kilgore on Friday, April 12. Paul hung out with his friend, Tom Albritton, that night at Paul's Texarkana residence at 1222 Locust (now 1224). The next day he hung out with Betty at her place during the afternoon. He picked up Betty Jo Booker from her regular Saturday night gig at the VFW Club on W. 4th and Oak street early Sunday morning around 2 a.m. He was found dead four hours later, shot to death. His body was lying on its left side beside the north side of North Park road, a mile and a half away from his car. His body was picked up by an East Funeral Home ambulance. His funeral was held two days later at his church, Beech Street Baptist, on April 16, at 10 a.m. during heavy rainfall. His friend Tom Albritton was one of his pallbearers. He was buried at Hillcrest Cemetery on US 67 W./W. 7th St (Plot: Sec B, Lot 150, Space 3). He was survived by his mother, Mrs. Inez Martin (died in 1972), and three brothers, Jack Martin, Hugh Martin (died in 1974) and R. S. Martin, Jr.
His mother went back to Kilgore the following Wednesday after his death. She stated that she objected to him coming to Texarkana; not because of a sense of danger in Texarkana, but because she feared for him getting into a wreck on his trip alone.
Betty was born June 5, 1930. She was an auburn-haired 15 year-old junior at Texas High School at the time of her death. She was raised in church and, like her friend Paul, a member of Beech Street Baptist church. She was also a member of Delta Beta Sigma sorority. She was one of four officers in the high school band and played the Bundy E-flat alto saxophone second in Jerry Atkins' orchestra, The Rythmaires, who would play at proms and other events. In 1937, her mother, Bessie Brown, married her stepfather Carl Brown, an employee of the Gifford-Hill Company, several years after the death of her father. She and Paul Martin were friends since kindergarten on the Arkansas side until she moved to the Texas side at 3105 Anthony Drive.
She was very popular, had many friends, and was well liked in school. She had many boyfriends but none which were serious. She loved music and swimming and liked dancing in programs and recitals. She won many rewards, scholastic, literary and musical, as well as the city-wide Little Miss Texarkana representing the Presbyterian Book Store in 1934. She was a near straight-A student who was planning to become a medical technician. After her death, The Rythmaires never played again. The night before the attack, she played at her regular Saturday night gig at the VFW building on 4th and Oak street. She was then picked up by her friend Paul and was headed to a slumber party. She was killed early Sunday morning. Her body was removed by an East Funeral Home ambulance.
Several classmates and her band leader, Jerry Atkins, attended her funeral two days later at her church, Beech Street Baptist. It was held on April 16, at 2 p.m., four hours after Paul's, also during heavy rainfall. Texas High School dismissed at noon that day for her funeral. Hundreds of young people attended the separate funerals. Betty Jo's mother couldn't control her grief as she watched the long line of teenagers file by her casket. Atkins was one of the pallbearers. She was then buried in Woodlawn Cemetery located between 3006 State Line Avenue and 3085 County Avenue. Miss Booker was survived by her mother (died in 1977), stepfather, both grandparents, three aunts and three uncles.
Friends do not know how or why she ended up at Spring Lake Park, knowing that she and Paul were just friends. Even after all this time, classmates of Betty and Paul do not want to be identified. The murders are still vivid. "We were all extremely frightened and extremely upset. And in a way we still are," said one classmate in 1996. Jerry Atkins stated "What happened was so tragic and for many of us who lived through it, the frustration and sadness will always be there." Betty Jo's parents stayed at their Texas home until October '46 when they moved to 1417 Locust (now 1407?).
Virgil Starks was born April 3, 1909. He was a 37 year-old who lived in a modest yet modern ranch-style home on his 500-acre farm for five years and which was located about 10 miles northeast of Texarkana on Highway 67 East. He lived not far from his brother, Charlie (died in 1960), and only two miles away from his father, Jack (died in 1951). He married Katherine Ila Stricklin on March 2, 1932. Known as a progressive farmer, he was also a welder who would do welding work for neighboring farmers. He had no known enemies and was said to be a neighbor of excellent reputation and was respected and trusted by everyone who knew him. He was a member of the First Methodist church on Sixth and Laurel streets for years.
On Friday, May 3 around 8:50 p.m. Virgil was relaxing in his chair in the sitting room just off of the kitchen and bedroom with a heating pad on his back. He was listening to his favorite radio program and reading the Friday, May 3 edition of the Texarkana Gazette when he was shot from a closed double window, which faced the highway, three feet behind him. He was shot in the back of the head by two slugs and died almost instantly. His funeral, which his recovering wife couldn't attend, was held the following Monday at his church at 2:30 p.m. More than 500 people attended his funeral; more than 60 which were his and his wife's relatives. He was buried in Hillcrest cemetery on Highway 67 West; same cemetery as Paul Martin. He was survived by his wife, parents, sister (Mrs. Millard Boyce, Jr.), brother (Charlie), two nieces, and one nephew.
Katie Starks was born September 25, 1909. Katie was 36 at the time of the attack. She was an attractive brunette married to Virgil Starks and lived at their farmhouse of five years on 500 acres of farmland off Highway 67 East almost 10 miles northeast of Texarkana. Her sister, Mrs. Allen, lived directly across the street from her. She was the daughter of Jim Stricklin. She and Virgil went to school together growing up because their parents lived on neighboring farms in Red Springs, Texas. A friend had stated that she and Virgil were two of the best people he had ever known. After discovering her husband dead, she ran to telephone police. She rung the phone twice when she was shot two times in the face. One bullet went through the right cheek beside the nose, emerging behind the left ear, and the other went in her lower jaw below the lip, breaking her jaw and splintering several teeth before lodging under her tongue. She ran to a neighbor's house who then took her to the hospital where she recovered.
She eventually remarried. At 84 years old, she died as Katie Starks Sutton on July 3, 1994 and is buried between both husbands in Hillcrest cemetery.
Tillman Johnson was born May 24, 1911 in Stamps, Arkansas. He moved to Texarkana in the 1930s and started working for the Miller County Sheriff's Department in 1938. He served two years in the military during World War II before he returned home and worked on the Virgil Starks murder case. He soon became one of the leading investigators. Johnson did not believe that the Phantom committed the Starks murder. He was a member of First United Methodist Church of East Sixth street. He was the last surviving lawman of the Phantom slayings, and was the "go to" man for the case. He had been contacted from many interested individuals, including television crews, from all over the world, including China, Sweden and Australia. He kept many personal files of the case; most of which became the only case files, since many of the original official files, photographs, and police notes went missing from both police departments. Johnson firmly believed the Phantom was caught, the prime suspect Youell Swinney.
Johnson retired from the sheriff's office in 1957 and became an insurance adjuster, which he retired from in the 1970s. He then became a private investigator. Johnson died Wednesday, December 10, 2008 at the age of 97 in a local hospital. He was survived by two sons, a daughter-in-law, one daughter, a son-in-law, two grandsons and granddaughters-in-law, one granddaughter and 12 great-grandchildren. He is buried near the grave of his police peer, Max Tackett, at the farthest west-side of Rondo Memorial Park (not to be confused with Rondo Cemetery) in Miller County, Arkansas.
Max Tackett was born August 13, 1912 in Glenwood, Arkansas. Max started living in Texarkana in 1941. He was a member of the Arkansas State Police from 1941 to 1948 having served as a trooper then a special investigator during that period. Tackett was the Texarkana Arkansas Police Chief from 1948 until his retirement in 1968. In 1951 he became the president of the Arkansas Peace Officers Association. He was a World War II combat veteran who had served in Belgium, France, Holland, and Germany. Max was a member of the Beech Street Baptist Church and a member of the Optimists Club. Max was said to be colorful, outspoken and even a controversial figure in the police department. Max became the arresting officer of the lead suspect, Youell Swinney, when he realized that on each night of the murders a car was stolen and then later abandoned.
Tackett died on Sunday, March 12, 1972 at midnight (March 13) in a local hospital at the age of 59. His funeral was the following Wednesday at 2 p.m. at the Texarkana Funeral Home Chapel. He was buried in Rondo Memorial Park. Survivors included his wife, Mrs. Caroline Tackett, a son, John Tackett of Birmingham, Alabama, a daughter, Mrs. Sandra Zaleske of Bensenville, Illinois, two brothers, Boyd Tackett of Texarkana and John Zane Tackett of Nashville, Arkansas, two sisters, Mrs. Mary E. Rankin of Nashville, and Mrs. Minnie Raines of St. Louis, Missouri.
William Presley was born April 25, 1895 in the Red Springs community of Bowie County. He was a member of the Men's Bible Class at First United Methodist Church on Fourth street and State Line Avenue. Presley had served 20 years in elected office, including terms as county commissioner, county treasurer, and sheriff. He was a veteran of World War I and had served overseas in France with the American Expeditionary Forces. He was a member of Chapelwood Methodist Church, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and was a 32nd degree Mason and a Shriner. He was a long-time friend of Texas City Chief of Police Jack N. Runnels and he knew the Starks family well. He was the first lawman on the scene of Mary Jeanne Larey's attack, as well as the first and second double murders.
Presley died Saturday, May 27, 1972 at 1:38 a.m. in a local hospital at the age 77. His funeral was held the following Monday at 10 a.m. He is buried in Eylau Cemetery off Gun Club road, which is off of South Lake Drive in Bowie County. His grave is near the end of the second row from the entrance.
Jack Runnels was born September 26, 1897. Runnels was a long-time friend of Bowie County Sheriff Presley. He was with Presley as they were the first ones called to the scenes of both double murders. Runnels was also the leading investigator of the missing saxophone after it had been found. He was a law enforcement officer for 30 years; 20 of those years as chief of police, having been re-elected ten times. He retired in 1953 and became a farmer.
Runnels, 69, died at 11:15 a.m. on Friday, October 14, 1966 in a local hospital from a heart attack he had suffered a few hours earlier. He was survived by his wife, three sons (R. E. Gray of Jefferson City, Missouri, Bob Gray of Shreveport, and Captain Preston E. Gray of the U. S. Air Force), three daughters (Mrs. Denny Worley of New Orleans, Mrs. Walter Espy of San Antonio, and Mrs. L. M. Burch of Texarkana), six grandchildren and three sisters (Mrs. Patsy Strayhorn, Mrs. W. R. Turquette and Mrs. Ernest Ford). His funeral was held at 4 p.m. on Monday, 17. He is buried at the far left side of Hillcrest cemetery (front row of section H).
Manuel Trazazas Gonzaullas was born July 4, 1891 in Cádiz, Spain by parents that were naturalized American citizens. He married in 1920, and enlisted in the Texas Rangers that same year. He was in charge of controlling gambling, bank robbery, bootlegging, narcotic trafficking, prostitution, riots and general lawlessness from the Red River to the Rio Grande and from El Paso to the Sabine during the 1920s and 1930s. He was made captain of the Company B Texas Rangers in 1940. In 1946, while hunting the Phantom, he swore to stay in Texarkana until the killer was apprehended, but left three months after the last murder. Gonzaullas believed the attack on Hollis and Larey was not the Phantom. He also believed someone else committed the murder of Virgil Starks. He retired from the Rangers in 1951 and moved to Hollywood to become a technical consultant for radio, television, and motion pictures; most notably the long-running 1950s radio and TV show "Tales of the Texas Rangers." Gonzaullas, a Mason and Presbyterian, died of cancer at the age of 85 in Dallas, Texas on February 13, 1977. He is buried in Sparkman/Hillcrest Memorial Park in Dallas, Texas.
J.Q. Mahaffey, Texarkana Gazette editor during the spree of the Phantom, described Gonzaullas:
"...he was one of the best-looking men I have ever seen and wore a spotless khaki suit and a white 10-gallon hat. He packed two pearl-handled revolvers on his hips and did not deny that he was the Ranger who sat in the cashier's office in the Crazy Water Hotel in Mineral Wells and gunned down two ex-convicts who sought to rob the place. He was so good-looking that my girl reporters wouldn't leave him alone. He really didn't have time to hunt down the Phantom. He was too busy giving out interviews and trying to run the Gazette. All of the other officers working on the case were intensely jealous of Lone Wolf and complained bitterly every time his picture appeared in the paper."
Mahaffey also stated that after the murder of Virgil Starks, the police made the farmhouse off limits to everybody. "Several nights later, I was holding forth in the Arkansas police station when a call came through that a neighbor had seen strange lights in the farmhouse. We sped to the scene and I hid behind a car while Police Chief Max Tackett and three other patrolmen approached the house. Chief Tackett yelled into the house that the place was surrounded and the Phantom might as well give up. Who do you suppose walked out? None other than Lone Wolf Gonzaullas of the Texas Rangers and a woman photographer from Life and Time magazines. Lone Wolf explained rather sheepishly that he had been re-enacting the crime and the young lady was taking pictures of him. Police Chief Tackett turned to me and shouted at the top of his voice, 'Mahaffey, you can quote me as saying that the Phantom Murders will never be solved until Texarkana gets rid of the big city press and the Texas Rangers.'"
Louis "Swampy" Graves, a Texarkana Gazette reporter in 1946, described Gonzaullas as a handsome man with a lot of personality. "He was well-built and wore a whipcord suit and a battle jacket with bright buttons. He was very clean looking, with an olive complexion, and wore pearl-handled pistols, one on each hip. He looked like a typical Texas Ranger," said Graves. "He would have been perfect in the Old West. He fit the description going around in those years about the number of Texas Rangers needed to quell a riot. One Riot, One Texas Ranger."
On Tuesday, May 7, 1946 (four days after Starks' murder), a body of a man was found on the Kansas City Southern Railway tracks 16 miles north of Texarkana near Ogden at approximately 6 a.m. He was lying face-down beside the tracks with his head to the north. The man's left arm (severed at the elbow) and leg (severed at the hip) were on the inside of the tracks which were cut off by a freight train that had passed at 5:30 a.m. The body was taken to Phillips Funeral Home in Ashdown for examination. The coroner's jury's verdict stated, "death at the hands of persons unknown," and that "he was dead before being placed on the railroad tracks." Little River county sheriff, Jim Sanderson, however, scoffed at the coroner's report and said that the man died when he fell under the wheels of a passing freight train. The coroner examined the body a second time and found further evidence of murder. The Little River county coroner explained that "We found a deep cut over the man's temple [two inches wide and one and one-half inches long] which is sufficiently deep to cause death. We also found cuts about the man's hands and wrists which would indicate that the man grappled with another person who had a knife. All of these wounds were clean, and indicated that the cuts were made with a sharp instrument. The wounds which we believed the man received when his body was struck by the train were full of dirt and were jagged."
The coroner believed that he was dead for a full two hours before being placed on the tracks and that there wasn't enough blood around the wounds which caused his death before being found. Blood was found on the street near the crime scene, supporting the coroner's theory. Sheriff Sanderson still believed the man's death was accidental, regardless of the coroner's report, saying "I think the man fell from the train and was killed." The coroner maintained the verdict that the man died of knife wounds.
The man was identified as Earl Cliff McSpadden from a social security card (147-09-4323) which was issued in Baltimore, Maryland. McSpadden's brother, R. C. McSpadden, contacted an attendant at the Ashdown funeral home after hearing about his death over the radio. The relative reported that McSpadden was employed by a company that "travels around a lot." Earl was said by his brother to be a transient oil storage tank builder. The relative wasn't sure where McSpadden was living at the time. It was also found that McSpadden had registered at the United States Employment Service in Shreveport. The body was taken from Phillips Funeral Home by a Prewitt Funeral Home ambulance from Dallas.
Since the murder is unsolved, it has been speculated that McSpadden was the Phantom's sixth victim. A prominent rumor exists claiming that McSpadden was the Phantom who had committed suicide by jumping in front of a train, taking his secrets with him in death.
On November 5, 1948, an 18 year-old freshman, H. B. "Doodie" Tennison, from Arkansas University, was found dead in his bed at home in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Washington County Sheriff Bruce Crider discovered that Tennison had purchased cyanide of mercury on November 3, explaining that he was going to use it for rat poison. A note was found in a folder reading:
The opening to my box will be found in the following few lines. In a tube of paper is found, rolls on colors and it is dry and sound. The head removes, the tail will turn, and inside is the sheet you yearn. Two bees mean a lot when they are together. These clues should lead you to it.
A note was found inside a Beebe fountain pen which was in a locked box in the room. Poison was found on the cap of the pen. The note read:
To Whom It May Concern:
This is my last word to you fine people, and you are fine. I want to thank you for all the trouble that you have gone to, to send me to college and to bring me up, you have really been wonderful. My thanks to Ella Lee [Mrs. McGee, the owner of the house he was rooming in] for letting me stay with her during my college career, and to Belva Jo [Mrs. McGee's 12 year-old daughter] for putting up with me the way she did, she had to I know, but I fell in love with her about a week ago, if she was older I would have asked her to marry me, but that would be impossible.
Why did I take my own life? Well, when you committed two double murders you would too. Yes I did kill Betty Jo Booker and Paul Martin in the city park that night, and killed Mr. Starks and tried to get Mrs. Starks. You wouldn't have guessed it, I did it when Mother was either out or asleep, and no one saw me do it. For the guns, I disassembled them and discarded them in different places. When I am found, which has already been done, please give this typewriter to Craig [Tennison's older brother], and tell him that I hope that his child is a boy, it will (help) him in his work. Everything can go wherever you think it will do best except for the View-Master which will go to Belva Jo. Please take my bankroll and give it to Daddy, I think it should go to him, and tell him I don't want the car now. Well, goodbye everybody. See you sometime, if I make the grade which will be hard for me to make.
H. B. Tennison
Tennison had written many rough drafts with a pencil and then completed type-written copies. He had even created his own newspaper headlines after being found. One reading, "UA Student Found Dead," another reading, "UA Student Commits Suicide." Printed words on a sign read: "Do not disturb, death in the making." He also wrote his own epitaph, which read: "Here lies H. B. Tennison. Born Feb. 12, 1930. Died Oct. 2, 1948. He committed suicide for the happiness of his family. May He rest in peace. Amen." The officers found several more notes over a period of time. Sheriff Crider had no idea in which order the many notes were written because they were all undated. Miller County Sheriff W. E. Davis and Bowie County Sheriff Bill Presley were surprised by the news. They said that the youth was never a suspect in the killings and that a detailed investigation would be made. Max Tackett left El Dorado, Arkansas to investigate the incident in Fayetteville. Texas Ranger Stewart Stanley was sent to investigate the suicide by "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas. Fingerprints were taken from Tennison to see if any match could be made on the still-unclassified prints taken at the scene of the Booker/Martin murders. Mrs. Bessie Brown, Betty Jo Booker's mother, visited Tennison's mother to offer sympathy and told her that she felt that Tennison had nothing to do with her daughter's death.
Officers later found a contradiction note. Tennison wrote:
Please disregard all other messages which I have written, they are only thoughts which I was thinking about as possible reasons for taking my own life.
As I think about it, it is none of these things. They are not the reasons for this incident, there's a much later point to it all. Happiness. Yes happiness. If I am out of the way, all the family can get down to their own lives.
Mother will not have to worry about me making my grades, and Daddy will not have to put out more money on me, which would do no more good than it did in high school.
No one will have to worry about me, keep having to push me through the things which would be best for me.
...Running away would not do any good, the police would find me wherever I went and would bring me back to it all.
James Freeman, a 16 year-old friend of Tennison from Texarkana, came forward and talked to a deputy prosecutor after hearing that Tennison confessed to being the Phantom. Freeman explained that on the night of Virgil Starks' death, he was with him at Tennison's house playing cards or checkers between 7 p.m. and midnight. That night, they both heard the news of Starks' death. Tennison's brothers, J. D. Jr. and Craig, said the confession and suicide were "fantastic things" induced by reading too many comic books. They both stated that he didn't know guns, and didn't care for weapons, hunting, or shooting. All guns that Tennison would have had access to didn't match the bullets used in the Phantom murders. Craig said that he taught Tennison how to drive a car in the summer of 1947. Bowie County Sheriff Bill Presley stated that he was notified Tuesday, November 9, that the fingerprints from Tennison did not match those at the Booker/Martin crime scene. A ballistics expert from Little Rock, Arkansas revealed that cartridge cases of test bullets fired from rifles Tennison would have had access to were nothing like the case of the bullets found at Starks' home.
H. B. Tennison was born February 12, 1930. He was 6 feet, 3 inches tall and weighed 130 lbs. He was extremely shy and was said by his sister, Mrs. Alys Jo Daniel, that he had a sunny disposition and that she doesn't remember him being a moody person. Tennison didn't have many boy or girl companions. He played the trombone in the Arkansas High School band with Betty Jo Booker, but they were not friends. He was very fond of comic books and loved listening to radio plays, especially quiz programs. He used to work as a part-time usher in one of the Texarkana's theaters. Though he was an average student and wasn't interested in school work, he graduated in June 1948. After high school, he traveled for his father's Memphis firm, Tennison Bros. Inc., which manufactured sheet metal products. Tennison swallowed poison and died on November 5, 1948. A private funeral consisting of family and close friends were held at his family's home on Hickory street Saturday, November 6 at 4 p.m. He is buried in Hillcrest Cemetery on US Highway 67 West.
On Monday, July 9, 1956, a worker tearing down the Spring Lake Park School found red-stained mens' clothing in the attic under a table scarf having the same stains. The school was located across the railroad tracks near the scene where Paul Martin's car was found. The clothing was sent to the state laboratory in Austin, Texas by Texas city police to determine if the stains were human blood. The clothing had been there for a long time because they were deteriorating. The clothing consisted of white linen trousers, and a white linen shirt and undershirt.
Before the test results came in, officers were cautious in linking the clothing to certain "particular murders" in the area. Officers received a written report claiming that the stains were blood, but it failed to give a blood-type. Officers were concerned and made a long distance phone call to the Bureau of Investigation of the State Department of Public Safety and were told that there had been a mistake and that the letter should have said the stains were "not" blood. The stains turned out to be paint stains. The "blood"-stained clothing were speculated as being hidden by the Phantom; a rumor which still persists, as of mid-2013.
Every October near Halloween, the movie The Town That Dreaded Sundown, which is loosely based on Texas Ranger Captain M. T. "Lone Wolf" Gonzaullas' investigation into the murders, is the last movie shown to the public during "Movies in the Park" at Spring Lake Park (where the second double murder occurred) when the weather permits, or at the Southwest Center (near where the first double murder occurred) when it does not. Movies in the Park plays four movies in the months of May and October, with The Town That Dreaded Sundown being last. The free event is sponsored by The Texarkana, Texas Department of Parks & Recreation. The showing of the movie has been a tradition since 2003. About 600 people showed up at the showing in 2008.
Texarkana, Texas Parks & Recreation Department Director Robby Robertson in 2009 said many people have called and asked for a DVD copy of the film. Robertson said, "It's still shown only on VHS tape and those aren't even available anymore." There was no official release on DVD until 2013, and before then, it wasn't very easy to obtain. Robertson said that the city couldn't go to a local video store to rent or buy the film. Instead, because of legal restrictions, the city had to rent it through a movie distributor for $175 to $200 per showing. The film was released on Blu-Ray on May 21, 2013.