Question:

What is the role of the OSI application layer?

Answer:

The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model.

More Info:

Application software is all the computer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks (compare with computer viruses) beyond the running of the computer itself. A specific instance of such software is called a software application, program, application or app.

The term is used to contrast such software with system software, which manages and integrates a computer's capabilities but does not directly perform tasks that benefit the user. The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user.

Application software is all the computer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks (compare with computer viruses) beyond the running of the computer itself. A specific instance of such software is called a software application, program, application or app.

The term is used to contrast such software with system software, which manages and integrates a computer's capabilities but does not directly perform tasks that benefit the user. The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user.

Internet map 1024.jpg

Graph · Complex network · Contagion
Small-world  · Scale-free  ·
Community structure  · Percolation  · Evolution  · Controllability  · Graph drawing  · Social capital  · Link analysis  · Optimization
Reciprocity  · Closure  · Homophily
Transitivity  · Preferential attachment
Balance  · Network effect  · Influence

The International Organization for Standardization (French: Organisation internationale de normalisation, Russian: Международная организация по стандартизации, tr. Myezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii), known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

In computer science and engineering, computer architecture is a set of disciplines that describes a computer system by specifying its parts and their relations.

For example, at a high level, computer architecture may be concerned with how the central processing unit (CPU) acts and how it uses computer memory. Some fashionable (2011) computer architectures include cluster computing and Non-Uniform Memory Access.

Data

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (ISO/IEC 7498-1) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

The model groups similar communication functions into one of seven logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path. Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer.

Within computer science, a communications protocol is a system of digital rules for message exchange within or between computers. When messages are exchanged through a computer network, the rules system is called a network protocol.

Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to provoke a particular response of the receiver. Thus, a protocol must define the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware, software, or both. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications as programming languages are to computations.

Within computer science, a communications protocol is a system of digital rules for message exchange within or between computers. When messages are exchanged through a computer network, the rules system is called a network protocol.

Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to provoke a particular response of the receiver. Thus, a protocol must define the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware, software, or both. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement a protocol may be developed into a technical standard. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications as programming languages are to computations.

Computing

Network architecture is the design of a communications network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation.

In telecommunication, the specification of a network architecture may also include a detailed description of products and services delivered via a communications network, as well as detailed rate and billing structures under which services are compensated.

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocols are a family of information exchange standards developed jointly by the ISO and the ITU-T starting in 1977.

While the seven-layer OSI model is still often referenced, of the protocols themselves only X.400, X.500, and IS-IS have had much lasting impact. The goal of a series of open, non-proprietary network protocols is now met by the competing TCP/IP stack.

Business Finance Technology Internet

Finance is the practice]citation needed[ of funds management, or the allocation of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. A key point in finance is the time value of money, which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the same unit of currency tomorrow. Finance aims to price assets based on their risk level, and expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks.

Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

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