In medicine, saline (also saline solution) is a general phrase referring to a sterile solution of sodium chloride (NaCl, more commonly known as salt) in water, but is only sterile when it is to be placed parenterally (such as intravenously); otherwise, a saline solution is a salt water solution. The sterile solution is typically used for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, nasal irrigation, and often used to clean a new piercing. It is also a good medium to store an avulsed ("knocked out") tooth until it can be re-implanted by a dentist. Saline solutions are available in various formulations for different purposes. Salines are also used in cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry experiments.
Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within vein." Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. It is commonly referred to as a drip because many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and allows an estimation of flow rate.
Intravenous therapy may be used to correct electrolyte imbalances, to deliver medications, for blood transfusion or as fluid replacement to correct, for example, dehydration. Intravenous therapy can also be used for chemotherapy.
Lactated Ringer's solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. It may also be given subcutaneously. Lactated Ringer's solution is grouped with intravenous fluids known as "crystalloids" – which include saline and dextrose solutions (compared to the "colloids" which contain larger molecules such as starch or gelatine).
Lactated Ringer's solution is abbreviated as "LR", "RL" or "LRS". It is also known as Ringer's lactate solution (although Ringer's solution technically refers only to the saline component, without lactate). It is very similar, though not identical to, Hartmann's solution, which is more commonly found in British and Irish hospitals and has slightly different ionic concentrations.
Saline water is a general term for water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permillle, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1-0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3-1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1-3.5%). Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At freezing one mililiter of water can dissolve about 357 milligrams of salt; a concentration of 35.7%. At boiling the amount that can be dissolved in a mililiter of water increases to about 390 milligrams or 39% saline solution.
Some industries make use of saline water, such as mining and thermoelectric-power.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks.
Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.