What is the trick to knock off 3 blocks completely off of a pedestal when they are stacked up?


You can knock three blocks off a pedestal by throwing an object at them. They should fall if they are hit at the right angle.

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A pedestal desk is usually a large free-standing desk made of a simple rectangular working surface resting on two pedestals or small cabinets of stacked drawers of one or two sizes, with plinths around the bases. Often, there is also a central large drawer above the legs and knees of the user. Sometimes, especially in the 19th century and modern examples, a "modesty panel" is placed in front, between the pedestals, to hide the legs and knees of the user from anyone else sitting or standing in front. This variation is sometimes called a "panel desk". The smaller and older pedestal desks with such a panel are sometimes called kneehole desks, and were usually placed against a wall. From the mid-18th century onwards, the pedestal desk has often had a top that is inlaid with a large panel of leather (sometimes with a gold- or blind-stamped border) or baize for a writing surface, within a cross-banded border. If the desk has a wooden top surface, it may have a pull-out lined writing drawer, or the pull-out may be fitted with a folding horse to serve as a bookrest. Very few non-specialists call this form a pedestal desk. Most people usually refer to it as an executive desk, in contrast with the cubicle desk which is assigned to those who work under the executive. However, the term executive desk has been applied to so many desk forms as to be misleading, so the less-used but more precise "pedestal desk" has been retained here. The pedestal desk appeared, especially in England, in the 18th century but became popular in the 19th and the 20th, overtaking the variants of the secretary desk and the writing table in sheer numbers. The French stayed faithful to the writing table or bureau plat ("flat desk"), which might have a matching paper-case (cartonnier) that stood upon it. There were at least two precursors to the pedestal desk: The French Bureau Mazarin (a desk named for Cardinal Mazarin) of the late 17th century and the Chinese Jumu desk or scholar's desk, which Europeans knew almost entirely at second-hand, largely from illustrations on porcelain. Unlike the pedestal desk however these precursors had an incomplete stack of drawers and compartments holding up the two ends. The cases of drawers were raised about 15-30 cm (6-12 inches) from the floor on legs. When a pedestal desk is doubled in size to form a nearly square working surface, and drawers are put on both sides to accommodate two users at the same time, it becomes a partners desk. Thomas Chippendale gives designs for such tables, which were generally used in libraries, as writing tables in The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director (1753–4 and 1762). Pedestal desks made of steel sheet metal were introduced in 1946 and were popular in America until the 1970s. Called tanker desks, they were used in institutions such as schools and business and government offices. When the pedestal desk form is cut to about two thirds of its normal width, and one of the pedestals is replaced by legs, this is then called a right pedestal desk or a left pedestal desk, depending on the position of the pedestal. This kind of form is common for a student desk. The pedestal desk is also one of the two principal forms of the big campaign desk, used by the military in the past. It can then be considered a portable desk in a limited way since the writing surface could be easily separated from the pedestals, to facilitate transport. The three separate elements were often fitted with large handles on the sides.
Pedestal (from French piédestal, Italian piedistallo, foot of a stall) is a term generally applied to the support of a statue or a vase. Although in Syria, Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans occasionally raised the columns of their temples or propylaea on square pedestals, in Rome itself they were employed only to give greater importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan and Antoninus, or as a podium to the columns employed decoratively in the Roman triumphal arches. The architects of the Italian revival, however, conceived the idea that no order was complete without a pedestal, and as the orders were by them employed to divide up and decorate a building in several stories, the cornice of the pedestal was carried through and formed the sills of their windows, or, in open arcades, round a court, the balustrade of the arcade. They also would seem to have considered that the height of the pedestal should correspond in its proportion with that of the column or pilaster it supported; thus in the church of Saint John Lateran, where the applied order is of considerable dimensions, the pedestal is 13 feet (4.0 m) high instead of the ordinary height of 3 to 5 feet (1.5 m). In the imperial China, a stone tortoise called bixi was traditionally used as the pedestal for important stele, especially those associated with emperors. According to the 1396 version of the regulations issued by the Ming Dynasty founder, the Hongwu Emperor, the highest nobility (those of the gong and hou ranks) and the officials of the top 3 ranks were eligible for bixi-based funerary tablets, while lower-level mandarins' steles were to stand on simple rectangular pedestals. An elevated pedestal or plinth which bears a statue and which is raised from the substructure supporting it (typically roofs or corniches) is sometimes called an acropodium. The term is from the Greek akros or "topmost" and pous (root pod-) or "foot". Often misheard "pedal stool". When a person overly idealizes someone (or something, an object or idea), it is often referred to as "putting them on a pedestal". The pejorative phrase "put on a pedestal" is often used to critique celebrity culture, an elected official or position of authority, about someone who is looked up to, held in high regard or revered. To an extent that an accusation or crime may have been overlooked or disregarded, when an investigation or criminal prosecution was later found necessary, because an abuse of position or social standing was committed.
Blockhead! is a game invented in 1952 by G.W. "Jerry" D'Arcey and developed by G.W. and Alice D'Arcey in San Jose, California. Originally consisting of 20 brightly colored wooden blocks of varying shapes, the object of the game is to add blocks to a tower without having it collapse on your turn. The first player sets one of the blocks on a flat surface; this is the only block allowed to touch the base. Each player then takes turns adding a single block until the tower collapses. The player that knocks over the tower on their turn loses. A player who loses three times is eliminated. The last player remaining wins. Blockhead! uses slang terms with a block theme: A player who has lost once is called a "square"; a player who has lost twice is a "character"; a player who loses three times and is eliminated is a "blockhead". The game was first published by G.W. "Jerry" D'Arcey in 1952. In 1954 Saalfield Publishing Company released the first 25-block version of the game. The design of the blocks has remained consistent through each edition, the only change being modifying the yellow “double hump” to be more heart shaped. Currently, the game is produced by Pressman Toy Corporation. Blockhead! was voted into Games Magazine's Hall of Fame and appears on the GAMES 100 list.
Operation Pedestal was a British operation to get desperately needed supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942, during the Second World War. Malta was the base from which surface ships, submarines and aircraft attacked Axis convoys carrying essential supplies to the Italian and German armies in North Africa. In 1941–42, Malta was effectively under siege, blockaded by Axis air and naval forces. To sustain Malta, the United Kingdom had to get convoys through at all costs. Despite serious losses, just enough supplies were delivered for Malta to survive, although it ceased to be an effective offensive base for much of 1942. The most crucial supply was fuel delivered by the OhioSS , an American-built tanker with a British crew. The operation started on 9 August 1942, when the convoy sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar. The convoy is also known as the "Battle of Mid-August" in Italy and as the Konvoj ta' Santa Marija in Malta. The arrival of the last ships of the convoy on 15 August 1942, coincided with the Feast of the Assumption (Santa Marija) and the name Santa Marija Convoy or Sta Marija Convoy is still used. That day's public holiday and celebrations, in part, celebrate the arrival of the convoy. The attempt to run fifty ships past bombers, E-boats, minefields, and submarines has gone down in military history as one of the most important British strategic victories of the Second World War. However, it was at a cost of more than 400 lives, with only five of the original fourteen merchant ships reaching the Grand Harbour. In 1942, the British Empire was waging a land war against Italian forces in North Africa and their allies, Rommel's Afrika Korps. Malta was a critical component to this campaign, as the island could be used as a base to interdict efforts to resupply Axis forces operating in North Africa. During this stage of the war, Malta was critically short on munitions, food, and fuel for both military operations and civil use. Attempts to run the blockade and resupply Malta proved to be costly and often ended in failure; the two-pronged effort to resupply Malta during June 1942—known as Operations Harpoon (from Gibraltar) and Vigorous (from Alexandria, Egypt)—were unsuccessful, only two merchantmen from Harpoon and none from Vigorous reached Malta, while many others (including the only tanker included in Harpoon) were sunk, and the escorting warships also suffered heavy casualties. Military planners knew Malta would be forced to surrender if fuel, food, and ammunition did not get through before the end of August. The local air commander had warned the planners that there remained only a few weeks' supply of aviation fuel. The Admiralty drew up plans for another convoy to sail at the earliest practical date, mid-August. The Admiralty started to plan Operation Pedestal in the early weeks of July 1942, and it was soon recognized that this was to be the main effort to relieve Malta, and would employ the largest escort force yet deployed for a single convoy, including two battleships and three aircraft carriers. At the same time, there would be several minor but important operations carried out under the cover of Pedestal: Operation Berserk would be an aircraft carrier exercise to improve coordination between the various carriers in the convoy, Operation Bellows would be a reinforcement of Malta's air defences by Spitfires flown from an aircraft carrier, and Operation Ascendant would be an effort to return the two surviving merchantmen from the Harpoon convoy from Malta to Gibraltar. The main participants during these discussions were Rear Admiral A. L. St. G. Lyster, CB, CVO, DSO, Rear-Admiral H. M. Burrough, CB, DSO, Vice-Admiral E. N. Syfret, CB and the Naval Staff. The supplies were to be carried by fourteen merchant ships, the most important being Ohio, the only large, fast tanker available, an American-built ship under the British flag and with a British crew.[a] As partial insurance against Ohios loss, the others would carry some fuel supplies in drums. The convoy was to be protected by two large forces of warships, one as distant cover (Force Z), and the other as close support all the way to Malta (Force X). Between the two forces there were two battleships, three aircraft carriers, seven cruisers and thirty-two destroyers. Once they reached the Sicilian channel, Force Z (the battleships, the aircraft carriers, and three cruisers) was to return to Gibraltar, leaving the convoy to continue to Malta escorted by the remaining four cruisers and destroyer flotilla of Force X. The Italian Regia Marina was hampered by a lack of fuel oil, which compelled it to keep its largest vessels in port. When the British convoy was detected, Axis commanders decided to attack with German and Italian aircraft based in Sardinia and send ten submarines, E-Boats and MAS motor torpedo boats into the Sicilian Channel. An Italian cruiser division was to deliver the final attack, which required oil to be transferred from inactive battleships to the cruisers. The overall operational commander, Vice-Admiral E. N. Syfret, transferred to NelsonHMS on 27 July when Nelson and Rodney returned to Scapa Flow from Freetown, West Africa. Syfret convened a conference on 29 July, for Flag and Commanding Officers of the naval forces for Pedestal currently assembled at Scapa, to consider the orders for the operation. On 31 July, Nelson, Rodney, Victorious, Argus, Sirius and destroyers sailed from Scapa to rendezvous with Eagle and Charybdis from Gibraltar and IndomitableHMS and Phoebe, from Freetown, for Operation Berserk. Berserk successfully exercised fighter direction and co-operation between the three carriers, in preparation for the impending convoy. The convoy, named with a bogus "WS"[b] prefix, escorted by NigeriaHMS , Kenya and destroyers sailed from the Clyde overnight on 2 August and joined the other escorts during the following morning. Just prior to sailing, but after the "normal" convoy conference, Rear-Admiral Burrough met with the Convoy Commodore, A.G. Venables, and the Masters of the individual merchant ships on board his flagship, HMS Nigeria, and the whole plan was explained in detail. A similar meeting was held with radio operators of the merchantmen to explain fleet communications and procedures. Personal messages signed by the First Lord of the Admiralty wishing the Masters "God Speed" and contained in envelopes marked "Not to be opened until 0800 hours August 10" were handed to the ships' masters. Shortly before the departure from Scapa, the Admiralty decided that FuriousHMS should carry out Operation Bellows to reinforce Malta with Spitfires at the same time as Pedestal. This made alterations to the Operation Orders necessary, which were then distributed to all concerned. Technical difficulties[c] delayed the carrier's departure but, with ManchesterHMS , she joined Nelson and the convoy three days before the start of the operation. The passage of the convoy from the UK to the rendezvous with the aircraft carriers west of the Straits was successful, though there were many alarms over U-Boat contacts en route and a Coastal Command Sunderland flying boat was shot down by friendly fire. The convoy was exercised in anti-aircraft gunnery, in emergency turns and in changing from one cruising disposition to another, using both signal flags and short range W/T. The risk to security in breaking W/T silence was accepted and as a result of these exercises the convoy attained an efficiency in manoeuvring "comparable to that of a fleet unit." The force's aircraft performed dummy air attacks in the afternoon of 8 August, followed by a fly past. These were done to exercise the radar reporting and fighter direction organisation and to give ships' gun crews an opportunity to recognise the markings of friendly aircraft. The resulting volume of radio traffic must have been very apparent to hostile listening stations, but this risk to security was worth the benefit gained from the rehearsals.[d] The passage of the Straits and 10 August were uneventful. Fishing boats and one merchant vessel were passed at close quarters, but due to a moonless night and indifferent visibility, it was thought improbable that the force had been sighted from the shore. Reports received later, however, showed that the enemy was fully aware of the convoy's passage of the Straits. The convoy completed refuelling by dawn on 11 August, from the tankers Dingledale and Brown Ranger. Previous Malta convoys had refuelled at Malta but now the island had no oil to spare. The refuelling of three cruisers and twenty-six destroyers at sea, under enemy observation and in U-boat infested waters, was an anxious one; failure could have seriously upset the whole operation. The main coup for the Axis during the day happened early in the morning. The aircraft carrier EagleHMS  was hit by four torpedoes from U-73[e] and sank seventy nautical miles south of Cape Salinas. Most of the crew survived (160 lost out of 927), rescued by her escorts. The sinking of Eagle deprived the force of a quarter of its fighter strength. While Eagle was being torpedoed, Furious successfully finished Operation Bellows, flying off thirty-seven much needed Spitfires to Malta. The flying distance between Furious and Malta was 555 nmi (639 mi; 1,028 km) to 584 nmi (672 mi; 1,082 km). Her part of the mission complete, Furious returned to Gibraltar with her escorts. A destroyer escorting Furious, WolverineHMS , rammed and sank the Italian submarine Dagabur. Wolverines bow was seriously damaged, but she reached Gibraltar for repairs. A large number of sightings of torpedoes, air and U-Boat attacks were reported throughout the whole convoy. The Axis made every form of air attack, including minelaying ahead of the fleet. Up to 19:00 on 11 August, there were four heavy air attacks on the fleet. Despite the weight of these attacks, the only casualties were one merchant ship with her speed reduced by a near miss, a destroyer torpedoed but afloat (though later scuttled) and IndomitableHMS put out of flying action but capable of steaming at 28 kn (32 mph; 52 km/h). At 2000, an Italian air attack (using S.84, CR.42, C.202, and Re.2001 fighters and bombers) against the aircraft carriers caused minor damage to the flight deck of VictoriousHMS . As the convoy moved eastwards towards the enemy's bases in Sardinia and Sicily, it was expected that the U-Boat and air threat would increase and a U-Boat concentration was expected near the Galite Islands. Anti-submarine measures were stepped up to meet this threat. Later in the day, IthurielHMS rammed and sank the Italian submarine Cobalto.[f] This tactic was discouraged by the Admiralty, due to the damage that often resulted. In Ithuriels case, she badly damaged herself, put her Asdic gear out of action, and was missing from the escort screen during the next air attack. She also lost two of her crew who boarded and attempted to keep the sinking submarine afloat. Only two Italian seamen were lost, the rest becoming prisoners of war. The carriers launched Fairey Fulmars and Hawker Sea Hurricanes as air cover. The first air attack by nineteen Ju 88s was met by both anti-aircraft fire and the fighters. Four bombers were claimed for the loss of a fighter and two more were shot down by the escorting ships. The Italian cruiser division, consisting of three heavy cruisers (Gorizia, Bolzano, and Trieste), three light cruisers (Eugenio di Savoia, Raimondo Montecuccoli, and Muzio Attendolo) and seventeen destroyers sailed to meet the British convoy. Throughout the day, the force was under continual observation by Italian aircraft and later in the day there were three more heavy air attacks. Force X, after parting company, was attacked at dusk by bombers and torpedo-bombers. During daylight, British fighters were active; they provided early warning of raids and destroyed enemy aircraft, although frequently outnumbered. The convoy's anti-aircraft guns also proved successful as deterrents. Submarines, however, remained a potent threat. The Italian submarine Brin was driven off by destroyers. A Sunderland flying boat attacked another submarine, Giada, which was waiting for the convoy off Algiers, damaging it and a subsequent air attack by another flying boat caused more damage. Before heading for shelter to the Spanish port of Valencia, where she remained until the 14th, Giada shot down the Sunderland with her own guns. To prevent any further submarine attack the destroyers dropped depth charges every 10 minutes, between 14:00 and 19:00. At noon, another air attack developed, by Italian and German bombers and Italian fighters. The Axis planes did not attack in continuous waves as planned, and the convoy enjoyed brief respites. Even so, the attack wrecked the flight deck of Indomitable, leaving Victorious as the only working carrier. Indomitables aircraft had to be landed on Victorious and several fighters had to be ditched overboard to make space for further landings. It had been intended that Force Z should return to Gibraltar when the Skerki Channel was reached at 1915. Indomitable was on fire forward and aft, so Syfret brought the manoeuvre forward by twenty minutes, and at 18:55, Force Z was ordered to return to Gibraltar, leaving Force X to continue to Malta. This separation went unnoticed by the Axis and was not discovered by them until about 20:30. In view of the weight of the Axis air attack between 18:30 and 18:50, it seemed improbable that a further significant air attack on Force X could be possible before dark, and having reached the Skerki Bank, it was hoped that the submarine threat would subside. The main threat to the convoy appeared to be E Boat attacks during the night and by aircraft the following morning. Thus, the successful submarine attack by the Italian submarine Axum at 20:00, when NigeriaHMS , CairoHMS and Ohio were torpedoed was unexpected and its effect far reaching. The timing was critical, for the convoy was at that moment changing its setup from four to two columns. For this manoeuvre the cruisers were needed as column leaders. The torpedoing of HMS Nigeria and Cairo, the diversion of HMS Ashanti, and the detachment of four Hunt-class destroyers to stand by the damaged cruisers, temporarily deprived Force X of its Commander, deprived two columns of their leaders, lost the convoy nearly half its escort, and the entire force its two Fighter Direction ships. On hearing that Nigeria and Cairo had been torpedoed, Syfret ordered CharybdisHMS , Eskimo and Somali to reinforce Force X. From about 20:35–21:00, the convoy was subjected to a severe dusk air attack by dive-bombers and torpedo-bombers. Ashanti and Penn laid a smokescreen to cover the light western horizon, but this did not prevent the attack from being effective. The merchantman Empire Hope was bombed and sunk. A separate torpedo-bomber attack was thought to have sunk Deucalion at 21:30 near the Cani Rocks when under escort of BramhamHMS . The commanding officer, KenyaHMS described the state of the convoy after these attacks as 'chaotic', and in fact there are different versions of what really happened during these confusing hours. However, though the convoy was in a confused state, all of the ships in the convoy were steaming in their correct direction. Most of the convoy got safely as far as Kelibia[g], though some were damaged, by early morning. The destroyer ForesightHMS was sunk in the same attack. Roughly around 21:00, the Italian submarine Alagi reported that it had sunk the merchant ship Empire Hope and damaged the cruiser Kenya; in fact two freighters sank at this moment, while Kenya turned to avoid a torpedo. Another submarine, Bronzo, stated that it had sunk the merchant ship Deucalion. It is possible that the unknown second freighter sunk by the Italian submarine Alagi or the damage to Kenya was not directed to either ship but to the freighter Brisbane StarMV , that supposedly had its bows torn off during this encounter. HMS Nigeria and the other damaged ships turned back to Gibraltar with HMS Wilton and BicesterHMS as escorts. Other submarines, Emo, Avorio, and Dandolo among them, were driven off by depth charges. Passing through minefields between Africa and Sicily around midnight, the convoy met eight Italian and seven German torpedo-boats which made fifteen attacks. The long line of merchant ships and the reduced number of escort ships provided easy opportunities for attacks by the torpedo-boats which were lying in wait off Kelibia. Here three of the merchant ships which failed to reach Malta were torpedoed. Of these, Wairangi was hit in the engine room and was permanently disabled, while the American Almeria Lykes was hit at the joint of No. 1 bulkhead hold and could not continue steaming to Malta. At 01:00, the cruiser ManchesterHMS was torpedoed by two Italian E-Boats (MS-16 and MS-22), leaving her dead in the water and listing. She restored power and some of her crew (156 men) were transferred to HMS Pathfinder in the ship's boats and Carley floats, but she was later scuttled off Cape Bon by order of her Commanding Officer. She was the largest ship sunk by motor torpedo boats during World War II.[h] Several hundred of her complement landed in Vichy-controlled Tunisia and were interned. According to most sources, a dozen of her crew died from the torpedo explosions, while at least another one-hundred and fifty went missing at sea during her evacuation. The merchantman Santa Elisa was hit by torpedo, the entire ship catching fire and being abandoned by the crew. Glenorchy was torpedoed and on fire although most of her crew survived her eventual sinking; another merchantman, Rochester Castle, was torpedoed but kept going. Fighters from Malta were fired upon by the convoy in the confusion because communications between the convoy and the RAF were still out. Twelve Junkers 88s attacked, hitting Waimarama. The aviation fuel on deck burst into flame and the ship exploded and sank, with 80 of the 107 crew killed. The destroyer LedburyHMS passed through the flames to save what few survivors there were. The wreckage of Waimarama started fires on the merchantman Melbourne Star, and several of her crew abandoned ship prematurely, some of whom were later rescued by Ledbury. Soon afterwards, sixty Stukas attacked, this time concentrating on the damaged Ohio. Near-misses buckled the tanker's hull plates and the forward tank filled with water. A downed Ju 88 crashed onto the deck of Ohio. Another plane, an Italian dive bomber, bounced off the water, and crashed onto Ohio. Although the tanker had avoided mines, torpedoes and circling torpedoes, she was eventually straddled by two bombs and with her boilers ruptured, was left dead in the water at 10:50. Dorset was disabled by three near-miss bombs, and the engine room was flooded. The high octane fuel caught fire and the merchantman was abandoned. Twelve Italian torpedo bombers attacked, and the Port Chalmers caught an aerial torpedo in its paravane.[i] A bomb nearby set Kenyas forward engine room on fire, but the fire was quickly put out. Fighters from Malta provided some air cover to the blitzed convoy. Rochester Castle, Port Chalmers and Melbourne Star steamed on to meet escort from Malta, reaching Grand Harbour in Valletta at 18:00. Another aerial attack on Ohio ensued. Penn tried to tow Ohio, but the tanker was listing to its side and snapped the tow line. During another attack, Ohio eventually broke its back when a bomb hit the same area as a previous torpedo hit. The crew, led by Master D. W. Mason, abandoned the ship, while Italian torpedo bombers were about to dive in for yet another attack. Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, commander of the German Air Command based in Sicily, denied air coverage to the Italian cruiser division, having little regard for the fighting capability of the Regia Marina, and preferred to use his aircraft for direct attacks on the British convoy. Without air cover and given the closeness of the air base at Malta, the Supermarina (Regia Marina High Command) withdrew its cruisers to Messina. They passed through the area patrolled by the British submarines SafariHMS and Unbroken and were attacked. Unbroken torpedoed the Bolzano, which was hit in her oil tank and ran aground; Attendolo lost 60 ft (18 m) of her bow. Neither ship returned to action during the war. Brisbane Star arrived in Malta, its bow torn off by a torpedo, but it successfully discharged its supplies in the harbour. Ohio was surrounded by a flotilla of ships, aiming to nurse the stricken tanker to Grand Harbour. Several American volunteers, themselves survivors from the sunken American freighter Santa Eliza, manned anti-aircraft guns on Ohio during the tow. The weight of the tanker kept breaking the tow lines, while constant air attacks were made by twenty bombers. An attack destroyed the rudder, making a hole in her stern. The decks of the ship were now awash. Finally, the tanker was successfully towed while it was supported by the two destroyers Ledbury and Penn on each side, with a minesweeper RyeHMS to act as a stabilizer at the stern. The remainder of the convoy was either sunk or falling back on Gibraltar. Several further air attacks disrupted the towing formation, until it was re-established with Bramham replacing Ledbury on Ohios port side for the remainder of the journey. Ohio was towed into Grand Harbour by the two destroyers and a set of tugs at 09:30 to cheering crowds and a band playing Rule Britannia. In his book, First Light, Geoffrey Wellum, who flew a Spitfire from HMS Furious as part of Operation Bellows, reports that the crowd fell silent as the ships entered harbour as a mark of respect for the crew who lost their lives aboard. The tanker discharged its cargo into two tankers and settled on the bottom just as the last of the fuel it transported left her holds.[j] The arrival of the four merchant ships, and the survival of the tanker Ohio ensured the arrival of enough materials to maintain the island, but it did not mean its siege was at an end. The ultimate result of Operation Pedestal was that it ensured that Malta stayed in the war. For the high price of nine merchantmen sunk, one aircraft carrier (Eagle), two cruisers (Manchester and Cairo), and a destroyer (Foresight) sunk, the Royal Navy and the Merchant Navy had saved Malta, as roughly 32,000 short tons (29,000 t) of general cargo had reached the Grand Harbour, together with petrol, oil fuel, kerosene and diesel fuel, enough to give the island about ten weeks more life beyond the existing stocks of only a few weeks. Royal Navy gunners and Fleet Air Arm fighters shot down 42 of the approximately 330 attacking Axis aircraft. Operation Pedestal was a tactical disaster, of a magnitude comparable to the German attack on Convoy PQ-17. The defeat, however, was turned into a strategic victory in that it served as a great uplift to the besieged island's morale and it delivered thousands of tons of needed food stores and eliminated the possibility of surrender due to famine. Indeed, for several months after this convoy, Malta was still dependent on essential stores and stocks being delivered by fast minelayers, like ManxmanHMS , and of mine-laying submarines. From the moment the shield of Spitfires patrolled over the unloading battered ships, it became obvious that ships could now arrive and be protected, meaning that more ships would come in due course, thus sustaining the will to endure. German reports on 17 August stated that all the tankers in the recent Mediterranean convoy were sunk and not one of the transports reached their assumed destination in Egypt. A revived Malta led to a shift in the North African balance immediately preceding the Second Battle of El Alamein. In August 1942, with Malta still besieged, 35% of Axis convoys to North Africa did not get through. In September, with Malta resupplied, Allied forces sank 100,000 long tons (100,000 t) of Axis shipping, including 24,000 tons of fuel destined for Rommel, leaving him desperately short of supplies during his assault at El Alamein on 23 October 1942. Hence, it was no longer a question of "How many days to Cairo?" for the Axis armies, but of whether Rommel could hold the Allied attack back when it would materialise. Submarines and torpedo-carrying Bristol Beauforts escorted by their variants the Bristol Beaufighters, regularly attacked Axis supply ships known to the Allies through Ultra intercepts received from Bletchley Park. This interdiction of sea-lanes from Malta, significantly contributed to the Axis’ worsening state of supply and lead to their eventual inability to compete with the British build-up for an offensive towards the end of the year.[k] For the Axis powers in general, and for the Italians in particular, the inability of the fleet to fully display its power and especially the inability of Axis air forces to provide for cover clearly demonstrated that the tide in this campaign had turned. Ultimately, Malta was still alive while any hope to maintain North Africa was quickly fading away, with the now looming possibility of having the Allies opening up a Third Front on the Italian mainland. Operation Pedestal was the subject of a 1953 black and white British film, Malta Story, which interspersed archive footage of the SS Ohio with scripted studio scenes. In recognition of their fortitude during the siege and air attacks during all of the Mediterranean campaign, Malta was awarded the George Cross in the months immediately preceding this operation. Vice-Admiral Syfret was knighted (KCB) for his "bravery and dauntless resolution in fighting an important Convoy through to Malta in the face of relentless attacks by day and night from enemy submarines, aircraft, and surface forces." The Master of the tanker Ohio, Dudley William Mason was awarded the George Cross for showing "skill and courage of the highest order and it was due to his determination that, in spite of the most persistent enemy opposition, the vessel, with her valuable cargo, eventually reached Malta and was safely berthed." Several other officers, crew members and commanders of both the Royal and Merchant Navies, including the commander of LedburyHMS , Roger Hill, received military awards ranging from the Distinguished Service Order and Conspicuous Gallantry Medal down to Mentions in Despatches for the bravery and intrepidity shown in ferrying the merchantmen to Malta. The Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal was awarded to Frederick August Larsen, Jr., Junior Third Officer and to Francis A. Dales, Cadet-Midshipman, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, for "Heroism beyond the call of duty." Allied ships that took part in this operation included: Axis ships that took part in this operation included: Media related to Operation Pedestal at Wikimedia Commons a. At the time, the Ohio was also the largest tanker ship afloat.
b. W.S convoys were normally those from U.K. to Suez via the Cape of Good Hope.
c. This was connected with the aircraft's propellers and the aircraft carrier's flying deck which was not level, but sloped upwards to a point amidships.
d. At 13:00, when HMS Indomitable joined the force, it was believed to be the first time that five British aircraft carriers had operated together at sea.
e. Captained by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Rosenbaum.
f. The rescued crew members (3 officers and 38 crew) confirmed her destruction.
g. Some 20 mi (32 km) south of Cape Bon in Tunisia.
h. There is some disagreement about Manchester's fatalities among the sources: The following websites mention 150 "lost":
i. Submerged floats meant to catch mines.
j. Water had been pumped into the tanker as the fuels were extracted to minimize the chance of a structural failure.
k. In December 1942 four convoys sailed into the island without loss, and during this same month some 200,000 tons of stores of all kinds were brought ashore.
In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American English and as a trapezium in English outside North America. The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides (if they are not parallel; otherwise there are two pairs of bases). A scalene trapezoid is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, in contrast to the special cases below. A trapezoid with vertices ABCD is denoted Trapezoid small icon.png ABCD. There is some disagreement whether parallelograms, which have two pairs of parallel sides, should be counted as trapezoids. Some define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral having exactly one pair of parallel sides (the exclusive definition), thereby excluding parallelograms. Others define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides (the inclusive definition), making the parallelogram a special type of trapezoid. The latter definition is consistent with its uses in higher mathematics such as calculus. The former definition would make such concepts as the trapezoidal approximation to a definite integral ill-defined. This article uses the inclusive definition and considers parallelograms as special cases of a trapezoid. This is also advocated in the taxonomy of quadrilaterals. The term trapezium has been in use in English since 1570, from Late Latin trapezium, from Greek τραπέζιον (trapézion), literally "a little table", a diminutive of τράπεζα (trápeza), "a table", itself from τετράς (tetrás), "four" + πέζα (péza), "a foot, an edge". The first recorded use of the Greek word translated trapezoid (τραπέζοειδη, trapézoeide, "table-like") was by Marinus Proclus (412 to 485 AD) in his Commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements. This article uses the term trapezoid in the sense that is current in the United States and Canada. In all other languages using a word derived from the Greek for this figure, the form closest to trapezium (e.g. French trapèze, Italian trapezio, Spanish trapecio, German Trapez, Russian трапеция) is used.][ In an isosceles trapezoid, the legs (AD and BC in the figure above) have the same length, and the base angles have the same measure. In a right trapezoid (also called right-angled trapezoid), two adjacent angles are right angles. A tangential trapezoid is a trapezoid that has an incircle. Under the inclusive definition, all parallelograms (including rhombuses, rectangles and squares) are trapezoids. Given a convex quadrilateral, the following properties are equivalent, and each implies that the quadrilateral is a trapezoid: Additionally, the following properties are equivalent, and each implies that opposite sides a and b are parallel: The midsegment (also called the median or midline) of a trapezoid is the segment that joins the midpoints of the legs. It is parallel to the bases. Its length m is equal to the average of the lengths of the bases a and b of the trapezoid, The midsegment of a trapezoid is one of the two bimedians (the other bimedian divides the trapezoid into equal areas). The height (or altitude) is the perpendicular distance between the bases. In the case that the two bases have different lengths (ab), the height of a trapezoid h can be determined by the length of its four sides using the formula where c and d are the lengths of the legs. This formula also gives a way of determining when a trapezoid of consecutive sides a, c, b, and d exists. There is such a trapezoid with bases a and b if and only if The area K of a trapezoid is given by where a and b are the lengths of the parallel sides, and h is the height (the perpendicular distance between these sides.) In 499 AD Aryabhata, a great mathematician-astronomer from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy, used this method in the Aryabhatiya (section 2.8). This yields as a special case the well-known formula for the area of a triangle, by considering a triangle as a degenerate trapezoid in which one of the parallel sides has shrunk to a point. Therefore the area of a trapezoid is equal to the length of this midsegment multiplied by the height From the formula for the height, it can be concluded that the area can be expressed in terms of the four sides as When one of the parallel sides has shrunk to a point (say a = 0), this formula reduces to Heron's formula for the area of a triangle. Another equivalent formula for the area, which more closely resembles Heron's formula, is where s = \tfrac{1}{2}(a + b + c + d) is the semiperimeter of the trapezoid. (This formula is similar to Brahmagupta's formula, but it differs from it, in that a trapezoid might not be cyclic (inscribed in a circle). The formula is also a special case of Bretschneider's formula for a general quadrilateral). From Bretschneider's formula, it follows that The line that joins the midpoints of the parallel sides, bisects the area. The lengths of the diagonals are where a and b are the bases, c and d are the other two sides, and a < b. If the trapezoid is divided into four triangles by its diagonals AC and BD (as shown on the right), intersecting at O, then the area of is equal to that of , and the product of the areas of and is equal to that of and . The ratio of the areas of each pair of adjacent triangles is the same as that between the lengths of the parallel sides. Let the trapezoid have vertices A, B, C, and D in sequence and have parallel sides AB and DC. Let E be the intersection of the diagonals, and let F be on side DA and G be on side BC such that FEG is parallel to AB and CD. Then FG is the harmonic mean of AB and DC: The line that goes through both the intersection point of the extended nonparallel sides and the intersection point of the diagonals, bisects each base. The center of area (center of mass for a uniform lamina) lies along the line joining the midpoints of the parallel sides, at a perpendicular distance x from the longer side b given by If the angle bisectors to angles A and B intersect at P, and the angle bisectors to angles C and D intersect at Q, then The term trapezium is sometimes defined in the USA as a quadrilateral with no parallel sides, though this shape is more usually called an irregular quadrilateral. The term trapezoid was once defined as a quadrilateral without any parallel sides in Britain and elsewhere, but this does not reflect current usage. (The Oxford English Dictionary says "Often called by English writers in the 19th century".) According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the sense of a figure with no sides parallel is the meaning for which Proclus introduced the term "trapezoid". This is retained in the French trapézoïde, German Trapezoid, and in other languages. A trapezium in Proclus' sense is a quadrilateral having one pair of its opposite sides parallel. This was the specific sense in England in 17th and 18th centuries, and again the prevalent one in recent use. A trapezium as any quadrilateral more general than a parallelogram is the sense of the term in Euclid. The sense of a trapezium as an irregular quadrilateral having no sides parallel was sometimes used in England from c. 1800 to c. 1875, but is now obsolete. This sense is the one that is sometimes quoted in the US, but in practice quadrilateral is used rather than trapezium. In architecture the word is used to refer to symmetrical doors, windows, and buildings built wider at the base, tapering towards the top, in Egyptian style. If these have straight sides and sharp angular corners, their shapes are usually isosceles trapezoids.
A bowling ball is a piece of sporting equipment used to hit bowling pins in the sport of bowling. Ten-pin bowling balls are typically hard spheres with three holes drilled in them, one each for the ring and middle fingers, and one for the thumb. Regulating bodies such as the USBC maintain requirements for the properties of bowling balls, including size, hardness, and number of holes, as well as maintaining a list of bowling balls approved for competitive play. Other bowling balls, such as those used in five-pin bowling, candlepin bowling, and duckpin bowling are smaller, lighter, and without holes, so that they may be held in the palm of the bowler's hand. Most bowling alleys provide balls for patrons to use within the establishment, often referred to as "house balls." Key properties of ten-pin bowling balls include surface friction, porosity, and mass distribution, which affect the motion of the ball as it rolls. These properties are varied to control how much a ball will slide through the oily surface of a typical bowling lane, and how easily a ball will change direction when the roll is combined with rotational motion. Friction and porosity are variables of the surface of the ball, known as the "cover stock," while mass distribution is determined by the shape and size of the core. The USBC and FIQ specifies that bowling balls may only be made from uniform, solid materials with a density less than or equal to 3.80 g/mL. The weight of the ball must not exceed 16.00 pounds (7.26 kg), with no lower bound for weight. The hardness of the ball must be at least 72, as measured by a Type D Shore durometer at room temperature (68-78 degrees Fahrenheit). A ball may have a circumference between 26.704 inches (67.83 cm) and 27.002 inches (68.59 cm) diameter in the range of 8.500 inches (21.59 cm) 8.595 inches (21.83 cm). The surface of the ball is required to include markings to indicate the manufacturer's brand name, the name of the ball, the center of gravity (before drilling), the orientation of the core (the Pin), and the axes of the high and/or low radius of gyration (as applicable). Additionally, markings must include an individual serial number and the logo of the USBC. Holes are allowed to be drilled into a bowling ball for a variety of reasons, and bowlers must be able to demonstrate that such holes can be used as claimed. Up to five holes may be drilled for the bowler's fingers for one hand, and each finger hole may have a small additional hole that intersects for ventilation. A "balance hole" may be added to alter the mass distribution. A "mill hole" may also be used for inspection purposes. Bowling balls over ten pounds are required to be balanced such that the difference in weight between any two halves of the ball does not exceed 3 ounces (85 g). The radius of gyration must fall between 2.460 inches (6.25 cm) and 2.800 inches (7.11 cm), and the differential radius of gyration must not exceed 0.060 inches (0.15 cm). The coefficient of friction must not exceed 0.320. Historically, bowling balls were often made from dense hardwoods such as Lignum Vitae, but starting in the early 20th century, hard rubber became the primary material for bowling balls. The first bowling balls to be made from polyester ("plastic") were produced in the late 1950s. This would become the predominant material in the 1970s. In the early 1980s, polyurethane ("urethane") bowling balls were introduced. Urethane balls provided greater friction on the lane, which allowed for a greater angle of entry of the ball to the "pocket" (space between two of the front-most bowling pins, known for providing the greatest percentage of strikes). This is desirable, as a greater entry angle tends to provide a higher striking percentage. In the early 1990s, a new material known as "reactive resin" was introduced. Reactive resin is still made from polyurethane, but has been treated with additives while in a liquid state that create pores in the coverstock that allow it to absorb oil. As oil is absorbed into the ball rather than sitting on the surface, there is greater friction between the ball and the lane. In the late 1990s, "particle" balls were introduced. By distributing small particles into the reactive polyurethane cover, manufacturers are able to create even high friction. This is particularly noticeable on oily surfaces, where a particle ball is able to create considerably more friction than balls of other materials. The types of particles and their properties may vary between balls and manufacturers. Particle and reactive resin balls are common in modern play, particularly on lanes with relatively higher volumes and/or lengths of oil. Plastic balls are also commonly thrown when a bowler wants a ball that will move in a very straight line, particularly while trying to make spares. Urethane balls are less common, but may still be used for strike shots on less oily lanes. The way the finger holes are arranged on the ball surface changes how the bowling ball moves down the lane. The drilling configuration is determined by the positions of the finger holes relative to the markings on the surface of the ball, and may also be positioned relative to the axis of rotation of a particular bowler. The axis is typically identified according to the Positive Axis Point (PAP), which marks the axis before axis migration has begun. In the United States, most bowlers only use holes intended for the middle and ring fingers of the dominant hand, as well as the thumb of the same hand. A "conventional" grip is one in which the bowler inserts the thumb fully, and the fingers up to the second knuckle from the tip. A "fingertip" grip is one in which the bowler inserts his fingers only to the first knuckle from the tip. Some variety of fingertip grip is favored among professionals and most amateurs, as this configuration allows most bowlers to impart greater rotational velocity on the ball. Some bowlers, notably Michael Fagan and Robert Smith, use the "Sarge Easter Grip," in which the middle finger is drilled to fingertip standards to the first knuckle, while the ring finger is drilled to conventional standards to the second knuckle. Though fingertip grips traditionally include having the thumb fully inserted, some bowlers, notably Jason Belmonte and Osku Palermaa, hold the ball with two hands and do not insert the thumb. This style came into prominence in the 2000s. It is common for bowlers, particularly those with fingertip style drillings, to place inserts into the holes rather than grip the holes directly. This can be done to vary the texture and shape of each hole to match a bowler's preferences.
The first bowling balls used in the China, Hu Nan were made of wood, especially oak, and lignum vitae wood. In about 1906 the first hard rubber balls were produced, such as the Brunswick "Mineralite" ball, and these remained the standard until the 1960s and 70s. These decades saw the emergence of plastic (polyester) balls. In the early 1970s, they began experimenting with the hardness of the plastic balls. The reason for this is to allow the ball to "grab" the lane better. Plastic balls were difficult to hook on tough oil conditions. Until the 1970s, there were no rules regarding the hardness of the bowling ball's surface. PBA member took advantage of the non-existence of such a rule. He at the time worked for Chuck Hamilton, who invented the "soaker"—a plastic (usually polyester) ball he softened "in the garage" with chemical solvents such as MEK, which would excrete a sticky substance, allowing the ball to hook more on oily conditions. At times, the balls were soaked to the point that the balls might even end up lopsided. Columbia—a more established manufacturer of bowling balls—came out with a series of "yellow dot" balls that were similar in function to the "soaker". The hardness of the ball's surface came under ABC scrutiny because of the increased scoring, particularly by him, who with his "soaker" won six PBA tournaments in 1973 and PBA Player of the Year honors. The ABC established a durometer hardness rule of 72, which barred even some of the out-of-the-factory softer balls. The PBA took the issue even further by applying a more strict 75 hardness rule. To effectively test the hardness, the PBA required each ball to bear a 0.25-inch deep hole, just above the finger holes. The durometer would be inserted into the hole, allowing the meter to perform the test beneath the ball's surface. Sanding of the bowling ball surface was another technique to soften the ball's surface. Once the track area is located on the ball, the bowler would sand the track area to make the surface more abrasive, allowing the ball to hook more. And, bowlers would apply solvents to the ball's surface during tournament play—rubbing the chemicals into the cover using a rag. More rules by the ABC had to be passed, including restrictions from doctoring the bowling ball's surface at any time once the ball has passed inspection by an official. At some point in ball making and drilling, the ABC introduced ball balance regulations to prevent people from taking advantage of certain forms of "weighting". It was possible to drill the grip at a location relative to the weight block so that it would achieve some effect, such as to help the bowler make it roll earlier or hook more. Guide holes were also used to stabilize the roll of the ball, by drilling the guide hole in perpendicular to the track area of the ball. This allowed the ball to avoid over-hooking or roll-out before hitting the pocket. In 1981 Ebonite began manufacturing the very first urethane cover stock bowling balls and sold the rights to AMF. Ebonite produced AMF balls at that time. Ebonite did not believe that bowlers would pay the $80.00 price this new technology would demand. That ball became the AMF Angle and this one coverstock change allowed the ball to get a better grip on the urethane finishes used on natural wood lane surfaces, which changed the nature of the bowling game significantly. Then in 1993, Nu-Line Industries produced the X-Calibur, a reactive resin cover. Part-time professional Steve Cooper was the owner and president of the corporation. But production lagged in the early days, allowing firms like Storm, Brunswick and Columbia to enter the reactive market by the following summer. The race to create more and more dynamic balls was on. Prior to about 1990, the ABC "static" ball balance regulations were adequate. The core was usually a uniform sphere centered inside the ball. Then competition among ball manufacturers motivated the production of balls designed to offer more than the "static balance" tricks. Materials and fabrication changes have since allowed the assembly of balls whose interior components have a much greater range of density, thereby offering a new ball choice that, in physics terms, involves the moment of inertia of a solid sphere. Eventually, "dynamic balance" regulations had to be adopted. In order to continue this discussion, a systematic description of ball rotation must be introduced. For various formulaic purposes, physicists divide rotation into three components, assigning portions to x, y and z axis that are mutually perpendicular. For bowling, the x-axis can be assigned to a line that is parallel to the foul line, the y-axis to the line parallel to the boards, and the z-axis to the vertical. Forward-roll is rotation about the x-axis, side-roll is rotation about the y-axis and mid-roll (or spin) is rotation about the z-axis. The pure full-roller delivery is a combination of forward- and side-roll only. Semi-rollers include spin. Spinners may have very little side roll. In a very strict physics sense, a ball may be delivered with rotation, but usually not in a roll, because that would imply complete traction. The technique of the great majority of bowlers involves a delivery that starts the ball in a skid that evolves into a roll that hooks into the pins. It has been known since before the 1960s that a "full-roller" type of delivery does not hook as well as "3/4 rollers" on oily lanes. On successive rotations, the "full roller" repeatedly contacts the lane on the same full circumferential circle, on which the oil accumulates, making it harder for the side-roll to find traction and create hooking action. The "full-roller" had been the dominant choice before the changes in lane coatings and oil. The "semi-roller" is now preferred (it may also be called "3/4 roller" or by other slang terms). With a 3/4-roller a bowler puts the ball into a rotation whose contact ring is smaller, and on successive rotations enlarges (subsequent examination of the ball often shows a flaring of the circles of oil). This is because at every spot along the circle, friction reduces the rotation, and that includes the spin component, causing rotation on a continually larger circle. This has the effect of bringing relatively dry ball surface in contact with the lane, increasing traction for both forward-roll and side-roll. It probably goes without saying why bowlers often wipe oil off the ball. Another effect of ball imbalance (either static or dynamic) is the ability to introduce gyroscopic effects on the rotation. The component of imbalance along the rotation axis provides a leverage that can change the orientation of the axis on its horizontal plane, an action physicists call precession. It is basically the same thing as a spinning toy top "going around in a circle." In the case of a rotating bowling ball, as it moves along the lane, there is only time for its total rotation axis to move along a short arc, but this is enough to reorient the total rotation so that some of the forward-roll becomes side-roll, increasing the side-roll provided in the bowler's delivery, thereby achieving more hook. It is possible to use dynamic ball balancing to achieve a stronger gyroscopic effect than static balancing alone. The advent of dynamic ball balancing meant that bowlers could achieve "ball flare" without the need for a 3/4 roller delivery, and more hook. Additionally, balls with covers that create higher friction, such as "particle" balls, provide for more traction and hook. Bowlers are embracing these choices, buying balls whose characteristics complement or enhance their deliveries. It is the opinion of many people in the bowling community that these advances in bowling ball technology have undermined bowling skill and have made it more difficult for lane maintenance personnel to lay out fair and credible conditions for participants. This is because advanced players using hi-tech balls "need" more oil to score high and might complain about the radical behavior of their balls on "dry" lanes. At the same time, less aggressive players might complain when they can not get their balls to hook. These complaints have been part of the game throughout USBC history. It has been a matter of which group prevails within the USBC—or what new technology comes along next. The maximum regulation candlepin ball diameter is inches (11 cm), with a maximum weight of 2 pounds 7 ounces (1.1 kg), and with the regulated weight of a single candlepin being slightly heavier at 2 pounds 8 ounces (1.1 kg) the candlepin sport could be said to pose a greater challenge to the player—due to the almost non-existent difference of the weight between the ball and one candlepin—than any of the other forms of bowling that use ten pins in them, even when it is considered that up to three balls are used in a frame of candlepins, with fallen pins allowed to remain on the lane after the first ball delivery in a frame. Duckpin balls weigh 2–4 pounds (0.91–1.8 kilograms) each. The duckpin ball has a maximum diameter of 5 inches (13 cm), slightly larger than a candlepin ball but, like a candlepin ball, contains no finger holes. Duckpins are correspondingly shorter and lighter than their ten-pin equivalents and it is more difficult to knock them all down with a single roll. Five-pin bowling balls have no finger holes and are between 4.75 to 5 inches (12.1 to 13 centimetres) in diameter. They weigh between 3.50 and 3.625 pounds (1.59 and 1.644 kilograms). The smaller size and lighter weight of the balls allows bowlers to hold the ball in the palm of their hand when bowling.
A mallet is a kind of hammer, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is smaller than a maul or beetle and usually with a relatively large head. Tool mallets come in different types, the most common of which are: Less common mallets include: Mallets of various types are some of the oldest forms of tools, and have been found in stone age gravesites. Mallets used as drumsticks are often used to strike a marimba, xylophone, glockenspiel, metallophone, or vibraphone, collectively referred to as mallet percussion. They usually have shafts made of rattan, birch, or fiberglass. Rattan shafts are more flexible than the other materials. Heads vary in size, shape, and material. They may be made of metal, plastic, rubber, or wood, and some are wrapped with felt, cord, or yarn. Heavier heads produce louder sounds. Harder heads produce sharper and louder sounds and generate more overtones. Mallets are commonly used as children's toys. Lightweight wooden mallets are used for peg toys. Toy mallets are also used in games such as Whac-A-Mole. Another type of toy mallet is a plastic mallet made of soft, hollow vinyl, with bellows and a built-in whistle, so that when the mallet is struck, it produces a sharp, chirping sound. The accidents received from mistreatment of wooden mallets in the workplace became a classic gag in the Looney Tunes, Hanna-Barbera, Nickelodeon and Disney cartoons, including some more recent 3D animations. Characters like Roger Rabbit, Bugs Bunny, Donald Duck, Daffy Duck and Tom and Jerry made use of mallets as part of their arsenal in the Golden Age of animation. On the British Daytime show TV-AM and GMTV and in the spinoff childrens shows hosted by Timmy Mallet, a game was played called "Mallets Mallet" where you had to associate words in a certain time scale and then if not, you were hit on the head bt Timmy Mallet, with a soft pink and yellow Mallet with black "Mallets Mallet" writing on both sides. The person who got hit had a plaster affixed to their head by Timmy Mallett In anime and Manga, it is very common for an angry character to pull out a large mallet, via hammerspace, and attack the person or thing that is angering him/her.
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