Benzodiazepine drug misuse, sometimes called benzodiazepine drug abuse (both terms are merely nominal, and cover all non-medical uses of the drugs), is defined as using benzodiazepines for recreational purposes i.e. to get "high" or continuing benzodiazepines long term against medical advice. The level of benzodiazepine misuse is as high as other common drugs of misuse. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken intranasally or intravenously. Recreational use produces effects similar to alcohol intoxication. In tests in pentobarbital trained rhesus monkeys benzodiazepines produced effects similar to barbiturates. In a 1991 study, triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam.
Studies have indicated that those benzodiazepines which are more rapidly absorbed and those with a quick rate of elimination have the highest abuse potential. Self-injection rates of triazolam, temazepam and midazolam have been shown in several studies to be considerably higher when compared to other benzodiazepines.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines has developed a physical dependence (which is distinct from behavioral addiction where a person seeks a high, or exhibits other "addictive" behaviors such as far exceeding prescribed dosages, engaging in criminal behaviors for the sake of obtaining said "high," a continuation of medication abuse despite consistent and significant harm, or attempts to circumvent medical aid with regard to the dependence) undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation. It is characterized by often severe sleep disturbance, irritability, increased tension and anxiety, panic attacks, hand tremor, sweating, difficulty with concentration, confusion and cognitive difficulty, memory problems, dry retching and nausea, weight loss, palpitations, headache, muscular pain and stiffness, a host of perceptual changes, hallucinations, seizures, psychosis, and suicide (see "Signs and Symptoms" section below for full list). Further, these symptoms are notable for the manner in which they wax and wane and vary in severity from day to day or week by week instead of steadily decreasing in a straightforward linear manner.
It is a potentially serious condition, and is complex and often protracted in time course. Not every long-term user will experience symptoms upon discontinuation, but the proportion of those who will has been variably estimated to be between 15% and 44%. Long-term use, defined as daily use for at least three months, is not desirable because of the associated increased risk of dependence, dose escalation, loss of efficacy, increased risk of accidents and falls, particularly for the elderly, as well as cognitive, neurological, and intellectual impairments. Use of short-acting hypnotics, while being effective at initiating sleep, worsen the second half of sleep due to withdrawal effects. Nevertheless, long-term users of benzodiazepines should not be forced to withdraw against their will.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a medical and pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the National Health Service (NHS), including indication(s), contraindications, side effects, doses, legal classification, names and prices of available proprietary and generic formulations, and any other notable points. Though it is a national formulary, it nevertheless also includes entries for some medicines which are not available under the NHS and must be prescribed and/or bought privately (such as alprazolam tablets or minoxidil solution). A symbol clearly denotes such drugs in their entry.
It is used primarily by pharmacists as a reassurance for correct dosage and reference to the side effects of drugs. It is used on a secondary measure by doctors (both general practitioners and specialist practitioners), and by other prescribing and non-prescribing healthcare professionals (such as nurses, paramedics, and dentists to help them use drugs optimally to care for patients as appropriately as possible. For example, it would be a useful reference source for nurses who administer medications on hospital wards, and even for patients and others seeking an authoritative source of advice on any aspect of pharmacotherapy.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. is a Swiss global health-care company that operates worldwide under two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics. Its holding company, Roche Holding AG, has shares listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange.
The company headquarters are located in Basel and the company has many pharmaceutical and diagnostic sites around the world - including: Nutley, NJ; Pleasanton, CA; Branchburg, NJ; Indianapolis, Indiana; Florence, South Carolina; and Ponce, Puerto Rico in the US; Welwyn Garden City and Burgess Hill in the UK; Clarecastle in Ireland; Mannheim and Penzberg in Germany; Mississauga and Laval in Canada; Shanghai in China; Mumbai & Hyderabad in India; São Paulo, Brazil; Segrate, Milan in Italy; Johannesburg in South Africa; Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore in Pakistan.
Chlordiazepoxide //, is a sedative/hypnotic drug and benzodiazepine. It is marketed under the trade names Angirex, Elenium, Klopoxid, Libotryp (also contains Amitriptyline), Librax (also contains clidinium bromide), Libritabs, Librium, Mesural, Multum, Novapam, Risolid, Silibrin, Sonimen and Tropium.