Indian Railways (reporting mark IR / भा. रे) is an Indian state-owned enterprise, owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is one of the world's largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km (71,000 mi) of track over a route of 65,000 km (40,000 mi) and 7,500 stations. As of December 2012, it transported over 25 million passengers daily (over 9 billion on an annual basis). In 2011, IR carried over 8,900 million passengers annually or more than 24 million passengers daily (roughly half of which were suburban passengers) and 2.8 million tons of freight daily. In 2011–2012 Indian Railways had revenues of 1119848.9 million (US$17 billion) which consists of 696759.7 million (US$11 billion) from freight and 286455.2 million (US$4.4 billion) from passengers tickets.
Railways were first introduced to India in 1853 from Bombay to Thane. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India and are assigned codes identifying their gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Its operations cover twenty eight states and seven union territories and also provides limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Rail transport is a commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in India. Almost all rail operations in India are handled by a state-owned organisation, Indian Railways, Ministry of Railways. The rail network traverses the length and breadth of the country, covering in 2011 a total length of 64,460 kilometres (40,050 mi).:3 It is the 4th largest railway network in the world, transporting 7651 million passengers and over 921 million tonnes of freight annually, as of 2011.:3, 56 Its operations cover twenty eight states and three union territories and also provide limited service to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Both passenger and freight traffic has seen steady growth, and as per the 2009 Railway budget presented by the Railway Minister, the Indian Railways carried over 7 billion passengers in 2009
Railways were introduced to India in 1853 from Mumbai to Thane, and by the time of India's independence in 1947 they had grown to forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit—Indian Railways—to form one of the largest networks in the world. The broad gauge is the majority and original standard gauge in India; more recent networks of metre and narrow gauge are being replaced by broad gauge under Project Unigauge. The steam locomotives have been replaced over the years with diesel and electric locomotives.
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. Despite being generally known as the Salem witch trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in a variety of towns across the province: Salem Village (now Danvers), Ipswich, Andover and Salem Town.
The most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town. One contemporary writer summed the results of the trials thus:
Salem pronunciation (help·info) is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Salem is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) northwest of Coimbatore and about 340 kilometres (211 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai. Salem is the fifth largest city in Tamil Nadu in terms of population after Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, and Tiruchirappalli respectively and fourth in terms of urbanisation. The area of the city is 100 km2 (39 sq mi). It is the fifth Municipal Corporation and Urban agglomeration commissioned in Tamil Nadu after Madras (year 1919), Coimbatore (1981), Madurai (1971) and Tiruchirappalli (1994) respectively.
The United States is a country in the Northern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere, and the Eastern Hemisphere. It consists of forty-eight contiguous states in North America, Alaska, a peninsula which forms the northwestern most part of North America, and Hawaii, an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. There are several United States territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. The term "United States", when used in the geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The country shares land borders with Canada and Mexico and maritime (water) borders with Russia, Cuba, and the Bahamas in addition to Canada and Mexico.
Salem is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. The population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem and Lawrence were the county seats of Essex County prior to the abolishment of county government in 1999. Home to Salem State University, the Salem Willows Park and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, The Point, South Salem and North Salem, Witchcraft Heights, Pickering Wharf, and the McIntire Historic District (named after Salem's famous architect and carver, Samuel McIntire). Salem was one of the most significant seaports in early America.
Featured notably in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, much of the city's cultural identity is reflective of its role as the location of the Salem witch trials of 1692: Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a local public school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School, the Salem High School athletic teams are named the Witches; and Gallows Hill, a site of numerous public hangings, is currently used as a playing field for various sports. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites, New Age and Wiccan boutiques, kitschy Halloween, witch-themed attractions and a vibrant downtown that has more than 60 restaurants, cafes and coffee shops. The 15th Annual Retailers Association of Massachusetts awarded Salem as the best place to shop in 2012. President Barack Obama on January 10, 2013 signed executive order HR1339 "which designates the City of Salem, Mass., as the birthplace of the U.S. National Guard.
Winston-Salem is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina, with a 2010 population of 229,617. Winston-Salem is the county seat and largest city of Forsyth County and the fifth largest city in the state.
Winston-Salem is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region and is home to the tallest office building in the region, 100 North Main Street, formerly the Wachovia Building and now known locally as the Wells Fargo Center. Winston-Salem is called the "Twin City" for its dual heritage and "City of the Arts and Innovation" for its dedication to fine arts and theater and technological research. "Camel City" is a reference to the city's historic involvement in the tobacco industry related to locally based R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company's popular Camel cigarettes. Winston-Salem is also known for its traditional furniture company. Many locals refer to the city as "Winston" in informal speech. "The Dash" is referenced from the hyphen between Winston and Salem and was popularized by the nickname of the local minor league baseball team, the Winston-Salem Dash.
The Salem-Shotwell Covered Bridge, also known as the Pea Ridge Covered Bridge, is a locally owned wooden covered bridge that spans Rocky Brook in Lee County, Alabama, United States. It is located halfway down Park Road (formerly the east end of 7th Avenue) at Opelika Municipal Park, which is off North 5th Street in the city of Opelika. Coordinates are(32.659294, -85.381372).
Originally built in 1900, the 43-foot (13-meter) bridge is a Town Lattice truss construction over a single span. Its WGCB number is 01-41-B, formerly 01-41-04. The bridge was listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on January 25, 1977. It was destroyed by a fallen tree in 2005 at its original location near Salem, then rebuilt in 2007 at Opelika Municipal Park. The bridge is maintained by the Opelika Kiwanis Club and the City of Opelika.