Paracetamol toxicity is caused by excessive use or overdose of the analgesic drug paracetamol (called acetaminophen in North America). Mainly causing liver injury, paracetamol toxicity is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide. In the United States and the United Kingdom it is the most common cause of acute liver failure.
Many individuals with paracetamol toxicity may have no symptoms at all in the first 24 hours following overdose. Others may initially have nonspecific complaints such as vague abdominal pain and nausea. With progressive disease, signs of liver failure may develop; these include low blood sugar, low blood pH, easy bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy. Some will spontaneously resolve, although untreated cases may result in death.
Aspirin/paracetamol/caffeine is a combination drug for the treatment of pain, especially tension headache and migraine. It is sold in the US under the trade name Excedrin, although not all products sold under this name contain this combination.
The recommended dosing has a low risk profile when taken occasionally in a well hydrated state. As with all medications containing paracetamol (acetaminophen), concomitant use with alcohol carries a significant risk of hepatotoxicity. The combination of paracetamol with aspirin also creates the risk of renal papillary necrosis if large doses are taken chronically. This is due to the fact that paracetamol yields a toxic metabolite that can accumulate in the kidney while aspirin works to deplete the glutathione stores necessary to oxidize it. Additionally, chronic aspirin usage is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
The Rumack-Matthew nomogram, also known as Rumack-Matthews nomogram or the Acetaminophen nomogram is an acetaminophen toxicity nomogram plotting serum concentration of acetaminophen against the time since ingestion in an attempt to prognosticate possible liver toxicity as well as allowing a clinician to decide whether to proceed with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment or not. It is a logarithmic graph starting not directly from ingestion, but from 4 hours post ingestion after absorption is considered likely to be complete.
In hands of skilled clinicians this nomogram allows for timely management of acetaminophen overdose. Generally, a serum plasma concentration (APAP) of 140-150 microgram/mL (or milligrams/L) at 4 hours post ingestion, indicates the need for NAC treatment. This nomogram is not used alone if the patient has altered mental status or if the history is not reliable. Rather, a second level should be drawn and plotted to see if the slope of the line remains at or above the nomogram. A formal half life may also be determined. Measure at time (t=0) upon admission of the patient to the emergency room, and a blood value at time (t=4 hrs) should be obtained and half-life calculated. If half-life is more than 4 hours, then treatment is necessary to prevent hepatotoxicity and liver failure.
Bromo-Seltzer (acetaminophen, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid), is an antacid used to relieve pain occurring together with heartburn, upset stomach, or acid indigestion. First produced by inventor Isaac E. Emerson's drug company of Baltimore, Maryland in 1888, Bromo-Seltzer is sold in the United States in the form of effervescent granules which must be mixed with water before ingestion.
In the days of classic radio, it was known for its slogan which was repeated rhythmically in imitation of a railroad steam engine: "BRO-mo-Selt-zer, BRO-mo-Selt-zer, ..." There is also a clock tower in Baltimore, Maryland, known as the Bromo-Seltzer Tower, which has the name written on the face of the clock. Patterned on the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The tower originally had a 51 ft (16 m) Bromo-Seltzer bottle, glowing blue and rotating. Weighing 20 tons (18.1 tonnes), it was lined with 314 incandescent light bulbs and topped with a crown. The bottle was removed in 1936 because of structural concerns.
Stella Nickell (born August 7, 1943) is an American woman who was sentenced to 90 years in prison for product tampering after she allegedly poisoned Excedrin capsules with lethal cyanide, resulting in the deaths of her husband Bruce and of Susan Snow. Her May 1988 conviction and prison sentence were the first under federal product tampering laws instituted after the Chicago Tylenol murders.
Major League Baseball on ESPN Radio is the brand name for exclusive play-by-play broadcast presentation of Major League Baseball on ESPN Radio. The coverage has most recently been presented by AutoZone; previous presenting sponsors included Xerox, Excedrin, and the United States Postal Service.
In 1998, ESPN Radio took over from CBS Radio as the official, national radio broadcaster for Major League Baseball. The network's contract with MLB currently runs through 2021, and as of 2006, Major League Baseball on ESPN Radio is heard on over 321 stations across the United States.
Jay William Schulberg (July 17, 1939 – January 12, 2005) was an American advertising executive who had chief creative positions at both Ogilvy & Mather and Bozell Worldwide, with an approach to developing concise ads with memorable taglines. He was responsible for creating advertising slogans including the Got Milk? milk mustache campaign, the "Excedrin Headache" that could only be cures by the "extra-strength pain reliever", and the line "Don't Leave Home Without It", originally delivered by Karl Malden for American Express.
Born in Manhattan on July 17, 1939, Schulberg attended New York University, from which he graduated in 1961. He had originally planned to pursue a career as a screenwriter, following in the path of his cousin Budd Schulberg, who had written the Academy Award-winning screenplay for On the Waterfront.
Methapyrilene is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the pyridine chemical class which was developed in the early 1950s. It was sold under the trade names Co-Pyronil and Histadyl EC. It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it was the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s when methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats when given chronically.
Goody's Powder is an over-the-counter pain reliever, in powder form, marketed and sold by Prestige Brands. Goody's contains aspirin, caffeine, and acetaminophen, in a formula similar to Excedrin, a product of Novartis. The formulation of "Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders" is currently 520 mg. aspirin, 260 mg. acetaminophen and 32.5 mg. caffeine, which differs from other similarly powdered products under the same brand name.
Goody's is sold primarily in the southern United States. For many years, the face of Goody's has been NASCAR legend Richard Petty, who appears in television commercials, billboards and print advertisements for the product. He and country music artist Trace Adkins, a spokesman for GSK's former sister brand BC Powder, have recorded a series of radio advertisements together.
Flight Deck is a steel inverted roller coaster located at California's Great America in Northern California. Built by Bolliger & Mabillard, Flight Deck made its debut March 19, 1993 as Top Gun. It is the park's most popular ride. This was Bolliger & Mabillard's second inverted coaster behind Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great America. The third inverted coaster from Bolliger & Mabillard opened a little under two months later at Six Flags Great Adventure. The inverted roller coaster has become Bolliger & Mabillard's most popular brand of coaster. Flight Deck at California's Great America isn't quite as tall, nor as fast or long (in length) as its partner, Afterburn at Carowinds. At the end of the 2007 season, the ride was renamed from Top Gun to Flight Deck, and renamed again in January as Afterburn, only to have the name reverted to Flight Deck.
Flight Deck was also featured in a commercial for Excedrin in 2007.
Salonpas is a brand name of a line of over-the-counter (OTC) pain relieving products manufactured by Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co., Inc. of Tosu City, Japan. Introduced to the Japanese market in 1934, Salonpas is now sold in approximately fifty countries. The largest markets for the products are Japan and other Asian nations such as Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan. According to Hisamitsu, approximately 20 billion Salonpas transdermal patches have been sold in the last 20 years.
Similar products are marketed by other companies, including Absorbine Jr. Pain Relief, Excedrin Cooling Pads, and Icy Hot Patches.
Herzog-Jackson Motorsports was a NASCAR Busch Series team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Originating as Herzog Motorsports, the team was owned by Bill, Randy, and Stan Herzog. In its final year, the team was co-owned by former Oakland A's and New York Yankees player Reggie Jackson. The team is notable for fielding two future champions in Todd Bodine and Jimmie Johnson.
Herzog Motorsports started as an off-road racing team. The team won the 1998 SODA Pro-2 (rear wheel drive) championship with rookie driver Rick Johnson. Johnson won 6 of 16 events.
A combination drug most commonly refers to a fixed-dose combination (FDC), which is a formulation including two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) combined in a single dosage form, which is manufactured and distributed in certain respective fixed doses. Terms like "combination drug" or "combination drug product" can be common shorthand for a FDC product (since most combination drug products are currently FDCs), although the latter is more precise if in fact referring to a mass-produced product having a predetermined combination of drugs and respective dosages (as opposed to customized polypharmacy via compounding). And it should also be distinguished from the term "combination product" in medical contexts, which without further specification can refer to products that combine different types of medical products - such as device/drug combinations as opposed to drug/drug combinations. Note that when a combination drug product (whether fixed-dose or not) is a "pill" (i.e., a tablet or capsule), then it is also a kind of "polypill" or combopill.
Initially, fixed-dose combination drug products were developed to target a single disease (such as with antiretroviral FDCs used against AIDS). However, FDCs may also target multiple diseases/conditions, such as Caduet (atorvastatin/amlodipine) or Exforge (amlodipine/valsartan). In cases of FDCs targeting multiple conditions, such conditions might often be related — in order to increase the number of prospective patients who might be likely to utilize a given FDC product. This is because each FDC product is mass-produced, and thus typically requires having a critical mass of potentially applicable patients in order to justify its manufacture, distribution, stocking, etc.
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as a medicine or (loosely) medication, officially called medicinal product, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance — or product comprising such — intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. The word pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word Pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of Pharmakeia is Pharmacia.
Medicines can be classified in various ways, such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.