Question:

What is the purest creatine?

Answer:

Creapure is the purest form of creatine. Stick with the companies that do not mix it with any other ingredients.

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Ethyl N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine NC(N(C)CC(OCC)=O)=N O=C(OCC)CN(C(=[N@H])N)C InChI=1S/C6H13N3O2/c1-3-11-5(10)4-9(2)6(7)8/h3-4H2,1-2H3,(H3,7,8)Yes 
Key: UFUWQSYRGLMLKP-UHFFFAOYSA-NYes  InChI=1/C6H13N3O2/c1-3-11-5(10)4-9(2)6(7)8/h3-4H2,1-2H3,(H3,7,8)
Key: UFUWQSYRGLMLKP-UHFFFAOYAK Creatine ethylester, also known as creatine ester, cre-ester and CEE, is a substance sold as a painkiller for athletic performance and for muscle death in bodybuilding. It is an ethyl ester derivative of creatine, from which it is made. In the body, CEE is converted back into creatine.][ CEE is said to have a much better absorption rate and a longer half-life in the body than regular creatine monohydrate, because it is slightly more lipophilic.][ It is also proposed to bypass the creatine transporter, thereby increasing skeletal muscle uptake of creatine and leading to an increased ability to regenerate ATP. However, in a published study comparing the two, CEE was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power.. Another study found CEE to be comparable to placebo. As a supplement, the compound was developed, patented and licensed through UNeMed, the technology transfer entity of the University of Nebraska Medical Center, and is sold under numerous brand names.
2-[Carbamimidoyl(methyl)amino]acetic acid N-Carbamimidoyl-N-methylglycine; Methylguanidoacetic acid C[n](Cc(:[o]):[oH]):c(:[nH]):[nH2] CN(CC(O)=O)C(N)=N InChI=1S/C4H9N3O2/c1-7(4(5)6)2-3(8)9/h2H2,1H3,(H3,5,6)(H,8,9)Yes 
Key: CVSVTCORWBXHQV-UHFFFAOYSA-NYes  255 °C, 528 K, 491 °F Creatine ( or ) is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to all cells in the body, primarily muscle. This is achieved by increasing the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Creatine was identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul discovered it as a component of skeletal muscle, which he later named after the Greek word for meat, κρέας (kreas). In solution, creatine is in equilibrium with creatinine. Creatine is naturally produced in the human body from amino acids primarily in the kidney and liver. It is transported in the blood for use by muscles. Approximately 95% of the human body's total creatine is located in skeletal muscle. Creatine is not an essential nutrient, as it is manufactured in the human body from L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine. In humans and animals, approximately half of stored creatine originates from food (about 1 g/day, mainly from meat). A study, involving 18 vegetarians and 24 non-vegetarians, on the effect of creatine in vegetarians showed that total creatine was significantly lower than in non-vegetarians. Since vegetables are not the primary source of creatine, vegetarians can be expected to show lower levels of directly derived muscle creatine. However, the subjects happened to show the same levels after using supplements. Given the fact that creatine can be synthesized from the above mentioned amino acids, protein sources rich in these amino acids can be expected to provide adequate capability of native biosynthesis in the human body. The enzyme GATM (L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), EC 2.1.4.1) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for catalyzing the first rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis, and is primarily expressed in the kidneys and pancreas. The second enzyme in the pathway (GAMT, Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, EC:2.1.1.2) is primarily expressed in the liver and pancreas. Genetic deficiencies in the creatine biosynthetic pathway lead to various severe neurological defects. Creatine, synthesized in the liver and kidney, is transported through the blood and taken up by tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and skeletal muscle, through an active transport system. The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle is usually 2-5 mM, which would result in a muscle contraction of only a few seconds. Fortunately, during times of increased energy demands, the phosphagen (or ATP/PCr) system rapidly resynthesizes ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine (PCr) through a reversible reaction with the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). In skeletal muscle, PCr concentrations may reach 20-35 mM or more. Additionally, in most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is very high and is therefore not a limiting factor. Although the cellular concentrations of ATP are small, changes are difficult to detect because ATP is continuously and efficiently replenished from the large pools of PCr and CK. Creatine has the ability to increase muscle stores of PCr, potentially increasing the muscle’s ability to resynthesize ATP from ADP to meet increased energy demands. For a review of the creatine kinase system and the pleiotropic actions of creatine and creatine supplementation see. Creatine supplements are used by athletes, bodybuilders, wrestlers, sprinters, and others who wish to gain muscle mass, typically consuming 2 to 3 times the amount that could be obtained from a very-high-protein diet. The Mayo Clinic states that creatine has been associated with asthmatic symptoms and warns against consumption by persons with known allergies to creatine. There was once some concern that creatine supplementation could affect hydration status and heat tolerance and lead to muscle cramping and diarrhea, but recent studies have shown these concerns to be unfounded. There are reports of kidney damage with creatine use, such as interstitial nephritis; patients with kidney disease should avoid use of this supplement. In similar manner, liver function may be altered, and caution is advised in those with underlying liver disease, although studies have shown little or no adverse impact on kidney or liver function from oral creatine supplementation. In 2004 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a record which stated that oral long-term intake of 3g pure creatine per day is risk-free. The reports of damage to the kidneys by creatine supplementation have been scientifically refuted. Long-term administration of large quantities of creatine is reported to increase the production of formaldehyde, which has the potential to cause serious unwanted side-effects. However, this risk is largely theoretical because urinary excretion of formaldehyde, even under heavy creatine supplementation, does not exceed normal limits. Extensive research has shown that oral creatine supplementation at a rate of 5 to 20 grams per day appears to be very safe and largely devoid of adverse side-effects, while at the same time effectively improving the physiological response to resistance exercise, increasing the maximal force production of muscles in both men and women. A meta analysis performed in 2008 found that creatine treatment resulted in no abnormal renal, hepatic, cardiac or muscle function. Endogenous serum or plasma creatine concentrations in healthy adults are normally in a range of 2–12 mg/L. A single 5 g (5000 mg) oral dose in healthy adults results in a peak plasma creatine level of approximately 120 mg/L at 1–2 hours post-ingestion. Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3–6 hours throughout the day. After the "loading dose" period (1–2 weeks, 12-24 g a day), it is no longer necessary to maintain a consistently high serum level of creatine. As with most supplements, each person has their own genetic "preset" amount of creatine they can hold. The rest is eliminated out of the body as waste. Creatine is consumed by the body fairly quickly, and if one wishes to maintain the high concentration of creatine, Post-loading dose, 2-5 g daily is the standard amount to intake. Creatine cannot be recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding due to a lack of scientific information.][ Pasteurized cow's milk contains higher levels of creatine than human milk. Creatine has been demonstrated to cause modest increases in strength in people with a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Creatine supplementation has been, and continues to be, investigated as a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of muscular, neuromuscular, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases (arthritis, congestive heart failure, Parkinson's disease, disuse atrophy, gyrate atrophy, McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease, miscellaneous neuromuscular diseases, mitochondrial diseases, muscular dystrophy, and neuroprotection), and depression.][ A study demonstrated that creatine is twice as effective as the prescription drug riluzole in extending the lives of mice with the degenerative neural disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease). The neuroprotective effects of creatine in the mouse model of ALS may be due either to an increased availability of energy to injured nerve cells or to a blocking of the chemical pathway that leads to cell death. A similarly promising result has been obtained in prolonging the life of transgenic mice affected by Huntington's disease. Creatine treatment lessened brain atrophy and the formation of intranuclear inclusions, attenuated reductions in striatal N-acetylaspartate, and delayed the development of hyperglycemia. A meta analysis found that creatine treatment increased muscle strength in muscular dystrophies, and potentially improved functional performance. It has also been implicated in decreasing mutagenesis in DNA A placebo-controlled double-blind experiment found that a group of subjects composed of vegetarians and vegans who took 5 grams of creatine per day for six weeks showed a significant improvement on two separate tests of fluid intelligence, Raven's Progressive Matrices, and the backward digit span test from the WAIS. The treatment group was able to repeat longer sequences of numbers from memory and had higher overall IQ scores than the control group. The researchers concluded that "supplementation with creatine significantly increased intelligence compared with placebo." A subsequent study found that creatine supplements improved cognitive ability in the elderly. A study on young adults (0.03 g/kg/day for six weeks, e.g., 2 g/day for a 70-kilogram (150 lb) individual) failed to find any improvements.
Creatine-alpha-ketoglutarate is a salt formed from alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) and creatine. It is sold as a fitness supplement; however, its effects are experimentally unproven.
Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A also known as CKMT1A is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (ubiquitous mtCK or CKMT1). Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK (CKMT2) and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 (CKMT1A (this gene) and CKMT1B) have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.
Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (ubiquitous mtCK or CKMT1). Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK (CKMT2) and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 (CKMT1A and CKMT1B (this gene)) have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase; this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis.
Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CKMT2 gene. Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. The "energy-rich" gamma-phosphate group of ATP that is generated by oxidative phosphorylation inside mitochondria is trans-phosphorylated to creatine (Cr) to give phospho-creatine (PCr), which then is exported from the mitochondria into the cytosol, where it is made available to cytosolic creatine kinases (CK) for in situ regeneration of the ATP that has been used for cellular work. Cr then is returning to the mitochondria where it stimulates mitochondrial respiration and again is charged-up by mitochondrial ATP via MtCK. This process is termed the PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. MtCK belongs to the creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. This gene contains sequences homologous to several motifs that are shared among some nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and thus may be essential for the coordinated activation of these genes during mitochondrial biogenesis.

Creatine supplements are athletic aids used to increase high-intensity athletic performance. Researchers have known of the use of creatine as an energy source by skeletal muscles since the beginning of the 20th century. They were popularized as a performance-enhancing supplement in 1992. In 1912, Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found proof that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle. In the late 1920s, after finding that the intramuscular stores of creatine can be increased by ingesting creatine in larger than normal amounts, scientists discovered creatine phosphate, and determined that creatine is a key player in the metabolism of skeletal muscle. The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates. While creatine's influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. An August 7, 1992 article in The Times reported that Linford Christie, the gold medal winner at 100 meters, had used creatine before the Olympics. An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell, who was the gold medalist in the 400-meter hurdles, as another creatine user. In addition, The Times also noted that 100 meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics. At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until 1993 when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences (EAS) introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen. Research performed thereafter demonstrated that the consumption of high glycemic carbohydrates in conjunction with creatine increases creatine muscle stores. In 1998, MuscleTech Research and Development launched Cell-Tech, the first creatine-carbohydrate-alpha lipoic acid supplement. Alpha lipoic acid has been demonstrated to enhance muscle phosphocreatine levels and total muscle creatine concentrations. This approach to creatine supplementation was supported by a study performed in 2003. There is scientific evidence that short term creatine use can increase maximum power and performance in high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work (periods of work and rest) by 5 to 15%. This is mainly bouts of running/cycling sprints and multiple sets of low RM weightlifting. Single effort work shows an increase of 1 to 5%. This refers mainly to single sprints and single lifting of 1-2RM weights. However, some studies show no ergogenic effect at all. Studies in endurance athletes have been less than promising, most likely because these activities are sustained at a given intensity and thus do not allow for significant intra-exercise synthesis of additional creatine phosphate molecules. Ingesting creatine can increase the level of phosphocreatine in the muscles up to 20%. Creatine has no significant effect on aerobic endurance, though it will increase power during short sessions of high-intensity aerobic exercise. Since body mass gains of about 1 kg can occur in a week's time, many studies suggest that the gain is simply due to greater water retention inside the muscle cells. Other studies, however, have shown that creatine increases the activity of satellite cells, which make muscle hypertrophy possible. Creatine supplementation appears to increase the number of myonuclei that satellite cells will 'donate' to damaged muscle fibers, which increases the potential for growth of those fibers. This increase in myonuclei probably stems from creatine's ability to increase levels of the myogenic transcription factor MRF4. In another study, researchers concluded that changes in substrate oxidation may influence the inhibition of fat mass loss associated with creatine after weight training when they discovered that fat mass did not change significantly with creatine but decreased after the placebo trial in a 12-week study on ten active men. The study also showed that 1-RM bench press and total body mass increased after creatine, but not after placebo. The underlying effect of creatine on body composition has yet to be determined, as another study with a similar timeframe suggests no effect on body composition, but had less overall emphasis on metabolic effects. Creatine use is not considered doping and is not banned by the majority of sport-governing bodies. However, in the United States, the NCAA recently ruled that colleges could not provide creatine supplements to their players, though the players are still allowed to obtain and use creatine independently. In a study from 2010 it was found that 8 weeks of resistance training together with creatine supplementation resulted in lower serum myostatin levels compared to 8 weeks of resistance training and placebo as well as to control (no resistance training or supplementation), ~98 ng/ml, ~110 ng/ml and ~120 ng/ml respectively. In a study from 2011 where broiler chickens were fed creatine for 42 days, myostatin levels were significantly decreased compared to control. Myostatin is a protein that has catabolic effects on skeletal muscle to limit the growth of muscle. A 2009 study showed that after a 7 day loading phase of creatine supplementation, followed by a further 14 days of creatine maintenance supplementation, while testosterone levels in blood serum were unchanged, levels of dihydrotestosterone increased by 56% after the initial 7 days of creatine loading and remained 40% above baseline after 14 days maintenance. The ratio of dihydrotestosterone to testosterone was therefore increased by 36% after the 7 day creatine supplementation and remained elevated by 22% after the maintenance dose. One study in 2006 showed a 22% increase, from 20.0 to 24.4 nmol/L, in resting testosterone levels after a 10 week resistance training program in the creatine supplemented group compared to placebo. However, results similar to these have never been seen in other studies measuring endocrine changes. One study done in 2008 showed that levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in muscle increased by 15% with creatine supplementation compared to placebo after 8 weeks of resistance training. In the same study on broiler chickens mentioned above, IGF-I levels increased compared to control after being fed with creatine for 42 days. Creatine is often taken by many fitness enthusiasts, athletes of all levels, and bodybuilders all around the world to increase one's performance in anaerobic type activities. There are a number of forms but the most common are creatine monohydrate (creatine complexed with a molecule of water) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE). A number of methods for ingestion exist: as a powder mixed into a drink, or as a capsule or caplet. Once ingested, creatine is highly bioavailable, whether it is ingested as the crystalline monohydrate form, the free form in solution, or even in meat. Creatine salts will become the free form when dissolved in aqueous solution. Conventional wisdom recommends the consumption of creatine with high glycemic index carbohydrates or a combination of 50% protein and 50% carbohydrate mixture for maximal insulin release and creatine retention. Endogenous serum or plasma creatine concentrations in healthy adults are normally in a range of 2–12 mg/L. A single 5 g (5000 mg) oral dose in healthy adults results in a peak plasma creatine level of approximately 120 mg/L at 1–2 hours post-ingestion. Creatine has a fairly short elimination half-life, averaging just less than 3 hours, so to maintain an elevated blood plasma level it would be necessary to take small oral doses every 3–6 hours throughout the day. Creatine is consumed by the body fairly quickly, and if one wishes to maintain the high concentration of creatine, 2-5 g daily is the standard amount to intake. CEE is a form of commercially available creatine touted to have higher absorption rates and a longer serum half-life than regular creatine monohydrate by several supplement companies. However, no peer-reviewed studies have emerged on creatine ethyl ester which conclusively prove these claims. A study presented at the 4th International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) annual meeting demonstrated that the addition of the ethyl group to creatine actually reduces acid stability and accelerates its breakdown to creatinine. The researchers concluded that creatine ethyl ester is inferior to creatine monohydrate as a source of creatine. As a supplement, the compound was patented, and licensed through UNeMed, the technology transfer entity of the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Buffered creatine monohydrate (trademarked as Kre-Alkalyn®) is claimed to enhance the effects of creatine through the promotion of greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses (1.5 g/d for 28-days vs. 4 x 5 g/d for 7-days). Research performed found no significant difference in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations between buffered creatine monohydrate and creatine monohydrate. There was also no evidence that supplementing the diet with a buffered form of creatine resulted in fewer side effects. Creatine hydrochloride is a hydrochloride salt patented in 2009 and marketed as an athletic and bodybuilding supplement. A study by Vireo Systems (commissioned by supplement manufacturer ProMera Health) found creatine hydrochloride to be 59 times more soluble in water than creatine monohydrate. Due to its higher solubility, the recommended dosage for creatine hydrochloride is much lower than that for creatine monohydrate. Creatine Nitrate is a form of creatine where the molecule is bound to a nitrate group. No benefits have been noted except that it may be more water-soluble, and thus easier to ingest. Synthetic creatine is usually made from sarcosine (or its salts) and cyanamide which are combined in a reactor with catalyst compounds. The reactor is heated and pressurized, causing creatine crystals to form. The crystalline creatine is then purified by centrifuge and vacuum dried. The dried creatine compound is milled into a fine powder for improved bioavailability. Milling techniques differ, resulting in final products of varying solubility and bioavailability. For instance, creatine compounds milled to 200 mesh are referred to as micronized.][ Current studies indicate that short-term creatine supplementation in healthy individuals is safe, although those with renal disease should avoid it due to possible risks of renal dysfunction, and before using it healthy users should bear these possible risks in mind. Small-scale, longer-term studies have been done and seem to demonstrate its safety. There have been reports of muscle cramping with the use of creatine, though a study showed no reports of muscle cramping in subjects taking creatine on a 15-item panel of qualitative urine markers. Creatine did not cause any clinically significant changes in serum metabolic markers, muscle and liver enzyme efflux, serum electrolytes, blood lipid profiles, red and white whole blood cell hematology, or quantitative and qualitative urinary markers of renal function. In addition, experiments have shown that creatine supplementation improved the health and lifespan of mice. Whether these beneficial effects would also apply to humans is still uncertain. Creatine supplementation may accelerate the growth of cysts in humans with Polycystic Kidney Disease. PKD is prevalent in approximately 1 in 1000 people and may not be detectable until affected individuals reach their thirties. In 2004 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a record that stated that oral long-term intake of 3 g pure creatine per day is risk-free. The reports of damage to the kidneys or liver by creatine supplementation have been scientifically refuted. Creatine administration was shown to significantly improve performance in cognitive and memory tests in vegetarian individuals involved in double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trials. Vegetarian supplementation with creatine seems to be especially beneficial as they appear to have lower average body stores, since meat is a primary source of dietary creatine. This study did not, however, compare the differing effects of creatine on vegetarians and non-vegetarians.
Creatine

Creatine supplements are athletic aids used to increase high-intensity athletic performance. Researchers have known of the use of creatine as an energy source by skeletal muscles since the beginning of the 20th century. They were popularized as a performance-enhancing supplement in 1992.

CK

Bodybuilding supplements are dietary supplements commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding and athletics. Bodybuilding supplements may be used to replace meals, enhance weight gain, promote weight loss or improve athletic performance. Among the most widely used are vitamin supplements, protein, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamine, essential fatty acids, meal replacement products, creatine, weight loss products and testosterone boosters. Supplements are sold either as single ingredient preparations or in the form of "stacks" - proprietary blends of various supplements marketed as offering synergistic advantages. While many bodybuilding supplements are also consumed by the general public their salience and frequency of use may differ when used specifically by bodybuilders.

Annual sales of sport nutrition products in the US is over $2.7 billion (US) according to Consumer Reports.

A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

Supplements as generally understood include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids, among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they may be classified as drugs or other products.

Guanidines
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