Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans. Both HSV-1 (which produces most cold sores) and HSV-2 (which produces most genital herpes) are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus. Herpes Simplex can be spread through contact with saliva, such as sharing drinks.
Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals. Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease. Sometimes, the viruses cause very mild or atypical symptoms during outbreaks. However, as neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of neurons. After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the neuron's axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores.
These are tables of the clinically most important viruses. A vast number of viruses cause infectious diseases, but these are the major ones]citation needed[.
Herpes simplex (Greek: ἕρπης herpēs, "creeping" or "latent") is a viral disease from the herpesviridae family caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection. Oral herpes, the visible symptoms of which are colloquially called cold sores or fever blisters, is an infection of the face or mouth. Oral herpes is the most common form of infection. Genital herpes, known simply as herpes, is the second most common form of herpes. Other disorders such as herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, ocular herpes, cerebral herpes infection encephalitis, Mollaret's meningitis, neonatal herpes, and possibly Bell's palsy are all caused by herpes simplex viruses.
Herpes viruses cycle between periods of active disease—presenting as blisters containing infectious virus particles—that last 2–21 days, followed by a remission period. Genital herpes, however, is often asymptomatic, though viral shedding may still occur. After initial infection, the viruses are transported along sensory nerves to the sensory nerve cell bodies, where they become latent and reside lifelong. Causes of recurrence are uncertain, though some potential triggers have been identified, including immunosuppressant drugs. The previously latent virus then multiplies new virus particles in the nerve cell and these are transported along the axon of each neuron to the nerve terminals in the skin, where they are released. Over time, episodes of active disease reduce in frequency and severity.
Herpes Support Groups are organized groups, some grass roots and some official nonprofit or medical groups, that provide support and information for people who have been diagnosed with genital herpes. Genital herpes is a viral disease caused by Herpes simplex viruses; both herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV–1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV–2) can cause genital herpes.
Support for people with herpes arose from the work of the American Social Health Association (ASHA). The organization was created in 1914 to in response to the increase in social diseases that had spread during World War 1.
Herpes labialis, (also called cold sores, herpes simplex labialis, recurrent herpes labialis, or orolabial herpes),:368 is a type of herpes simplex occurring on the lip, i.e. an infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). An outbreak typically causes small blisters or sores on or around the mouth commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters. The sores typically heal within 2–3 weeks, but the herpes virus remains dormant in the facial nerves, following orofacial infection, periodically reactivating (in symptomatic people) to create sores in the same area of the mouth or face at the site of the original infection.
Cold sore has a rate of frequency that varies from rare episodes to 12 or more recurrences per year. People with the condition typically experience one to three attacks annually. The frequency and severity of outbreaks generally decreases over time.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), also referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STI) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Some STIs can also be contracted by using IV drug needles after their use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding.
Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years, and venereology is the branch of medicine that studies these diseases. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease.