In chemistry, yield, also referred to as a reaction yield, is the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction. The absolute yield can be given as the weight in grams or in moles (molar yield). The fractional yield, relative yield, or percentage yield, which serve to measure the effectiveness of a synthetic procedure, are calculated by dividing the amount of the obtained product by the theoretical yield (the unit of measure for both must be the same):
One or more reactants in a chemical reaction are often used in excess. The theoretical yield is something used in chemistry. Stochiometry is a branch of chemistry that deals with relative quantities of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. The theoretical yield is therefore calculated based on the molar amount of the limiting reactant, taking into account the stoichiometry of the reaction. For the calculation it is usually assumed that there is only one reaction involved.
Fixed income analysis is the valuation of fixed income or debt securities, and the analysis of their interest rate risk, credit risk, and likely price behavior in hedging portfolios. The analyst might conclude to buy, sell, hold, hedge or stay out of the particular security.
Fixed income products are generally bonds issued by various government treasuries, companies or international organizations. Bond holders are usually entitled to coupon payments at periodic intervals until maturity. These coupon payments are generally fixed amounts (quoted as percentage of the bond's face value) or the coupons could float in relation to LIBOR or another reference rate.
A financial ratio (or accounting ratio) is a relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements. Often used in accounting, there are many standard ratios used to try to evaluate the overall financial condition of a corporation or other organization. Financial ratios may be used by managers within a firm, by current and potential shareholders (owners) of a firm, and by a firm's creditors. Financial analysts use financial ratios to compare the strengths and weaknesses in various companies. If shares in a company are traded in a financial market, the market price of the shares is used in certain financial ratios.
Ratios can be expressed as a decimal value, such as 0.10, or given as an equivalent percent value, such as 10%. Some ratios are usually quoted as percentages, especially ratios that are usually or always less than 1, such as earnings yield, while others are usually quoted as decimal numbers, especially ratios that are usually more than 1, such as P/E ratio; these latter are also called multiples. Given any ratio, one can take its reciprocal; if the ratio was above 1, the reciprocal will be below 1, and conversely. The reciprocal expresses the same information, but may be more understandable: for instance, the earnings yield can be compared with bond yields, while the P/E ratio cannot be: for example, a P/E ratio of 20 corresponds to an earnings yield of 5%.
Yield gap or yield ratio is the ratio of the dividend yield of an equity and the yield of a long-term government bond. Typically equities have a higher yield (as a percentage of the market price of the equity thus reflecting the higher risk of holding an equity.
The dividend yield or dividend-price ratio of a share is the dividend per share, divided by the price per share. It is also a company's total annual dividend payments divided by its market capitalization, assuming the number of shares is constant. It is often expressed as a percentage.
Dividend yield is used to calculate the earning on investment (shares) considering only the returns in the form of total dividends declared by the company during the year.]citation needed[
Finance is the allocation of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. A key point in finance is the time value of money, which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the same unit of currency tomorrow. Finance aims to price assets based on their risk level, and expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.