The identity of the longest word in English depends upon the definition of what constitutes a word in the English language, as well as how length should be compared. In addition to words derived naturally from the language's roots (without any known intentional invention), English allows new words to be formed by coinage and construction; place names may be considered words; technical terms may be arbitrarily long. Length may be understood in terms of orthography and number of written letters, or (less commonly) phonology and the number of phonemes.
In programming languages, a type system is a collection of rules that assign a property called a type to the various constructs—such as variables, expressions, functions or modules—a computer program is composed of. The main purpose of a type system is to reduce bugs in computer programs by defining interfaces between different parts of a computer program, and then checking that the parts have been connected in a consistent way. This checking can happen statically (at compile time), dynamically (at run time), or as a combination thereof.
An example of a simple type system is that of the C language. The portions of a C program are the function definitions. One function is invoked by another function. The interface of a function states the name of the function and a list of values that are passed to the function's code. The code of an invoking function states the name of the invoked, along with the names of variables that hold values to pass to it. During execution, the values are placed into temporary storage, then execution jumps to the code of the invoked function. The invoked function's code accesses the values and makes use of them. If the instructions inside the function are written with the assumption of receiving an integer value, but the calling code passed a floating-point value, then the wrong result will be computed by the invoked function. The C compiler checks the type declared for each variable sent, against the type declared for each variable in the interface of the invoked function. If the types do not match, the compiler throws a compile-time error.
The longest word in any given language depends on the word formation rules of each specific language, and on the types of words allowed for consideration. Agglutinative languages allow for the creation of long words via compounding. Even non-agglutinative languages may allow word formation of theoretically limitless length in certain contexts. Words consisting of hundreds, thousands, or even millions of characters have been coined with the goal of being ranked among the world's longest words; technical scientific terms can run to hundreds of thousands of characters in length. Place names may not be accepted on lists of longest words despite their length. Longest word candidates may be judged by their acceptance in major dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary or in record-keeping publications like Guinness World Records, and by the frequency of their use in ordinary language.
The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July 1961.
Instead of the "basket" of individual typebars that swung up to strike the ribbon and page in a traditional typewriter, the Selectric had a type element (frequently called a "typeball", or more informally, a "golf ball") that rotated and pivoted to the correct position before striking. The type element could be easily changed so as to print different fonts in the same document, resurrecting a capacity that had been pioneered by the Blickensderfer typewriter sixty years before. The Selectric also replaced the traditional typewriter's moving carriage with a paper roller ("platen") that stayed in position while the typeball and ribbon mechanism moved from side to side.
Sally Harmony was secretary to G. Gordon Liddy during 1972 at the time of the Watergate first break-in. She testified in Congress that she had typed up logs of telephone conversations G. Gordon Liddy had supplied to her, and that she typed them on special stationery Liddy also had supplied with the word "GEMSTONE" printed across the top in color.
As to the origin of what Sally Harmony had typed, Liddy claims in his autobiography and in sworn testimony to have gotten the logs from Alfred Baldwin, a former FBI agent who had been hired by James McCord to monitor and make a record of conversations from wire-taps that McCord purportedly had planted inside the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in the Watergate.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics. In type theory, every "term" has a "type" and operations are restricted to terms of a certain type.
Type theory is closely related to (and in some cases overlaps with) type systems, which are a programming language feature used to reduce bugs. The types of type theory were created to avoid paradoxes in a variety of formal logics and rewrite systems and sometimes "type theory" is used to refer to this broader application.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.