Hershey, PA was originally named Derry Church, but was renamed because of the popularity of the chocolate.
The Hershey Company
Milton Hershey School
The Hershey Company, known until April 2005 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. Its headquarters are in Hershey, Pennsylvania, which is also home to Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company. Hershey's products are sold in about sixty countries worldwide.
Hershey is one of the oldest chocolate companies in the United States, and an American icon for its chocolate bar. It is one of a group of companies established by Milton Hershey. Other companies include Hershey Trust Company, and Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company, which runs Hersheypark, a chocolate-themed amusement park, the Hershey Bears minor professional hockey team, Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center. Most of the employees for the factory come from the surrounding counties, towns, and boroughs, such as Lebanon County, Hummelstown, South Hanover, and Harrisburg.
After completing an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia, which failed six years later. After trying unsuccessfully to manufacture candy in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company, whose use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful. In 1900, after seeing chocolate making machines for the first time, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000 (equal to $27,596,000 today) and began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing. He stated to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing."
In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown, Derry Church, Pennsylvania, which later came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania. The town was an inexpensive place for the workers and their families to live. Milton treated the people well and provided leisure activities to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved successful, and the company grew rapidly.
Milton built a milk-processing plant in the year 1896, so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate candies. In 1899, three years later, he developed the Hershey process which is less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods.
In 1907, Hershey introduced a new candy, small flat-bottomed conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss". Initially they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of foil, and the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Now, 80 million of the candies are produced each day. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in chocolate, in 1925, Hershey's Syrup in 1926, semi-sweet dark chocolate chips in 1928, and the Krackel bar containing crisped rice in 1938.
Harry Burnett Reese worked at Hershey, beginning in 1917, as a dairyman for the Hershey Farms. In 1921 he went to work in the factory. By 1925, he had developed an assortment of candies which he was able to sell to department stores in Lancaster, advertised as "made in Hershey." In 1926 he built his own factory and then in 1941 with the wartime rationing of sugar, Reese focused all of his production resources on his own confectionery masterpiece, the peanut butter cup, which required less sugar than most other confections of the time. In 1956, Reese died, leaving the company to his six sons. In June 1963, Hershey Chocolate Corporation acquired Reese's company for $23.3 million at a time when Reese's sales were $14 million annually.
Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a CIO-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant. By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had successfully organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first President of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers, and Grain Millers Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce.
Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-term president of Hershey's, William F.R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's (for Mars and Murrie). Murrie had 20 percent interest in the confection. The new confection would use Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948 Mars bought out Murrie's interest and would become one of Hershey's primary competitors.
In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration does not allow a product to be called "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients.
In December 2007, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind that was used for illegal street drugs.
In September 2008, MSNBC reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier. According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, approximately half of consumers preferred the new versions. As the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate candy" and "chocolaty."
The first plant outside Hershey, Pennsylvania opened on June 15, 1963 in Smiths Falls, Ontario, Canada and the third opened on May 22, 1965 in Oakdale, California. In February and April 2007 Hershey's announced that their Smiths Falls and Oakdale plants would close in 2008, being replaced in part by a new facility in Monterrey, Mexico. The Oakdale factory closed on February 1, 2008. Hershey chocolate factory in São Roque, Brazil was opened in August 2002.
Hershey also has plants in Stuarts Draft, Virginia; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Hazleton, Pennsylvania; Memphis, Tennessee; Robinson, Illinois and Guadalajara, Mexico.
Visitors to Hershey, Pennsylvania can experience Hershey's Chocolate World visitors center and its simulated tour ride. Public tours were once operated in the Pennsylvania and California factories, which ended in Pennsylvania in 1973 as soon as Hershey's Chocolate World opened, and later in California following the September 11, 2001 attacks, due to security concerns.
On September 18, 2012, Hershey opened a new and expanded West Hershey plant. The plant was completed at a budget of $300 million.
In 1969, Hershey received a license from Rowntree's to manufacture and market Kit Kat and Rolo in the United States. As of March 2011, Hershey continued to make and market these brands in the U.S. under license from Nestlé, owners of the Rowntree brand.
In 1977, Hershey acquired Y&S Candies, founded in 1845, and became the makers of Twizzlers licorice candies. In 1986, Hershey's began a brief foray into cough drops when it acquired the Luden's cough drops brand. But by 2001, the brand had been sold to Pharmacia (now part of Pfizer), and Luden's eventually became a product of Prestige Brands. Hershey's kept Luden's 5th Avenue bar. In 1988, Hershey's acquired the rights to manufacture and distribute many Cadbury-branded products in the United States (except gum and mints, which are part of Mondelēz International). In 1996, Hershey purchased the American operations of the Leaf Candy Company from Huhtamäki.
In 1999, the Hershey Pasta Group was divested to several equity partners to form the New World Pasta company (now part of Ebro Foods).
On July 25, 2002 it became public knowledge that the Hershey Trust Company was seeking to sell its controlling interest in the Hershey Foods Corporation. The value of Hershey stock skyrocketed 25% with over 19 million shares trading that day. But over the following 55 days, widespread press coverage, as well as pressure from Pennsylvania Attorney General Mike Fisher, the community of Hershey, and Dauphin County Orphans' Court Senior Judge Warren G. Morgan, led to the sale being abandoned. The seven Hershey trustees who voted to sell Hershey Foods on September 17, 2002, for US$12.5 billion to the William Wrigley Jr. Company (now part of Mars Incorporated) were removed by Attorney General Fisher and Judge Morgan. Ten of the 17 trustees were forced to resign and four new members who lived locally were appointed. The former Pennsylvania Attorney General, LeRoy S. Zimmerman, became the new chairman of the reconstituted Milton Hershey School Trustees. Mr. Zimmerman has publicly committed to having the Milton Hershey School Trust always retain its interest in The Hershey Company. If Hershey is sold, the rights to make and market Kit Kat and Rolo products in the U.S. would revert to Nestlé.
In December 2004, Hershey acquired the Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corp. from The Shansby Group.
In July 2005, Hershey acquired the Berkeley, California based boutique chocolate-maker Scharffen Berger. In November 2005, Hershey acquired Joseph Schmidt Confections, the San Francisco based chocolatier, and a year later, in November 2006, Hershey acquired Dagoba Organic Chocolate, a boutique chocolate maker based in Ashland, Oregon.
In December 2011, Hershey reached an agreement to acquire Brookside Foods Ltd., a privately held confectionery company based in Abbotsford, British Columbia.
Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, due to their wide network of distribution. They have three mega distribution centers, with modern technology and labor management systems.
Hershey has been criticized for not having programs to ensure sustainable and ethical cocoa purchase, lagging behind its competitors in fair trade measures. Regarding Hershey's corporate practices, the Global Exchange report comments that:
Hershey has no policies in place to purchase cocoa that has been produced without the use of labor exploitation, and the company has consistently refused to provide public information about its cocoa sources. Additionally, Hershey has made no move to shift to third-party certification for the cocoa that it sources from West Africa. No information is available from Hershey about how the money it has invested in various programs in West Africa has actually impacted reductions in forced, trafficked, and child labor among the suppliers of its cocoa. Finally, Hershey's efforts to further cut costs in its cocoa production has led to a reduction in good jobs in the United States.
The " CampaignThe Raise the Bar, Hershey!" was launched in September 2010 by Global Exchange, Green America. the Oasis Trust, and the International Labor Rights Forum. The purpose of the Raise the Bar Campaign is to pressure Hershey to commit “to take immediate action to eliminate forced and child labor … from Hershey’s cocoa supply”; “to sourcing 100% Fair Trade Certified™ cocoa beans by 2012 for at least one of its top five selling chocolate bars … making at least one additional top five selling bar 100% Fair Trade Certified™ every two years thereafter”; and that “the majority of Hershey’s cocoa across all products will be Fair Trade Certified™ by 2022.“ Pressure was particularly directed at Whole Foods Market, which announced on October 3, 2012 that it would cease carrying Hershey's Scharffen Berger line. The Campaign stated that "Whole Foods’ decision follows more than 40 natural food retailers and coops publicly expressing concern about carrying Scharffen Berger and Dagoba products as a consequence of the giant chocolate maker’s refusal to address child labor in its supply chain." The same day, Hershey's announced that "it will source 100 percent certified cocoa for its global chocolate product lines by 2020 and accelerate its programs to help eliminate child labor in the cocoa regions of West Africa."
In August 2011, the main distribution center for Hershey candies was subjected to a strike by about 400 young foreign workers brought to the United States under the J1 "cultural exchange" visa program. The center in Palmyra, Pennsylvania was run for Hershey by Exel based in Ohio. Exel in turn subcontracted the staffing of the center to another firm SHS OnSite Solutions based in Lemoyne, Pennsylvania. The students were recruited by yet another organization called the Council on Educational Travel (CETUSA).
To the students, CETUSA promised:
The students paid CETUSA up to $6,000 to participate in the program. The students came from countries such as Costa Rica, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, and Romania. One said, "I spent some of the worst moments of my life during that exchange."
As the strike made national news, Hershey pressured its contractors to provide the students with a week of paid vacation to allow them to see America. Hershey, Exel, SHS OnSite Solutions and CETUSA all removed any mention of the strike from their web sites.
In February 2012, press reports indicated that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration fined Exel $283,000. The company failed to report 42 serious injuries in the period from 2008 to 2011. The agency found that Exel had deliberately failed to meet reporting requirements. Hershey spokesmen pointed out the Hershey Corporation was not cited, just the company they hired to run its operations in the Hershey-owned facility.
In November 2012, the federal government fined the three contractors $143,000 and charged them for unpaid wages, an amount totaling $356,000. The Hershey company refused to answer questions concerning the settlement, referring reporters to the contractors who were largely unavailable.
Hershey's Chocolate World
Middle Division: Deborah Brown
Senior Division: William Weber
The Milton Hershey School is a private philanthropic (pre-K through 12) boarding school in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Originally named the Hershey Industrial School, the institution was founded and funded by chocolate industrialist Milton Snavely Hershey and his wife, Catherine Sweeney Hershey. The school was originally established for impoverished, healthy, Caucasian, male orphans, while today it serves students of various backgrounds. The Milton Hershey School Trust, which funds the school, owns controlling interest in The Hershey Company and owns the Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company (HERCO) which oversees many of the area hotels along with a theme park called Hersheypark. With over six billion dollars in assets, the Milton Hershey School is one of the wealthiest schools in the world. The school is overseen by a Board of Managers.
The school currently serves 1,818 students, and plans to grow to 2,100 students by 2013.][ A member of CORE: Coalition for Residential Education, it is the largest residential education program in the US.
“It was Kitty's idea,” Milton Hershey always said when he spoke of the Hershey Industrial School. “If we had helped a hundred children it would have all been worthwhile.”
Fifteen years younger than her husband, Catherine Hershey developed an undiagnosable illness circa 1901, and was increasingly sickly for years. Hershey’s father, Henry, had been highly intelligent, but not too realistic; his get-rich schemes never worked too well. Hershey did not cope well with the instability; he had attended seven different schools, yet never made it into the fifth grade, so when Kitty was unable to bear children, the Hersheys decided to give needy kids the kind of upbringing he never had. Milton and Catherine Hershey established a home and a school for “poor, healthy white, male orphans between the ages of 8 through 18 years of age.”
On November 15, 1909, Hershey signed over the 486-acre (1.97 km2) farm where he had been born, complete with livestock, to start the school. In 1910, Nelson (age 6), and his brother Irvin (age 4) were the first to arrive. Their father, who had worked as a polisher in a Mount Joy foundry, had died after a long illness, and their mother couldn’t support six children by taking in laundry. Their brother William, 2, was too young to be admitted for two more years. Another pair of brothers, sons of an Evangelical church’s pastor, arrived a few days later. The first class consisted of 10 students, and by 1914, there were 40 boys enrolled in the school.
While Hershey consulted with experts on managing the school, he used three guiding principles to ensure the students had a good education, a sense of stability and security: every graduate should have a vocation, every student should learn love of God and man, and every student should benefit from wholesome responsibility. The vocational education program started with a woodworking shop, where the boys made their own beds and chests. Although Hershey was nonsectarian, claiming the "Silver Rule" as his religion, Sunday school was held regularly at the home. Starting in March 1929, the boys got the responsibility of doing daily chores in the dairy barns.
After Kitty’s death in 1915, Hershey gave his entire personal fortune - thousands of acres of land, and controlling interest in the company, worth US$60 million - to the school. He continued to be involved in the school’s operations until his death in 1945.
The organizational papers were modified in 1933, allowing the school to accept older students, and again in 1951 to change the name of the school from the “Hershey Industrial School” to the “Milton Hershey School.” In 1968, the school was racially integrated, although it wasn’t until 1970 that the organizational papers allowed that, and another modification 1976 allowed female students, who started arriving in 1977.
In 1989, the school stopped requiring students to milk cows twice daily, reflecting a changed focus from vocational to college preparatory education, but students were still required to perform chores.
Admissions are based on five major admissions criteria: (1) Age, (2) Financial Need, (3) Social Need, (4) Potential To Learn, and (5) Geographic Preference.
The school gives preference to students from Pennsylvania, and especially to students from Dauphin, Lancaster, and Lebanon counties. Tri-county students account for 28% of the student body, with another 49% coming from elsewhere in Pennsylvania. The remaining 23% of the student body comes from 34 other states and from the District of Columbia. In 1982, Milton Hershey School admitted its first international students, Ian and Edward Ritchie from Ottawa in Ontario, Canada.
As of 2009[update], the student population of the school is 1,818. Girls outnumber boys 945 to 873. The students are 46% Caucasian, 30% African American, 11% Hispanic, 1% Asian, less than 1% Native American and 12% other. Approximately 47% of the students have siblings who also attend MHS.
A married houseparent couple with child care experience provides full-time supervision for each residence, caring for 9 to 13 children of the same gender, and about the same age. A student will share his (or her) bedrooms with one or two other students.
As of August 2007, all students in their Senior year live in the Transitional Living program, which places 4 students in an apartment, five apartments in a building, and two coordinators to oversee their actions. The program exists as a college-prep movement, in response to polls of MHS alumni which showed that many alumni felt unprepared for college. The TL program is notably more relaxed than the student homes, with fewer restrictions and rules. Transitional Living students are taught how to purchase food for themselves and are required to submit meal plans to their coordinators. They are additionally expected to maintain a regimented level of cleanliness throughout their apartments and common areas.According to the 2012 Health and Wellness Initiative introduced by the school, these meal plans must conform to healthy eating standards.
Students are "plainly, neatly, and comfortably clothed, without distinctive dress". Students wear a uniform of "coordinated clothing" to classes and other designated School functions. School policies say students may have a limited amount of approved leisure and dress wear, and if the student's family or sponsor cannot buy it, the school will.
Each child is encouraged to explore belief in God and in prayer, although the school is non-sectarian. By school policy, students are required to attend a weekly Judeo-Christian chapel service on Sunday mornings.
Student homes, academic buildings, and other facilities are mostly located within rough walking distance of one another. The centerpiece of the campus is Founders Hall with an auditorium seating 2700.
In September 2007, the School opened its Springboard Academy, a program geared toward new incoming sixth and seventh graders, to help with transition into the core program. In 2008, the program changed from sixth and seventh graders to eighth graders. Springboard Academy was housed on its own campus, where about 84 students lived in cottage-like dormitories. The program featured a non-traditional curriculum, where reading and math skills were taught in an experience based setting. However, the program was designed to help reduce the attrition rate of students enrolling in Milton Hershey School, and after 3 years the program was shut down since no measurable evidence of its success could be established. The school's president, Dr. Anthony Colistra, officially announced the closing of the program in 2010
Students are also encouraged to participate in activities such as visual and performing arts, athletics, student government association, mentoring/tutoring, and work-based learning. The school has seen success in such activities such as track and field, boys' basketball, boys' wrestling, and field hockey. Its athletic teams participate interscholastically in District 3's Mid-Penn Conference.
The school is the nation's biggest and wealthiest boarding school for needy children, with $7.5 billion in assets for 1,850 students. Hershey spends about $110,000 a year per student, according to its nonprofit IRS tax filing, more than the nation's most expensive and elite prep schools.
In December 2011, Milton Hershey School found itself in the midst of controversy after an HIV positive student was denied admission. In a lawsuit filed against the school on behalf of the unnamed boy, the AIDS Law Project of Pennsylvania claimed the school violated the Americans with Disabilities Act. School officials said that the boy was denied admission to protect other students. The school later apologized and offered the boy admission to the school, which he declined.
Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company
Hershey’s Chocolate World is the name of Hershey's visitor center in Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States. Open year-round, Hershey's Chocolate World offers marketplace shops and restaurants, specializing in Hershey's chocolate products. Attractions include the Really Big 3-D show, the Hershey Trolley Works, Factory Works Experience, and a free Chocolate Tour ride.
Hershey's Chocolate World is located off of Hersheypark Drive, in Hershey, PA, and is in an entertainment complex which also includes Hersheypark, Hersheypark Stadium, Hersheypark Arena, Hershey Museum, and Giant Center.
Although Hersheypark and Chocolate World are in the same complex, both operate independently of each other. Chocolate World is owned by The Hershey Company while Hersheypark is owned by Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company (HERCO). However, The Hershey Company and HERCO are both owned by the Hershey Trust Company.
Parking is available via a separate lot which is free for the first three hours only, or via the Hersheypark parking lot (when the park is open), which offers a tram service to and from Hershey's Chocolate World. While the facility is open year-round (except Christmas), hours vary depending on the season, ranging anywhere from 9 am to 11 pm.
Hershey's Chocolate World was built as a replacement of the Hershey chocolate plant tour, which had reached its capacity and was no longer able to handle the large numbers of visitors per year. A large sign in front of the factory tells visitors to go to Hershey's Chocolate World for the chocolate-making tour.][ The newly-opened facility took inspiration from World's Fair pavilions.
In 1979, a mosaic from the original Hershey Creamery was moved to Chocolate World. It was placed next to the entrance of the ride, and lasted until 1999, when the retail area named Everything Hershey's was opened. Over the years, the tour ride has gone through several revisions and renovations, the first of which took place in 1978 to add a series of nostalgic shops to the building. On June 1, 1986, the visitor's center welcomed its 20 millionth visitor.
A $4.5 million update to the chocolate-making tour ride opened in 1988, featuring a curious robot for a host. In the mid-1990s, the ride saw numerous revisions on a small scale, including the removal of several show elements. The last renovation occurred in early 2006 when several scenes in the chocolate tour ride were replaced with singing, animatronic cows. Today, there are still portions of the ride that have changed very little from the 1978 updated version, including the sorting and cleaning, roll refining, and chocolate conch scenes.
The building features brownstone quarried out of Hummelstown, a neighboring town.
The rest of Hershey's Chocolate World contains various shops selling Hershey souvenirs and chocolate, and several counter service meal locations (Dessert Creation Studio, Hershey's Courtyard Food Court, and Hershey's Ice Cream Shop). The main candy store is one of the largest stores of its kind in the world selling Hershey's products including new items not widely released, and premium chocolate brands like Scharffen Berger Chocolate.
Milton S. Hershey
Hershey Entertainment and Resorts ('HE&R'), also known as "HE&R", is a privately owned company of the Hershey Trust Company.
The company was originally founded by Milton S. Hershey as part of his chocolate company: what is now Hersheypark was initially promoted by including a picture postcard in each box of chocolate bars.
In 1927, Hershey split his enterprises into three companies, Hershey Chocolate Corporation which he took public, Hershey Corporation, which acquired the sugar estates in Cuba, and Hershey Estates.
The childless Hershey had previously founded a trust in 1909 to establish the Hershey Industrial School for orphan boys, later renamed the Milton Hershey School. The Hershey Trust inherited Hershey Estates, Hershey Corporation, and a majority of the voting stock in Hershey Chocolate Corporation. The sugar operations in Cuba were sold in 1947 to the Cuban Atlantic Sugar Corporation. Hershey Chocolate changed its name to Hershey Foods Corp in 1968, and in 2005, to the The Hershey Company.
The "Hershey Dairy" in that listing should not be confused with Hershey's Creamery, the manufacturers of Hershey Ice Cream. The creamery was founded in 1894 by Jacob N. Hershey, whose family was unrelated to Milton Hershey.
In 1976, the company changed its name from Hershey Estates to HERCO, Inc. and then in 1980 to Hershey Entertainment and Resorts, Inc.
On January 1, 2013, William F. Simpson Jr. replaced Ted Kleisner as the CEO of Hershey Entertainment. Kleisner will remain a member of the board of directors.
HE&R is split into three divisions:
Milton Snavely Hershey (September 13, 1857 – October 13, 1945) was an American confectioner, philanthropist, and founder of The Hershey Chocolate Company and the "company town" of Hershey, Pennsylvania.
He was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 32¢ Great Americans series (1980–2000) postage stamp.
Milton Hershey was born on September 13, 1857, to Veronica "Fanny" Snavely and Henry Hershey. His family were members of Pennsylvania's Mennonite. His ancestors were Swiss and had settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700s. He grew up speaking the "Pennsylvania Dutch" language. Being a youngster in rural Pennsylvania, there was work to be done. Like many rural young people of the time, Milton was expected to help out on the family farm, and he learned early on of the value of hard work and perseverance. Henry Hershey rarely stayed anywhere very long, and was prone to leaving his wife and child for long periods. Because of this, Hershey had a very limited education with no schooling after 4th grade. When he was in his late teens and 20s, Milton would travel with his father on his sales trips. After one lengthy visit to Chicago, Milton grew tired of Chicago and returned to Pennsylvania. Milton returning was a great joy for "Aunt Mattie" (Martha Snavely, Fanny's sister) who loved Milton as if he were her own son. Milton's return was short-lived though. He soon left for New York.
Returning to Lancaster in 1887, Hershey established the Lancaster Caramel Company, which quickly became an outstanding success. Utilizing a caramel recipe he had obtained during his previous travels, his company soared to the top. It was this business that established him as a candy maker, and set the stage for future accomplishments.
Hershey became fascinated with the machinery to make German chocolate exhibited at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition by J. M. Lehmann Co. of Dresden, Germany, and bought the equipment for his company.
With the proceeds from the 1900 sale of the Lancaster Caramel Company, Hershey initially acquired farm land about 30 miles northwest of Lancaster, near his birthplace of Derry Church. There, he could obtain the large supplies of fresh milk needed to perfect and produce fine milk chocolate. Excited by the potential of milk chocolate, which at that time was a luxury product, Hershey was determined to develop a formula for milk chocolate and market and sell it to the American public. Through trial and error, he created his own formula for milk chocolate. The first Hershey's Bar was enjoyed in 1900. Hershey's Kisses were developed in 1907, and the Hershey's Bar with almonds was introduced in 1908.
On March 2, 1903, he began construction on what was to become the world’s largest chocolate manufacturing company. The facility, completed in 1905, was designed to manufacture chocolate using the latest mass production techniques. Hershey’s milk chocolate quickly became the first nationally marketed product of its kind.
The factory was in the center of a dairy farmland, but with Hershey’s support, houses, businesses, churches, and a transportation infrastructure accreted around the plant. Because the land was surrounded by dairy farms, he was able to use fresh milk to mass-produce quality milk chocolate. Hershey continued to experiment and perfect the process of making milk chocolate using the techniques he had first learned for adding milk to make caramels when he had moved to Colorado.
On May 25, 1898, Hershey married Catherine "Kitty" Sweeney. Since the couple could not have children, they decided to help others, establishing the Hershey Industrial School with a Deed of Trust in 1909. Catherine died prematurely in 1915 and Hershey never remarried. In 1918, Hershey transferred the majority of his assets, including control of the company, to the Milton Hershey School Trust fund, to benefit the Industrial School. The trust fund has a majority of voting shares in The Hershey Company, allowing it to keep control of the company. In 1951, the school was renamed the Milton Hershey School. The Milton Hershey School Trust also has 100% control of Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company, which owns the Hotel Hershey and HersheyPark, among other properties. He took great pride in the growth of the school, the town, and his business. He placed the quality of his product and the well-being of his workers ahead of profits.
In 1935, Hershey established the M.S. Hershey Foundation, a private charitable foundation that provides educational and cultural opportunities for Hershey residents. The foundation supplies funding for three entities: the Hershey Museum and Hershey Gardens, the Hershey Theatre and the Hershey Community Archives.
The founding of the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center occurred when the board of the trust went to the Dauphin County Orphans Court with the cy-près doctrine (cy près is a French phrase meaning "As close as possible"). It was a gift from the Milton Hershey School Trust to the people of Pennsylvania, with an initial endowment of $50 million and only one restriction—the hospital had to be built in Hershey. The hospital is a teaching hospital with an annual budget exceeding the initial construction cost
In 1912, the Hersheys were to travel on the ill-fated British luxury liner TitanicRMS . However, they canceled their reservations due to last minute business matters Hershey was needed for, contrary to the popular belief that it was due to Hershey's wife, Kitty Hershey, falling ill. Kitty Hershey had been ill for several years at this point. Instead, they booked passage to New York City on the German luxury liner Amerika. The Hershey Museum displays a copy of the check Hershey wrote to the White Star Line as a deposit for a first class stateroom on the Titanic.
Hershey Chocolate supplied the U.S. armed forces with chocolate bars during World War II. These bars were called Ration D Bars and Tropical Chocolate Bars. The Ration D Bar had very specific requirements from the army: It had to weigh 1 or 2 ounces (28 or 57 g); it had to resist melting at higher temperatures than 90 degrees, and it had to have an unpleasant-enough flavor to prevent the troops from developing cravings for them. After a year or two, the Army was impressed enough with the durability and success of the Ration D Bar to commission Milton to make the Tropical Chocolate Bar. The only difference between them was that the Tropical Chocolate Bar was made to taste better than the Ration D Bar did and still be as durable as the Ration D Bar was. Tropical Chocolate Bars were designed not to melt in the tropical weather. It is estimated that between 1940 and 1945, over 3 billion of the Ration D Bars and Tropical Chocolate Bars were produced and distributed to soldiers throughout the world. In 1939, the Hershey plant was capable of producing 100,000 ration bars a day. By the end of World War II, the entire Hershey plant was producing ration bars at a rate of 24 million a week. For their service throughout World War II, the Hershey Chocolate Company was issued five Army-Navy 'E' Production Awards for exceeding expectations for quality and quantity in the production of the Ration D Bar and Tropical Chocolate Bar. The Hershey factory machine shop even made some parts for tanks and machines during the war.][
Milton S. Hershey died at the age of 88 on October 13, 1945, in Hershey Hospital, a year after he had retired from the board.
Hersheypark Arena (originally Hershey Sports Arena) is a multi-purpose indoor arena, located in Hershey, Pennsylvania. The arena has a seating capacity, for hockey, of 7,286 people and in excess of 8,000, including standing room. Built in 1936, it was originally known as the Hershey Sports Arena. Its roof was the largest concrete shell in the world at that time.
It was home to the Hershey Bears, of the AHL, who moved to the Giant Center in 2002, but still use it as their practice facility. It also played host to some NHL exhibition games and hosted 18 Calder Cup finals and three AHL All-Star games. Today, it is the home rink for the Lebanon Valley College and the Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania ice hockey teams, as well as the Hershey JR Bears, a youth team sponsored by the Bears organization. On most weekends during the fall and winter months, the rink is open to the public for ice skating.
The second sport at the arena was basketball. On March 2, 1962, Philadelphia Warriors center Wilt Chamberlain recorded a record-setting 100 points in a NBA game against the New York Knicks, a record that still stands today.
It hosted the PIAA basketball and wrestling championships, and it also served as the home of the Hershey Impact, a National Professional Soccer League team from 1988–1991.
Annually, it hosts part of the Music in the Parks competition. It has also hosted the Ice Capades, Disney on Ice, professional boxing, tennis competitions, and the fifth WWF In Your House pay-per-view in 1995. Previously it hosted the third ever WWF Saturday Night's Main Event on October 31, 1985 (aired November 2) with the main event being a tag-team match featuring WWF Champion Hulk Hogan teaming with André the Giant facing the team of Big John Studd and King Kong Bundy.
On October 13, 1953, the arena also hosted an extravagant birthday celebration for President Dwight D. Eisenhower whose farm and "weekend White House" was located in nearby Gettysburg.
Phish performed and recorded their show, on December 1, 1995, which was later released as a live album, entitled Live Phish 12.01.95.
On 5 July 2012 a fire damaged the arena, which was in the midst of refurbishment. At about 3:00 PM local time, the fire was upgraded to five alarms. The fire burned for about two hours before being extinguished. The roof was damaged, but reported to not be in danger of collapse. The cause of the fire is still unknown.
Milton S. Hershey
Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company
Geography of Pennsylvania
Chocolate Avenue is a street in Hershey, Pennsylvania that runs past the original Hershey's Chocolate Factory, and is considered to be the main street of the town. It runs from Hersheypark Drive to the intersection of Pennsylvania Route 3017, at which the road continues as Main Street. Most of Chocolate Avenue is a segment of U.S. Route 422.
Chocolate Avenue was one of the first two streets built in the town of Hershey by Milton Hershey when he built up the town for his chocolate empire; the other was Cocoa Avenue.
The name of the street was picked by Milton Hershey himself. He picked names for many streets in the town that related to chocolate.
Chocolate Avenue is known for its street lamps that are shaped like Hershey's Kisses. These unique lamps were first erected in 1963. Some of the kisses are shown as being wrapped, and some as unwrapped, alternating between these two designs. These lamps can also be found on Park Avenue. In 1990, the need to replace the wrappers for the lamps became noticeable.
The street has been known for traffic congestion during the summer months due to tourists of the Hershey chocolate factory.