What is the horsepower rating on a 1978 Chevrolet 454 big block?


The Vortec V8s were introduced in 1996, with power boosts across the board for the gasoline engines. The Vortec V8's made between 255 to 290 horsepower.

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V8 engine
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. In its simplest form, it is basically two straight-4 engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. As a result, since the 1920s most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine which is smoother than a V6, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 engine. Most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. The V8 with a crossplane crankshaft (see below) is a common configuration for large automobile engines. V8 engines are rarely less than 3.0 L (183 cu in) in displacement and in automobile use have exceeded 8.2 L (500 cu in) in production vehicles. Industrial and marine V8 engines can be much larger. V8s are generally only standard on more powerful muscle cars, sports cars, luxury cars, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. However, they are often options in vehicles which have a V6 or straight-6 as standard engine. In some cases, V6 engines were derived from V8 designs by removing two cylinders maintaining the V-angle so they can be built on the same assembly lines as the V8s and installed in the same engine compartments with few modifications. Some of these employed offset crankpins driving connecting rod pairs, enabling a regular firing sequence. The traditional 90° big-bore V8 engine is generally too wide and too long to fit easily in vehicles with a transverse engine front-wheel drive layout, so its applications are limited to rear-wheel drive sports cars, muscle cars, pony cars, luxury cars and light trucks. The shorter and occasionally narrower V6 engine is easier to fit in small engine compartments, but a few compact V8 engines are used in transverse FWD and transverse AWD engine configurations in larger cars, such as Cadillacs and Volvos. These engines often have tighter cylinder bore spacings, narrower cylinder bank angles, and other modifications to reduce their space requirements. V8s are common in purpose-designed engines for racing cars. They usually have flat-plane crankshafts, since a crossplane crankshaft results in uneven firing into the exhaust manifolds which interferes with engine tuning, and the crossplane's heavy crankshaft counterweights prevent the engine from accelerating rapidly. They are a common engine configuration in the highest echelons of motorsport, especially in the USA where it is required in IRL, ChampCar and NASCAR. V8 engines are also used in Australian motorsport, most notably in the V8 Supercars. Formula One began the 2006 season using naturally aspirated 2.4 L (146 cu in) V8 engines, which replaced the 3.0 L (183 cu in) V10 in a move to reduce costs and power. Medium-weight trucks tend to use the straight-6 configuration since it is simpler and easier to maintain, and because the straight-6 is an inherently balanced layout which can be scaled up to any size necessary. Large V8s are found in the larger truck and industrial equipment lines. Although it was the early choice for aircraft engines, the V8 engine is seldom used in modern aircraft engine as the typically heavy crankshaft counterweights are a liability. Modern light planes commonly use the flat-8 configuration instead as it is lighter and easier to air cool. In addition it can be manufactured in modular designs sharing components with flat-4 and flat-6 engines. One of the few V8 engines used for aircraft propulsion in the World War II years was the German inverted V8 configuration, air-cooled Argus As 10 powerplant. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine. He called it the 'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats and early aircraft. The aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp (18 kW) at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg (120 lb) of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp (37 kW) with 86 kg (190 lb) of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V-8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. One of these aircraft, piloted by Hubert Latham, twice tried but failed to cross the English Channel in 1909 due to the engine's gasoline injection. However, in 1910, the same plane with the same engine and the same pilot was first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, also, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others. Some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car engines built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in (25,416 cc), good for 200 bhp (150 kW). Victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph (176.46 km/h). This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc (216 cu in) V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only 3 copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a straight-6 design. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc (474 cu in) automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of American manufacturers to follow suit. One of the first production automobile V8s was introduced in the United States in 1914 by Cadillac, a division of General Motors which sold 13,000 of the 5,429 cc (331 cu in) L-head engines in its first year of production. Cadillac has been primarily a V8 company ever since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L (244 cu in) V8 engine in 1916. Chevrolet introduced a 288 cu in (4.7 L) V8 engine in 1917, but after merging with General Motors in 1918, discontinued the V8 to focus on economy engines because it was problematic and expensive. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V-8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to some 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. Almost 50,000 "Hisso" V8 powerplants in total, as the engines became nicknamed, were built in Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and even by Wright Aeronautical in the United States during World War I, and are said to have powered roughly half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era.][ By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V-8 engine. The production was the largest commercially available V8 to the masses. Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Model "B" engine in a low priced car, this compact V-8 power plant, with its down draft carburetor, enabled 1932 Ford to outperform all other popular competitors and was conceived as years ahead of its time. The Ford flathead V8 is still heralded today as one of the first pioneers in 'hot rod' engines. The most prevalent V angle for a V8 is 90°. This configuration features a wide, low engine with optimal firing and vibration characteristics. Many V6 and V10 engine configurations are derived from production V8 designs, they often use the 90° angle; however, balance shafts are incorporated to reduce vibration or more complex cranks to even the firing cycle. V8s can use different angles. One notable example is the Ford/Yamaha V8 used in the Ford Taurus SHO. It was based on Ford's Duratec V6 and shares that engine's 60° vee angle. A similar Yamaha-built engine is used by Volvo Cars as of 2005. These engines were designed for transverse front-wheel-drive installation and are narrower than usual for efficient use of space. Because they are not at the ideal 90° angle for a V8, they require a counter-rotating balance shaft and offset split crankpins for complete smoothness. In 2010, GM introduced a 4.5 L Duramax diesel V8 with a 72° angle in which they state, "Considering manufacturing tolerances, a 72° V-8 engine can actually deliver better balance than a 90 engine." 72° V8 engines have been used in modern racing. The Rover Meteorite V8 engine was derived from the Rover Meteor tank engine (hence derived from the Merlin aero engine), so shared the Meteor's 60° vee angle. In years past, Electro-Motive produced an 8-cylinder version of their model 567 Diesel locomotive engine, with a 45° cylinder angle. The 1932 Miller four-wheel drive race cars also featured a 45° V8. An extremely narrow-angle V8 was introduced by Lancia in 1922, which had an angle between cylinder banks of only 14°. This created an engine that was shorter than a straight-6, but much narrower than a conventional V8. It was based on a Lancia V4 engine design that was almost completely "square" in the length and width of its layout. Because of their compact design and overhead camshafts, these engines were lighter and more powerful than comparable engines of the time. Although Lancia stopped making the V8 design around World War II, the basic concept is used today in the Volkswagen VR6 engine. There are two classic types of 90 degree V8s which differ by crankshaft: In 1992, Audi left the German DTM racing series after a controversy around the crankshaft design of their Audi V8 DTM. After using the road car's cross-plane 90° crankshaft for several years, they switched to a flat-plane 180° version which they claimed was made by "twisting" a stock part. The scrutineers decided that this would stretch the rules too far. The cross-plane design was neither obvious nor simple to design. For this reason, most early V8 engines, including those from De Dion-Bouton, Peerless, and Cadillac, were flat-plane designs. In 1915, the cross-plane design was proposed at an automotive engineering conference in the United States, but it took another eight years to bring it to production. Cadillac and Peerless (who had hired an ex-Cadillac mathematician for the job) applied for a patent on the cross-plane design simultaneously, and the two agreed to share the idea. Cadillac introduced their "Compensated Crankshaft" V8 in 1923, with the "Equipoised Eight" from Peerless appearing in November 1924. A full decade after Britain's 1904 Rolls-Royce Legalimit, Cadillac produced the first American V8 engine, the 1914 L-Head. It was a complicated hand-built unit with cast iron paired closed-head cylinders bolted to an aluminum crankcase, and it used a flat-plane crankshaft. Peerless followed, introducing a V8 licensed from amusement park manufacturer, Herschell-Spillman, the next year. Chevrolet produced a crude overhead valve V8 in 1917, in which the valve gear was completely exposed. It only lasted through 1918 and Chevrolet would not produce another V8 until the introduction of the small block in 1955. Cadillac and Peerless were one year apart again (1923 and 1924, respectively) with the introduction of the cross-plane crankshaft. Lincoln also had V8 cars in those years, as did Ferro, Northway (supplier to Cadillac), Cole (Indianapolis, and Jackson, Mississippi), Perkins (Detroit), Murray, Vernon, and Yale. Oakland, a division of GM, introduced an 85 hp (63 kW) 250 cu in (4.1 L) V8 with a 180° crankshaft in 1930–1931. In 1932, the Oakland marque was discontinued and the V8 was used in its companion marque, Pontiac, for one year. Pontiac dropped the V8 engine in 1933 and replaced it with its smoother running Silver-Streak straight eight. Ford was the first company to use V8s en masse. Instead of going to an inline six like its competitors when something larger than an inline four was needed, Ford designed a modern V8, the Flathead of 1932. This flat head engine powered almost all larger Ford cars through the 1953 production year, and was produced until around 1970 by Ford licensees around the world, with the valve-in-block engine powering mostly commercial vehicles. After World War II, the strong demand for larger status-symbol cars made the common straight-6 less marketable. Straight-8 engines have problems with crankshaft whip and require a longer engine bay. In the new wider body styles, a V8 would fit in the same space as a straight-6. Manufacturers could simplify production and offer the bigger engines as optional upgrades to base models. In 1949, General Motors (GM) responded to Ford's V8 success by introducing the Oldsmobile Rocket and Cadillac OHV. Chrysler introduced their FirePower 331 cu in (5.4 L) hemi-head V8 in 1951. That year Studebaker introduced its V8. Buick followed in 1953, while Packard and GM's Chevrolet and Pontiac introduced V8s of their own in 1955. American Motors initially purchased V8 engines from Packard, but developed its own lower-weight, 600 lb (272 kg), design in 1956. A full history of each manufacturer's engines is outside of the scope in this article, but engine sizes on full-size cars grew throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and into the early-to-mid-1970s. The increasing size of full-size cars meant smaller models of car were introduced and became more popular, with the result, by the 1960s, Chrysler, Buick, Ford, and Chevrolet had two V8 model ranges. The larger engines, known as big-block V8s, were used in the full-size cars. Big-blocks generally had displacements in excess of 360 cu in (5.9 L), but in stock form are often not all that efficient. Big-block displacement reached its zenith with the 1970 Cadillac Eldorado's 500 cu in (8.2 L) 500. Once the 1970s oil crisis and pollution regulations hit, big-block V8s did not last too much longer in cars; luxury cars lasted the longest, but by 1977 or so they were gone. In trucks and other larger vehicles, big-block V8s continue to be used today, though some manufacturers have replaced them with small-block-based V10s or more efficient Diesels. Big-block V8s are used in racing and such engines are available from independent engine builders. Some applications produce 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) from volumes exceeding 800 cu in (13.1 L). Smaller engines, known as small-block V8s, were fitted in the mid-size car ranges and generally displaced between 270 cu in (4.4 L) and 360 cu in (5.9 L), though some grew as large as Ford's 408 cu in (6.7 L) 400 Cleveland. There is overlap between big-block and small-block ranges, and a factory engine between 6.0 and 6.6 L (366 and 403 cu in) could belong to either class. Engines like this (much evolved) are still in production. During the 1950s, 1960s, and, 1970s, every GM division had their own engines, whose merits varied. This enabled each division to have its own unique engine character, but made for much duplication of effort. Most, like the comparatively small Buick 215 and familiar Chevrolet 350, were confusingly shared across many divisions. Ford and Chrysler had fewer divisions, and quickly abandoned these division-specific engines in favor of a few shared designs. Realizing that shared designs were more cost efficient, GM also began to eliminate division-specific engines in the late 1970s, but still has never gone to a single V8 design. Today, there are fewer than a dozen different American V8 engines in production. Lately, Chrysler and GM have designed larger displacement V8s out of existing modern small-block V8s for use in performance vehicles, such as Chrysler's 6.1 L (372.2 cu in) and 6.4 L (390.6 cu in) Hemis, and the LS7 7.0 L (427.2 cu in) version of GM's LS engines. Today Professional Racing V8s are still common with American cars. Track cars commonly use naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged engines around 4–7 L (240–430 cu in) in size. Pro-stock and Superstock drag racing engines usually use big-block (400–600 cu in (6.6–9.8 L)) Chevrolet or Ford Boss engines, some upwards of 800 cu in (13.1 L), and one 1,005 cu in (16.5 L) General Motors engine engineered by Sonny Racing which can rev to 8,000 RPM. Top Fuel/Funny cars generally uses aluminum-coversion Chrysler Hemi engines, which production stopped in December 2010. Superchargers for the engines are based on old GM 2-stroke superchargers. There is also a Ford 500 cu in (8.2 L) Boss Top Fuel/Funny car engine. Holden, including its performance vehicle operations Holden Racing Team and Holden Special Vehicles, has been manufacturing V8 performance vehicles since the late 1960s, as has Ford Australia. The performance arm of Ford Australia, Ford Performance Vehicles (FPV), has since 2003 resurged in the market with the Falcon BA and BF based models, and the FG series. The Australian V8 is typically an American-manufactured block from either Ford, Chrysler or General Motors yet often uses local heads and auxiliary systems (pistons, exhaust etc.). However, there are a couple of exceptions to this — the Holden V8 engine small block V8, and the British Leyland alloy small-block V8. The Holden small-block V8 was an all Australian designed and manufactured cast-iron 90° pushrod OHV engine, manufactured in the capacities of 4.2 L (253 CID), 5.0 L (308 CID), later destroked to 304 CID), and 5.7 L (350 CID — Produced by Holden Special Vehicles, never actually built as a 'production' motor). First introduced in 1969, ceasing production in 1999, it powered a variety of Holden vehicles including the Kingswood, Monaro, Torana and Commodore, and proved to be a popular and successful powerplant in Australian motorsport (especially Touring cars). The British Leyland small block V8 was also a pushrod OHV engine, however it was an all alloy block like the American Buick/British Rover V8 it was based on. The stroke was increased to give it a capacity of 4.4 L (270 cu in). The motor was originally designed and fitted to the Leyland P76 sedan. Currently, the only V8 produced in Australia is the 5.0L V8 built by FPV (Ford Performance Vehicles) to power the Falcon GT — this motor is a combination of US-sourced and locally manufactured parts. The V8 used in current Holdens is sourced complete from GM in Canada, modified versions of the GM LS-series engine. When U.S. production of the Cleveland V8 range ceased in the early 1970s, the tooling was moved to Australia where Ford Australia continued to produce a local version of the 351 and a unique-to-Australia 302 Cleveland. The Australian-built motors were also sold to De Tomaso to be used in the Pantera and Longchamps. Australian production ceased in 1982, with the last Cleveland-powered Falcon being the XE range (1400-odd 302s and 409 351s). The location of the Cleveland tooling is unknown although it was possibly broken up.
The first British V8 was the 3.5 L Rolls-Royce V-8 (1905) followed shortly by Darracq. The Rolls-Royce and Bentley V8 still used in modern Bentleys was designed from 1952 and entered production in 1959 in the Rolls Royce Silver Cloud and Bentley S2. Following then current design practice, it featured overhead valves (OHV), a central camshaft and wedge-shaped combustion chambers. It was designed by the Rolls-Royce and Bentley Motors engineering team, led by Jack Phillips. Some of its features were inspired by the Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engine, including the aluminium block with wet liners, gear-driven camshaft, (initially) outboard spark-plugs and porting. Early versions were of 6.25 L (381 cu in) displacement, growing to 6.75 L (412 cu in) in the 1970s. Turbocharging in various Bentley models beginning in the 1980s led to the resurgence of the Bentley marque as the power outputs of the engine were increased in several steps to the current 500 bhp (370 kW) and 1,000 N·m (740 ft·lbf) in the 2007 model-year Bentley Arnage, while meeting all emission standards. The Bentley V8 has thus increased power and torque by more than 150% in its life. It is the highest torque V8 used in a production car. In 2007, the final components that could be traced back to the 1959 engine were replaced. In 1936, the Standard Motor Company introduced its 'Flying Twenty V-Eight' model featuring a 2.7 L flathead V8 developing 20 RAC horsepower. It was the flagship model of the company's 'Flying Standard' range but proved unpopular as it offered little performance improvement over the normal 'Flying Twenty' model (which used a straight-6 engine) whilst costing much more to buy and suffering higher fuel consumption. The Twenty V-Eight was on sale only for the 1936 model year and fewer than 400 were sold.][ Rover was in need of a new, more powerful engine in the mid-1960s. The managing director of Rover, on a trip to the USA to sell marine engines, saw an example of the GM engine in a Mercury Marine experimental shop and noticed its light weight and small size. The 215 cu in (3,520 cc) GM V8 was only 12 pounds (5.4 kg) heavier and less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) longer than the 2,000 cubic centimetres (120 cu in) Rover straight-4. He sent the GM Oldsmobile/Buick cast-aluminum 215 V8 back to the UK for evaluation. It worked well in the large Rovers, being considerably shorter, lighter, and more powerful than the Rover straight 6, and Rover acquired manufacturing rights to it. The Rover V8 was redesigned to improve the durability and high-RPM performance, leaving few parts interchangeable with the original Buick engine. The engine first appeared in Rover saloons in the late 1960s. GM aided the process by allowing Buick's chief engine designer, who was close to retirement, to assist Rover. As well as appearing in Rover cars, the engine was also sold to small car builders, and powered various vehicles. Rover V8s feature in some models from Morgan, TVR, Triumph, Marcos, and MG, among others. The Australian firm Repco converted this engine for Formula One by reducing it to 3.0 L (183 cu in) (the stroke was shortened and using con-rods from the 2.5 L or 153 cu in Daimler V8) and fitting a single overhead camshaft per bank rather than the shared pushrod arrangement. Repco-powered Brabhams won the F1 championship twice, in 1966 and 1967. Land Rover also used the V8, appearing in the Range Rover in various guises, from 3.5 L (214 cu in) in the earlier models to the 4.6 L (281 cu in) used in the 1994–2002 models. The last mass-produced car to use the Rover V8 was the 2004 Land Rover Discovery. Many independent sports cars manufacturers still use it in hand-built applications. In 2007 Land Rover (Tata) added the TDV8 to its list of engines. It is a 3.6 L (220 cu in) V8 version of the TDV6 found in Discovery models, producing 472 ft·lbf (640 N·m) at 2000 rpm. The Rover Meteorite gasoline or diesel V8 was used in trucks and transporters from 1943, and for marine or stationary use. Triumph used the Triumph Slant-4 engine as a base of a V8 engine. The Triumph V8 was used only in the Triumph Stag. Edward Turner designed the 2.5 L (153 cu in) and 4.5 L (275 cu in) hemi-head Daimler V8 engines announced in 1959. The 2.5 saw service in the Daimler SP250 (1959–1964), and, after the Jaguar takeover, in the "Daimler 2.5 L V8"/"Daimler 250" (1962–1969) versions of the Mk2 Jaguar bodyshell. The 4.5 L was used in the Daimler Majestic Major, (1959–1968). The Jaguar company introduced the new AJ26 V8 engine in 1996. It has been developed and updated since, and appears in the S-Type and later vehicles from Jaguar. This V8 was used in some of Ford's Premier Automotive Group Jaguar and Land Rover brands. These included a 4.2 L (Jaguar XJ, XK and S-Type), 4.2 supercharged (Jaguar XJR, XKR, S-Type-R, Land Rover Range Rover and Range Rover Sport) and a 4.4 L (Range Rover and Range Rover Sport). New V-configuration engines are used since the buy out by the Tata Motor group. The specialist sports car firm TVR also produced their own V8 engine in 4.2 L (256 cu in) 350 bhp (261 kW) and 4.5 L (275 cu in) 440 bhp (328 kW) forms for the TVR Cerbera. Designed by Al Melling, the APJ8 engine features a flat-plane crank and 75° Vee. Aston Martin has used a variety of V8 engines in its cars, starting with the 1969 DBS V8, followed by many models badged V8 Vantage, or Virage, plus Volante convertible versions. After the Vantage was discontinued in 2000, there were no V8 models until the introduction of the Jaguar derived 4.3l L V8 in the 2005 V8 Vantage. The V8s used in Aston Martins from 1969 to 2000 were based on an internal design by Tadek Marek, while the V8 engines used in the 2005–present V8 Vantage are based on the Jaguar AJ26 V8. Lotus introduced a V8-powered version of the Esprit in 1996. The engine was an in-house 3.5 L (214 cu in) unit, with twin turbochargers. Radical Sportscars offer a V8 powered car, the SR8, whose Powertec RPA engine is based upon two Suzuki Hayabusa engines joined to a common crank, utilising the original heads with a purpose designed block. In 2010 McLaren Automotive, together with Ricardo, developed the 3.8 L M838T twin-turbo engine, for use in the MP4-12C supercar. First Automobile Works introduced the first V8 engine in Asia in 1959, used in Hongqi luxury automobiles. Tatra used their air-cooled V8 engines from 1934, when introduced Tatra 77 (first serial-produced aerodynamically designed car). These culminated in the 2.5 L unit used in the Tatra T603 range of cars. The most powerful of these was fitted to the racing variant — known as the B-5. This was a higher compression version of the standard engine which replaced a standard single 2BBL carburettor with two 4BBL downdraft units on a new induction manifold. Tatra later produced another air-cooled engine, used in Tatra 613 and later, in Tatra 700. These engines were well known for their reliability, good fuel consumption, and specific sound. In the Tatra 603, two engine driven fans help pull cooling air into the engine bay — when the vehicle is in motion the air enters through intakes in the rear wing panels and is exhausted through cut-outs below the bumper and alongside the engine itself. In the Tatra 613, one large ventilator pushes fresh cold air into the engine bay. Tatra has used V8 air-cooled engines in their heavy duty trucks until the present day in their Tatra 815 and other models. The French De Dion-Bouton motorcar firm was first to produce a V8 engine for sale in 1910. Later examples came from Citroën, with the never produced 1934 22CV Traction Avant, and Simca. The "PRV" (Peugeot, Renault, Volvo) V6 was actually supposed to be a V8, but two cylinders were "dropped" because of the oil crisis of the 1970s. Gordini also developed a 3 L V8 for the Alpine A310, but a Renault 4-cylinder block was mounted instead because of cost issues. German companies that have manufactured V8 engines include Argus Motoren, Argus As 10 who produced an inverted V8 air-cooled aircraft engine from 1928 to 1945; Audi (VAG) who have produced range of V8 petrol engines since 1988; BMW; Horch; Mercedes-Benz, who have produced both petrol and diesel versions; Porsche and Stoewer. The Alfa Romeo Montreal was powered by a dry sump 2,593 cc (158.2 cu in) 90° quad-cam 16-valve V8 (type 00564) derived from the Tipo 33 race car. Because of the limited space available for the cross-plane crankshaft, the physically small but heavy crank counterweights were made of a sintered tungsten alloy called turconit. The Montreal V8 was rated at 230 horsepower (170 kW) at the flywheel and weighed 162 kg (360 lb). There were also eighteen 33 Stradale cars built with a detuned 1,995 cc 260 hp (190 kW) Tipo 33/2 flat-crank engine. The Montreal cross-crank engine was also used in a very limited production run of 22 Alfetta GTV2.6i. The Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione sports car has a Ferrari-built 4,691 cc (286.3 cu in) 450 PS (330 kW; 440 hp) cross-crank V8. Arguably, Ferrari had their first contact with V8 power with the "inherited" Lancia D50s in 1955. Ferrari adopted the V8 configuration for themselves for racing in 1962 with the 268 SP. The first V8-powered Ferrari road car was 1974's 308 GT4, with the familiar 308 GTB following closely behind. The company continued to use this Dino V8 engine ever since with the 328, 348, and successors. Ferrari's smallest V8 (and indeed, the smallest ever) was the 2.0 L (1990 cc) unit found in the 1975 208 GT4. The company produced a slightly larger 2.0 L V8 in the 208 GTB and the 2.9 L Ferrari F40 of the 1980s. This was a turbocharged engine to reduce the road tax of the car in Italy. Automobiles with engines displacing more than 2.0 Litre were subject to a much higher tax rate. Five-valve-per-cylinder versions of Ferrari's 3.5 L and 3.6 L V8s were found in the Ferrari F355 and Ferrari 360. The old Dino V8 was retired for 2004 with the introduction of a 4.3 L V8, based on the originally Ferrari designed Maserati 4.2 V8, in the F430 and the California. And F430's successor, 458 Italia, with 4.5 V8. The only Fiat to have a V8 was the Fiat 8V. The engine was a very compact OHV 1996 cc (122 CID) V8 with a 70° V angle and 2 valves per cylinder. The Fiat 8V was designed to participate in the Italian two-litre racing class. The only Italian diesel V8 engine is built by IVECO since 1984. IVECO-aifo 8280 is a water-cooled 17.2 liter (17174 cc - 1048 cu in), 4-stroke, OHV Garrett single-turbocharged V8 with a 90° V angle and 2 valves per cylinder. Fuel system is distributor type jet pump. IVECO 8280 is used in specific IVECO heavy duty trucks Turbotech, Turbostar (360, 380, 420 and 480 PS), Eurostar (480 and 520 PS), Orlandi Poker built coaches, Astra HD7 (8x4 or 8x6, 520 PS), power generation and marine applications. Lamborghini built V8 engines for several of their car lines, including the Urraco, Silhouette, and Jalpa. Lancia used V8 engines in their top of the range luxury cars in the interwar period. The first V8 engine was available in 1922 in the Trikappa with a 4595 cc (280 CID) making 98 bhp (73 kW). In 1928 they introduced the Dilambda with a 3956 cc (242 CID) V8 developing 100 bhp (75 kW). Later in 1931 the Astura was unveiled with two smaller versions of the existing V8, 2604 cc (159 CID) and 2973 cc (181 CID) with 72 bhp (54 kW) and 82 bhp (61 kW) respectively. All of those engines featured Lancia's trademark narrow angle V (less than 25°). In the 1990s, Lancia Thema had 3 L V8. Maserati have used V8s for many of their models, including the Maserati Bora and the Maserati Khamsin. This engine was initially designed as a racing engine for the Maserati 450S. The company's latest 4.2 L V8, found in the Maserati Quattroporte and Maserati Coupé & Spyder was originally designed by Ferrari, and is related to the 4.3 L V8 in the F430. Japanese manufacturers are traditionally not known for V8 engines in their roadcars. However, they have built a few V8 engines to meet the needs of consumers, as well as for their own racing programs. Honda has never built a V8 for passenger vehicles. In the late 1990s, the company resisted considerable pressure from its American dealers for a V8 engine with American Honda reportedly sending one dealer a shipment of V8 beverages to silence them. However, Honda has built V8s for racing, most notably for Formula One. Honda is also the sole engine builder for Indy Racing. The Honda Indy V8 has a 10,300 rpm redline. Also, their affiliate Mugen Motorsports (now known as M-Tec) has built racing V8s that eventually found their way into limited production road cars as well as concept cars. Their MF408S engine, which powers cars in the ALMS, is also found in prototype racers such as the Mooncraft Shiden. It is the engine in the Honda Legend based Honda Max concept. In 1999, Mitsubishi Motors developed an alloy-headed 4.5 L V8, dubbed the 8A8, with double overhead camshafts and gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology for use in its Proudia and Dignity models. Financial pressures forced the company to discontinue sales of both these vehicles after only fifteen months.][ Nissan built its first V8, the Y40, in 1965 for its President limousine. The Y engine has been succeeded by two families of V8, the VH series during the 1980s and 1990s and the new VK series. Toyota's first V8 engine family was the V series used in the Toyota Crown Eight luxury car introduced in April 1964. This engine remained in use in the Toyota Century limousine from 1967 onward until it was replaced by a V12 in 1997. Other Toyota V8 families are the UZ engines and its replacement, the new UR series, both of which have been used as powerplants for Toyota trucks and SUVs as well as trucks, SUVs, and larger cars of Toyota's luxury brand, Lexus. Toyota had also built V8 Formula One engines under the RVX series for Toyota Racing, Williams F1, Midland F1, and Jordan Grand Prix teams.][ While better known as a manufacturer of motorcycles, Yamaha also makes engines under contract from auto-manufacturers. They currently produce a V8 engine in conjunction with Volvo Cars the Volvo XC90 and previously the Volvo S80. They also had a contract with Ford in the 1990s to produce a V8 (3.4 L) for the Ford Taurus SHO. The most well-known Swedish V8 engine is probably the Scania AB 14 L (854 cu in) diesel, which was released in 1969 for use in the 140 model heavy trucks. At this point, the 350 hp (261 kW) turbo-charged engine was the most powerful diesel in Europe. Scania has continued using a V8 as its largest displacement engine. Currently a series of 16 L (976 cu in) diesel engines is available in several versions with power ranging between 500 hp (373 kW) — 730 hp (544 kW) in the truck segment and going as high as 900 hp (671 kW) in the marine engines segment. Emission norms range between Euro 3-Euro 5 depending on which market the vehicle is sold to. Volvo's 1950s concept car Philip also had a gasoline V8 engine. The car never went into production, but the engine evolved into a 120 hp 3.6 L V8 (in many aspects a "double B18" engine) for use in the light trucks Volvo Snabbe and Volvo Trygge from the late 1950s on. Supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg has developed a 4.7 L (287 cu in) twin-supercharged V8 loosely based on the Ford Modular engine. This engine is unique in that it is a flexible fuel engine and produces more power while running on biofuel than on regular unleaded.
For the ZIL-111 (1959), an all-new aluminium 6 L OHV V8 was developed, initially it produced 200 hp (149 kW) at 4200 rpm. ZIL-114 (1967) was powered by a 6,960 cc (425 cu in) V8 giving 300 hp (224 kW) at 4400 rpm. Its more modern derivative model, the ZIL-41047, is powered by a ZIL-4104 engine, a 7680 cc carburetted V8 giving 315 hp (235 kW) at 4600 rpm. The ZIL trucks used (and still use) a modification of this engine (cast-iron block, aluminum heads, 6L, 150 hp (112 kW) at 3200 rpm, 6.5:1 compresson rate, one 2-bbl carburetor). Several cars produced under the Volga brand name; the GAZ-23 (1962–1970), the GAZ-24-24 V8 (1974–1992), the GAZ-31013 V8 (1982–1996), as well as both generations of the GAZ Chaika limousines (1959–1982 and 1976–1988) were powered by an all-aluminum OHV 5.5L V8. These engines were designated: ZMZ-13 (Chaika GAZ-13, one 4-bbl carburetor), ZMZ-14 (Chaika GAZ-14, two 4-bbl carburetors), ZMZ-2424 (Volga GAZ-24-24), ZMZ-505 (two 4-bbl carburetors) and -503 (one 4-bbl carburetor) (GAZ-24-34, GAZ-31013). Power output varied from 195–220 hp (145–160 kW). A modification of the same engine was also used in the BRDM-2 military armored vehicle, designated ZMZ-41. The GAZ-53 was powered by a 4254 cc ZMZ-53 engine, which substantially was a modification of the Chayka's engine with one 2-bbl carburetor and decreased displacement and compression rate. More modern version of the GAZ engine for intermediate trucks is designated ZMZ-511.
Spanish truck and sportscar company Pegaso made around 100 cars in the 1950s and 1960s. There were two types of engines; the Z-102 and the Z-103/4 engines. The Z-102 first introduced in 1951 engine was an advanced design sporting quadruple camshafts (two per bank) and had 2 valves per cylinder. It was available with 1, 2 or 4 twin Weber carburettors and either normally aspirated or with one or two superchargers. It had three different capacities, 2472 cc (151 CID), 2816 cc (172 CID) and 3178 cc (194 CID) and made between 165 bhp (123 kW) and 360 bhp (270 kW). The Z-103/4 developed in the mid/late 1950s (the first prototype was made in 1954) was a much simpler design destined to power a new series of luxury and sportscars. It had a single central camshaft and 2 valves per cylinder actuated by pushrods. It had hemispherical combustion chambers (like the Z-102 engine) and twin spark plugs. It was available with three different cubic capacities as well, 3900 cc (238 CID), 4500 cc (275 CID) and 4700 cc (287 CID). The 3.9 L engine had a twin Weber carburettor and the 4.5 and 4.7 L engines 2 quadruple Weber carbs, which gave the later a power output in excess of 300 bhp (220 kW). The very few engines of this type produced were installed in Z-102 cars.
Hyundai produce a number of V8 engines including the D8 diesel, the 4.5 L (275 cu in) Omega, and the 4.6 L (281 cu in) Tau. In aviation, V8 engines have been used by a variety of applications such as the Argus As 10 inverted, air-cooled German V8 engine of World War II; the Hispano-Suiza 8 of World War I V8; the Liberty L-8 of World War I, 45° V8 (a prototype for the Liberty L-12); and the Trace Engines Turbocharged V8. There are numerous marine diesel engines of V8 configuration including the Brons V8 two-stroke diesel engine, and engines by Scania and Yanmar. Moto Guzzi of Italy built a 148 kg (330 lb) 82 bhp (61 kW) water-cooled DOHC V8 4-stroke motorcycle for Grand Prix racing between 1955 and 1957, referred to as the Moto Guzzi Grand Prix 500 cc V8. It was known as the Otto Cilindri, and had a very high power output but was not developed to its full potential. Each cylinder had its own carburetter. Around 1964, Finnish TT motorcyclist technician area lecturer Tauno Nurmi built a 350 cc DOHC V8-powered 4-stroke motorcycle engine by the name V8 PREMIER. V angle is 90° and it is air-cooled. Each cylinder has its own carburettor. It is his own design and construction. Morbidelli produced an 848 cc V8 in 1994. Earlier, Galbusera had produced a two-stroke V8 in 1938. Honda released the NR750 in 1992. The bike had a 750 cc V4 with oval pistons, utilising 8 valves per cylinder and 2 conrods per piston; the design allowed the engine to meet FIM racing regulations limiting the number of cylinders to 4, while providing the valve area (and therefore increased efficiency) of a V8.
For the 2.5 L Formula One era of 1954–1960, two British racing V8s were built in Coventry. One was the Coventry Climax FPE named the Godiva, and the other was the little known Brooke Weston. Because of Coventry Climax's decision not to release the engine to Kieft, HWM and Connaught at the time, the Godiva did not debut until 1966 when it raced under the 3 Litre formula on Shannon F1 at the British GP with an enlarged 3 Litre displacement. Brooke Weston DOHC V8 was scheduled to be installed on an ERA, but this did not materialise due to Leslie Johnson's declining health prompted the sale of ERA, which pulled out of the project. Lancia raced Vittorio Jano designed V8 DS50 engine on Lancia D50 in 1954. When Lancia withdrew from racing in 1955, Ferrari bought the Lancia team and continued to develop it. Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1956 World Drivers' Championship in the DS50-powered Ferrari-Lancia D50. The 1.5 L Formula One era of 1961–1965 included V8 engines from Ferrari, Coventry Climax, BRM, and ATS. Ferrari, BRM and ATS used their engines in their cars, while Coventry Climax and BRM sold engines to constructors. Apart from Phil Hill's 1961 World Drivers' Championship, which he won in a V6-powered Ferrari, all the other World Drivers' Champions (Graham Hill in 1962, Jim Clark in 1963, John Surtees in 1964, and Clark again in 1965) drove V8-powered cars to their victories. Also, from 1962 to 1965, the top three manufacturers in each season's Manufacturer's Championship all predominantly used V8 engines in their cars. The first two seasons of the 3.0 L normally aspirated/1.5 L supercharged Formula One era of 1966–1986 were won by Brabham cars with Repco V8 engines. From 1968 to 1981, F1 was largely dominated by teams using the Cosworth DFV engine. During this time, the Manufacturers' Championship was won by Cosworth DFV powered cars every season except 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1979, which were won by 12-cylinder Ferraris. Graham Hill, Jochen Rindt, James Hunt, Mario Andretti, Alan Jones, Nelson Piquet, and Keke Rosberg each won a World Drivers' Championship in a Cosworth DFV powered car, while Emerson Fittipaldi won two and Jackie Stewart won three. Between 1995 and 2005, Formula One cars used 3 L engines; by 2005 these were all V10s. However, the FIA considered speeds were getting too high to be safe (even with the banning of turbochargers in 1989, which allowed engines to develop 1,300 bhp (970 kW), 1,000 bhp (750 kW) from a naturally aspirated engine was not impossible by 2005, and with better aerodynamics, cars were shattering straight-line speed records.) So, the permitted engine size was cut to 2.4 L V8 (This reduced average power output of the engines from 900 bhp (670 kW), in the 2005 season, to a 2006 season average of 750 bhp (560 kW) — equivalent to power outputs that were being achieved on 3 L around the 1999/2000 seasons.)This also had the effect of reducing overall costs for the teams, an aim which is currently being vigorously pursued by FIA. In the 'Top Fuel' class of Drag Racing, V8 engines displacing 8.2 L (500 cu in) produce up to 8,000 horsepower (6,000 kW). Based on the Chrysler Hemi and running on highly explosive Nitro-Methane fuel, these powerful units propel the cars from 0-100 mph in 0.8 seconds or less, and from 0–325 mph (0–523 km/h) in under 4.5 seconds. During the race the crankshaft in the engine will turn over less than 1000 times and may then have to be rebuilt. NASCAR has been dominated by American V8 engines since the introduction of the Oldsmobile Rocket 88 engine.

GM Vortec engine
Vortec is a trademarked name for a line of piston engines for General Motors trucks. The name first appeared in 1988 on a 4.3 L V6 that used "vortex technology" to create a vortex inside the combustion chamber, creating a better air/fuel mix. Now it is used on a wide range of different engines. Modern Vortec engines are named for their approximate displacement in milliliters. The Vortec 2200 (RPO codes L43 and LN2) is an OHV straight-4 truck engine. It is entirely different from the Iron Duke having been the last North American iteration of the GM 122 engine. The 2200 uses an iron block and aluminum 2-valve pushrod cylinder head. Output is 120 hp (89 kW) and 140 lb·ft (190 N·m). Displacement is 2,189 cc (2.189 L; 133.6 cu in) with an 89 mm (3.5 in) bore and 88.00 mm (3.465 in) stroke. 2200s were built in Tonawanda, New York. LN2 applications: L43 applications: The Vortec 2800, or LK5, is a DOHC 2.8 L straight-4 in the GM Atlas engine family. It produces 175 hp (130 kW) and 185 lb·ft (251 N·m) of torque. The Vortec 2800 is standard equipment on the Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon. It is mated to either a 5-speed manual transmission built by Aisin, or a GM 4-speed Hydra-matic automatic transmission. The Vortec 2900, or LLV, is a DOHC 2.9 L straight-4 in the GM Atlas engine family. Displacement is increased from the Vortec 2800 it replaces to produce 185 hp (138 kW) and 190 lb·ft (258 N·m) of torque. First used in the 2007 Chevy Colorado, 2007 GMC Canyon, and 2007 Isuzu i-290. The Vortec 3500, or L52, is a DOHC 3.5 L straight-5 in the GM Atlas engine family. It produces 220 hp (164 kW) and 225 lb·ft (305 N·m) of torque. The Vortec 3500 is optional on Chevy Colorado / GMC Canyon regular and extended cab trucks. It is standard on the Crew Cab Colorado/Canyon, and the Hummer H3. The Vortec 3700, or LLR, is a DOHC 3.7 L straight-5 in the GM Atlas engine family. Introduced in 2007, the engine has increased in displacement from 3.5 L (211 cu in) in the Vortec 3500 to 3.7 L (223 cu in), producing 242 hp (180 kW) and 257 lb·ft (348 N·m) of torque. This engine is offered with both an Aisin 5 speed manual and GM's HydraMatic 4L60e automatic transmission in the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon, Hummer H3, Hummer H3T and Isuzu i-370 trucks. The Vortec 4200, or Atlas LL8, is a 4.2 L straight-6 in the GM Atlas engine family. It has four valves per cylinder, utilizes dual-overhead cams (DOHC) design, and features Variable Valve Timing on the exhaust cam, a first for GM Inline engines. Introduced in 2002 for the Chevrolet TrailBlazer, GMC Envoy, and Oldsmobile Bravada, the engine is also in use in the Buick Rainier, Saab 9-7, and the Isuzu Ascender. The engine was rated at 270 hp (201 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) in 2002 then 275 hp (205 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) in 2003–2005. In the 2006 model year the GMT360 platform received an increase to 291 hp (217 kW) and 277 lb·ft (376 N·m) . The Vortec I6 engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list every year since its introduction in 2002 through 2005. Applications: It is also the platform upon which the Vortec 2800/2900 I4 and Vortec 3500/3700 I5 engines for the Chevrolet Colorado, GMC Canyon, Isuzu i-Series, and Hummer H3 are based. These engines are simply the 4.2L I6 LL8 minus a cylinder or two. The Vortec 4300 is essentially a GM 350cui small-block V8 with two cylinders omitted from the design. 90° V6 truck engine, replacing the Chevrolet 250 in light trucks and 200 cu in (3.3 L) and 229 cu in (3.75 L) 90-degree V6s in passenger cars. The 4300 is based on the 350 cu in (5.7 L) Chevrolet small-block V8, and first appeared in 1985 with the throttle-body injected LB4 in passenger cars; light trucks and vans used Quadrajet carburetors for 1985. In 1991, the limited-edition GMC Syclone featured a 280 hp (210 kW) and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) turbocharged and intercooled LB4 with the first use of multi-point fuel injection on a Vortec V6. The central-port injected L35 (Vin 'W') debuted in 1992; the cylinder block was slightly changed, a balance shaft was added to remove minor vibrations, and better breathing yielded 200 hp (149 kW) . Another CPI engine, the LF6, joined in 1996 with the introduction of Vortec cylinder heads, while the LB4 was retired after 1998. In 2002, GM introduced a new multi-point injected LU3 engine, and a LG3 variant appeared soon after. This engine's origins date back to 1955, when the original Chevy small-block V-8 was introduced. All Vortec 4300s use a cast iron block and heads with a 4 in (101.60 mm) bore and 3.48 in (88.39 mm) stroke, both of which are the same as a 350, which gives them a displacement of 262.39 cubic inches (4,299.8 cc). Connecting rods still measure 5.7 in (144.78 mm) although the rod journal diameter is 2.25 in (57.15 mm). 1992 and later cylinder blocks used a different timing cover since these engines used a balance shaft (some 1992 production cylinder blocks for the LB4 with TBI induction used the 'traditional' front timing chain cover from the small block Chevrolet). This change created a situation where most aftermarket timing chain alternatives do not fit. This is true of gear drives and double roller chains. They are pushrod (center camshaft) engines with two valves per cylinder and are produced in Tonawanda, New York and Romulus, Michigan. Power output of the new LU3/LG3 engines is 200 hp (149 kW) to 215 hp (160 kW) and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) to 265 lb·ft (359 N·m). For the last years usages, the LU3 mades 195 hp (145 kW) @ 4600 rpm and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) @ 2800 rpm. 4300 applications: LU3 applications: LB4 applications: The Vortec 4800 LR4 is a Generation III small block V8 truck engine. Displacement is 4.8 L (290 cu in) with a 96.01 mm (3.78 inch) bore and 83 mm (3.27 inch) stroke. It is the smallest of the Generation III Vortec truck engines and was the replacement for the 5.0 L 5000 L30. The LR4 engines from 1999-2000 produced 255 hp (190 kW) while the 2001 and above models made 270–285 hp (201–213 kW) and all have a torque rating between 285–295 lb·ft (386–400 N·m), depending on the model year and application. The 2005-2006 models made 285 hp (213 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m), LR4s are manufactured at St. Catharines, Ontario and Romulus, Michigan. LR4 applications: The Vortec 4800 LY2 was introduced in 2007 and has a cast iron block. Power output is 260–295 hp (194–220 kW) and torque is 295–305 lb·ft (400–414 N·m). LY2 applications: The Vortec 4800 L20 makes more power and features variable valve timing. The system adjusts both intake and exhaust timing, but does not come with Active Fuel Management. The L20 has a cast iron block and power output is 260–302 hp (194–225 kW) while torque is 295–305 lb·ft (400–414 N·m). The Vortec 4800 base engines were dropped from the Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon in favor of the 5300 with Active Fuel Management. L20 applications: The Vortec 5000 L30 is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5,013 cc. Bore is 95 mm (3.7 in), stroke is 88.4 mm (3.5 in). The compression ratio is 9.1:1. It is a based on the Generation I small-block from Chevrolet. It was replaced by the 4.8 L 4800 LR4 for the 2003 full-size vans. In van configuration it produces 220 hp (164 kW) net flywheel at 4,600 rpm and 290 lb·ft (393 N·m) net flywheel torque at 2,800 rpm. The engine uses a hydraulic roller cam and high flowing, fast burn style vortec heads. Differences include bore and stroke, intake valve size, and smaller combustion chambers. L30 applications: The Vortec 5300, or LM7/L59/LM4/L33, is a V8 truck engine. It is a longer-stroked (by 9 mm) version of the Vortec 4800 and replaced the 5700 L31. L59 denoted a flexible fuel version of the standard fuel LM7 engine. Displacement is 5.3 L (5,328 cc (325.1 cu in)) from 96.01 mm 3.78-inch (96 mm) bore and 92.00 mm (3.6 in) stroke 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke. Vortec 5300s are built in St. Catharines, Ontario and Romulus, Michigan. The Vortec 5300 LM7 (VIN code 8th digit "T") was introduced in 1999, and can be considered the "garden variety" version of the Generation III 5.3 liter V8's. The 1999 LM7 engine produced 270 hp (201 kW) and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m), 2000-2003 engines made 285 hp (213 kW) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m). The 2004-2007 engines made 295 hp (220 kW) and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m), it has a cast iron block and aluminum heads. LM7 applications: The Vortec 5300 L59 (VIN code "Z") is a flexible fuel version of the LM7. The 2002-2003 made 285 hp (213 kW) and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m), while the 2004-2007 L59s made 295 hp (220 kW) and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m). L59 applications: The Vortec 5300 LM4 (VIN code "P") is an aluminum block version of the LM7, and had a short production life. The LM4s made 290 hp (216 kW) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m), It should not be confused with the L33 described below. LM4 applications: The Vortec 5300 L33 (VIN code "B") is an aluminum block version of the LM7, and was referred to as the Vortec 5300 HO in marketing materials. How ever it should be noted that the L33 uses a flat top piston from the 4.8L instead of the standard dish piston found in the LM7. This increased the compression from 9.5:1 to 10.0:1. Also the L33 had a specific camshaft not shared with any other engine, with lobe lift of 7.2 mm, valve timing unknown. As a result power increased by 15 hp (11 kW), to 310 hp (230 kW) and 335 lb·ft (441 N·m). It was only available on extended cab 4WD pickup trucks. Only 25% of trucks made in 2005 had the L33 engine. L33 applications: First introduced in 2005, the Generation IV Vortec 5300 engines share all the improvements and refinements found in other Generation IV engines. At present, four versions of the 5300 engine in production: 2 iron blocks (LY5 and LMG) and 2 aluminum blocks (LH6 and LC9). All versions feature Active Fuel Management except for the LH8. The Vortec 5300 LH6 with Active Fuel Management replaced the LM4 for 2005, and was the first of the Generation IV small block V8 truck engines to go into production. The LH6 produced 300 hp (220 kW) and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m). It is the aluminum block counterpart to the LY5. LH6 applications: Introduced in 2007, the Vortec 5300 LY5 is the replacement for the LM7 Generation III engine. For SUV applications, it is rated at 320 hp (239 kW) and 340 lb·ft (461 N·m) of torque; for pickup truck applications, it is rated at 315–320 hp (235–239 kW) at 5200 rpm and 335–340 lb·ft (454–461 N·m) at 4000 rpm LY5 applications: The Vortec 5300 LMG is the flexible-fuel version of the LY5. Power and torque ratings for SUV and pickup truck applications are the same as each application's LY5 rating. LMG applications: The Vortec 5300 LC9 is the Flex-Fuel version of the LH6, and is found in 4WD models. SUV applications are rated at 320 hp (239 kW) @ 5400 rpm and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m) @ 4000 rpm of torque. Pickup truck applications are rated at 315 hp (235 kW) @ 5300 rpm and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m) @ 4000 rpm of torque. LC9 applications: The Vortec 5300 LH8 is a variant of the 5.3 L Gen IV small block V8 modified to fit in the engine bay of the GMT 345 SUV and GMT 355 trucks. It produces 300 hp (220 kW) at 5200 rpm and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m) at 4000 rpm. It has a displacement of 5,328 cc (325.1 cu in). LH8 applications: The Vortec 5700 L31 (Vin code 8th digit "R") is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5.7 L. It is the last production Generation I small-block from Chevrolet. The cylinder heads feature combustion chambers and intake ports very similar to those of the LT1 V8, but without the reverse-flow cooling. As such, the L31 head is compatible with all older small-blocks, and is a very popular upgrade. It offers the performance of more expensive heads, at a much lower cost. It does, however, require a specific intake manifold (a Vortec head has 8 bolts attaching the intake manifold as opposed to the traditional twelve bolts per head). The L31 was replaced by the 5.3 L 5300 LM7. The 2002 model year was the final year for the L31 5.7 L small block V-8 whose origins date back to 1955. The Vortec 5700 produces 255 hp (190 kW) to 350 hp (261 kW) at 4600 rpm and 330 lb·ft (447 N·m) to 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) of torque at 2800 rpm. It is currently being produced as a crate engine for marine applications and automotive hobbyists as the "ramjet 350" with minor modifications. L31 applications: TBI L31 applications Special applications The Vortec 6000 LQ4, is a V8 truck engine. Displacement is 5.97 L (364 cu in) from a 4.0-inch (101.6 mm) bore and 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke . It is an iron/aluminum (1999 & 2000 model year engines had cast iron heads) design and produces 300 hp (224 kW) to 325 hp and 360 lb·ft (488 N·m) to 370 lb·ft (502 N·m). LQ4s are built in Romulus, Michigan and Silao, Mexico.2013 model year produces 360 hp LQ4 (VIN U) Applications: The Vortec HO 6000 or VortecMAX is a special high-output version of the Vortec 6000 V8 truck engine originally designed for Cadillac. This engine was introduced in other truck lines as VortecMAX for 2006. It features high-compression (10:1) flat-top pistons for an extra 10 hp (7 kW) and 10 lb·ft (14 N·m), bringing output to 345 hp (257 kW) and 380 lb·ft (515 N·m). LQ9s are built only in Romulus, Michigan. GM also listed it as based on LS architecture. LQ9 (VIN N) Applications: The Vortec 6000 LY6 is a Generation IV small block V8 truck engine with a cast iron block. It shares the same bore and stroke as its LQ4 predecessor, and also features variable valve timing. 4.0 inch bore 3.622-inch (92.0 mm) stroke LY6 applications: The Vortec 6000 L76 or new VortecMax is a Generation IV aluminum small block V8 truck engine based on the Holden L76 engine, and features variable cam phasing, along with Active Fuel Management. It can be considered the replacement for the Generation III LQ9 engine. It produces 367 hp (274 kW) at 5400 rpm and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m) at 4400 rpm. Production started in late 2006, and is only available with the new body style Silverado and Sierra. The final year for the option of the VortecMax engine was 2009 in the Silverado and Sierra. L76 applications: The Vortec 6000 LFA is a Generation IV small block V8 truck engine. The LFA variant is used in the GM's hybrid GMT900 trucks and SUVs, made of cast aluminum block and cylinder head. It compression ratio is 10.8:1. It produces 332 hp (248 kW) at 5100 rpm and 367 lb·ft (498 N·m) at 4100 rpm. Engine VIN code of 5. LFA applications: The Vortec 6000 LZ1 is almost entirely based on its predecessor, the LFA, but with some revisions, such as including up-integrated electronic throttle control, long-life spark plugs, GM’s Oil Life System, Active Fuel Management and variable valve timing. It has the same compression ratio, power and torque ratings as its predecessor, the LFA. LZ1 applications: The 2007 Cadillac Escalade has a 6.2 L Vortec 6200 (RPO L92) (≈376 cu in) engine. It is an all-aluminum design which, while still a pushrod engine, boasts variable valve timing, a first in a mass-produced non-overhead cam V8 engine. The system adjusts both intake and exhaust timing between two settings. This engine produces 403 hp (301 kW) and 415 lb·ft (563 N·m) in the GMC Yukon Denali/XL Denali, Sierra SLT (2009+), GMC Sierra Denali, and in the Cadillac Escalade. and makes an additional 2 lb·ft (2.7 N·m) torque in the Silverado and Sierra pickups, and 393 hp (293 kW) and 415 lb·ft (563 N·m) in the Hummer . It was also available in the Chevrolet Tahoe LTZ, with power ratings of 395 hp (295 kW) and 417 lb·ft (565 N·m) . The L92 was modified with Flex Fuel capability for MY 2009 and became the L9H, and was further modified with Active Fuel Management for MY 2010 (and becoming the L94) in the Cadillac Escalade and GMC Yukon Denali's. Applications: The Vortec 7400 L29 454 cu in was a truck version of the Chevrolet Big-Block engine. Introduced in 1996, it was produced for five years until being replaced by the Vortec 8100. Even though it was introduced as the Vortec 7400 in 1996, it was basically a 454 big-block with a hydraulic roller cam and parts more suitable for use in light duty trucks and more advanced technology. L29 Applications: The 7.4 L (454 cu in) V8 features MPFI (multi-port fuel injection) and 2 valves per cylinder. Among the many improvements was more power for the gasoline engines. The Vortec 7400 big block V8 has a 107.95 mm (4.3 in) bore, 101.6 mm (4.0 in) stroke, produces 290 hp (216 kW) at 4000 rpm and 410 lb·ft (556 N·m) at 3200 rpm. The Vortec 7400 L21 was a Commercial version of the Chevrolet Big-Block engine used in the Medium Duty truck platform. Its design shares much the L29 454, but with the addition of forged pistons and crankshaft, and coil near plug ignition. It has slightly reduced power compared to the L29 454 and uses a different PCM than the light duty trucks. The L21 was paired with the early 4 speed Allison automatic transmission or manual transmission depending on application. L21 Applications: 1998–2001 Kodiak/Topkick 1998–2001 P12 HD Motorhome Chassis. The Workhorse W-20 is clone of the P12 Chassis... The Vortec 8100 L18 is a V8 truck engine. It is a redesigned Chevrolet Big-Block engine and was introduced with the 2001 full-size pickup trucks. It is an all-iron engine (block and heads) with two valves per cylinder. It retains the same bore centers as the old 7.4 L big-blocks, but stroke was upped by 9.4 mm (0.4 in) to reach 8.1L (496cuin) for a total of 107.95 mm (4.3 in) bore and 111 mm (4.4 in) stroke. Power output ranges from 340 hp (254 kW) to 550 hp (410 kW) and torque from 455 lb·ft (617 N·m) to 690 lb·ft (936 N·m). Vortec 8100s were built in Tonawanda, New York. The Vortec 8100 is the engine used in the largest Uhaul, their 26-foot (7.9 m) truck. GM also sold the Vortec 8100 to Workhorse (now a division of Navistar) making it one of the most popular engine choices in gas powered Class A motorhomes during the first decade of this century. GM stopped installing big block V-8's in the Silverado HD trucks, when the GMT-800 series was discontinued in 2007. 8100 marine engines range from 400 to 600 hp (447 kW) and come with a stand-alone Engine Control Module (ECM). The last L18 was manufactured in December 2009. Important differences between the Vortec 8100 and older big blocks include a changed firing order (1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3), a new 18-bolt head bolt pattern, different symmetrical intake ports, different oil pan rails and the use of metric threads throughout the engine. The fuel-injection system for the Vortec 8100 is nearly identical to that used on Gen III engines, right down to the fuel and spark tables in the ECU. L18 Applications:

Chevrolet Big-Block engine
The Chevrolet big block is a series of large displacement V8 engines that were developed in the USA during the 1950s and 1960s. As American automobiles grew in size and weight following the Second World War the engines powering them had to keep pace. Chevrolet had introduced their popular small block V8 in 1955 but needed something larger to power their medium duty trucks and the heavier cars that were on the drawing board. The first ever production big Block V8 Chevrolet engine was the "Single U" series, released in 1958 for passenger car and truck use. This engine was an Overhead valve design, with offset valves and unique scalloped rocker covers, giving it a distinctive appearance. The "W" series was produced from 1958 to 1965, with three displacements offered: 348 cubic inches (5.7 L), available from 1958 to 1961 in cars and through 1964 in trucks; 409 cubic inches (6.702 L), available from 1961 to 1965; and 427 cubic inches (6.9973 L), available in 1962 and 1963. As was the norm at the time, the "W" engine was of cast iron construction. The block had 4.84-inch (123 mm) bore centers, two-bolt main bearing caps, a "side oiling" lubrication system (main oil gallery located low on the driver's side of the crankcase) with full flow oil filter, and interchangeable cylinder heads. Heads used on the high performance 409 and 427 engines had larger ports and valves than those used on the 348 and the base 409 passenger car and truck engines, but externally were identical to the standard units. One minor difference between the 348 and 409/427 was the location of the engine oil dipstick: it was on the driver's side on the former and passenger's side on the latter. No satisfactory explanation was ever offered for why this change was made. However, it did provide a fairly reliable way to differentiate between the smaller and larger versions of the engine. As with the 265 and 283 cubic inch small block engines, the "W" engine valve gear consisted of tubular steel push rods operating stud-mounted, stamped steel rocker arms. The push rods also acted as a conduit for oil flow to the valve gear. Due to the relatively low mass of the valve train, mechanical lifter versions of the "W" engine were capable of operating at speeds well beyond 6000 RPM. Unlike many of its contemporaries, the "W" combustion chamber was in the upper part of the cylinder, not the head, the latter having only tiny recesses for the valves. This arrangement was achieved by combining the use of a cylinder head deck that was not perpendicular to the bore with a crowned piston, a novel concept in American production engines of the day. As the piston approached top dead center, the angle of the crown combined with that of the head deck to form a wedge shaped combustion chamber with a pronounced quench area. The spark plug protruded vertically into this chamber, which tended to cause a rapidly moving flame front during combustion. The theory behind this sort of arrangement is that maximum brake mean effective pressure is developed at relatively low engine speeds, resulting in an engine with a broad torque curve. With its relatively flat torque characteristics, the "W" engine was well-suited to propelling both trucks and the heavier cars that were in vogue in the USA at the time of the engine's development. The "W" had a dry weight of approximately 665 pounds (302 kg), depending on intake manifold and carburetion, and was a physically massive engine compared to its small block predecessor. The first iteration of the "W" engine was the 1958 "Turbo-Thrust" 348-cubic-inch (5.7 L) originally intended for use in Chevrolet trucks, but also introduced in the larger, heavier 1958 passenger car line. Bore was 4.125 in (104.8 mm) and stroke was 3.25 in (82.6 mm), resulting in a substantially oversquare design. This engine was superseded by the 409 as Chevrolet's top performing engine in 1961 and went out of production for cars at the end of that year. It was produced through 1964 for use in large Chevrolet trucks. With a four-barrel carburetor, the base Turbo-Thrust produced 250 hp (186 kW). A special "Tri-Power" triple-two-barrel version, called the "Super Turbo-Thrust" produced 280 hp (209 kW). A "Special Turbo-Thrust" upped the output to 305 hp (227 kW) with a single large four-barrel. Mechanical lifters and the three two-barrel carburetors brought the "Special Super Turbo-Thrust" up to 315 hp (235 kW). For 1959 and 1960, high-output versions of the top two engines were produced with 320 hp (239 kW) and 335 hp (250 kW) respectively. In 1961, power was again increased to 340 hp (254 kW) for the single four-barrel model, and 350 hp (261 kW) when equipped with three two-barrels. A 409-cubic-inch (6.7 L) version was Chevrolet's top regular production engine from 1961 to 1965, with a choice of single- or dual-four-barrel carburetors. Bore and stroke were both up from the 348 at 4.312 in (109.5 mm) by 3.50 in (88.9 mm). On December 17, 1960, the 409 engine was announced along with the Impala SS (Super Sport) model. The initial version of the engine produced 360 hp (268 kW), with a single-four-barrel Carter AFB carburetor. The same engine was upped to 380 hp (283 kW) in 1962. A 409 hp (305 kW) version of this engine was also available, developing 1 hp per cubic inch with a dual-four-barrel aluminum intake manifold and two Carter AFB carburetors. It had a forged steel crankshaft. In the 1963 model year, output reached 425 hp (317 kW) at 6200 rpm with the 2X4 setup, 11.25:1 compression and a solid lifter camshaft. This engine was immortalized in the Beach Boys song titled "409". The engine was available through mid-1965 when it was replaced by the 396-cubic-inch 425 hp (317 kW) Mark IV big-block engine. In addition, a 340 hp (254 kW) version of the 409 engine was available from 1963–1965, with a single-four-barrel cast-iron intake mounting a Rochester 4GC squarebore carburetor, and a hydraulic-lifter camshaft. A special 427 cubic inches (7.00 L) version of the 409 engine was used in the 1963 Chevrolet Impala Sport Coupe ordered under Chevrolet Regular Production Option (RPO) Z11. This was a special package created for drag racers, including aluminum engine and body parts and a cowl-induction air intake system, along with the 427 engine. The aluminum body parts were fabricated in Flint, MI at the facility now known as GM Flint Metal Center. Unlike the later second generation 427, it was based on the W-series 409 engine, but with a longer 3.95 in (100 mm) stroke. A high-rise two piece aluminum intake manifold and dual Carter AFB carbs fed a 13.5:1 compression ratio to produce an under-rated 430 hp (320 kW) and 575 lb·ft (780 N·m). 50 RPO Z11 cars were produced at the Flint plant. GM Documents exist that show 50 Z11 engines were built at the GM Tonawanda engine plant for auto production, and 20 partial engines were made for replacement/over the counter use. No evidence from GM has been found that show 57 cars were built. Development of the second generation big-block started with the so-called Mystery Motor (Mark II Z33 427) used in Chevrolet's 1963 Daytona 500 record-setting stock cars. This "secret" engine was a substantially modified form of the "W" engine, and was subsequently released for production use in mid-1965 as the Mark IV, referred to in sales literature as the "Turbo-Jet V8." Where the Mark IV differed from the "W" engine was in the placement of the valves and the shape of the combustion chambers. Gone was the chamber-in-block design of the "W" (which caused the power curve to drastically sag above 6500 RPM), and in its place was a more conventional wedge chamber in the cylinder head, which was now attached to a conventional 90 degree deck. The valves continued to use the displaced arrangement of the "W" engine, but were also inclined so that they would open away from the combustion chamber and cylinder walls, a design feature made possible by Chevrolet's stud mounted rocker arms. This alteration in valve placement resulted in a significant improvement in volumetric efficiency at high RPM and a substantial increase in power output at racing speeds. Owing to the appearance of the compound angularity of the valves, the automotive press dubbed the engine the "porcupine" design. As part of the head redesign, the spark plugs were relocated so that they entered the combustion chamber at an angle relative the cylinder centerline, rather than the straight in relationship of the "W" engine. This too helped high RPM performance. Due to the new spark plug angle, the clearance provided by the distinctive scalloped valve covers of the "W" model was no longer needed, and wide, rectangular covers were used. In all forms (except the ZL-1 Can-Am model) the "rat motor", as it was later nicknamed (the small-block engine being a "mouse motor"), was slightly heavier than the "W" model, with a dry weight of about 685 pounds (311 kg). Aside from the new cylinder head design and the reversion to a conventional 90 degree cylinder head deck angle, the Mark IV shared many dimensional and mechanical design similarities with the "W" engine. The cylinder block, although more substantial in all respects, used the same cylinder bore centers of 4.84" with a larger 2.75" main bearing dimension, increased from the 2.50" of the older engine (in fact, the shorter stroke 348 and 409 crankshafts could be installed with the use of "spacer bearings" without modifying the crankshaft). Like its predecessor, the Mark IV used crowned pistons, which were castings for conventional models and impact extruded (forged), solid skirt types in high performance applications. Also retained from the "W" design were the race-proven Moraine M400 aluminum bearings first used in the 409, as well as the highly efficient "side oiling" lubrication system, which assured maximum oil flow to the main and connecting rod bearings at all times. Later blocks intended for performance use had the main oil gallery moved up to the cam bearing bore area and provided "priority main" oiling, improving the oil system even further. These features, along with the robust crankcase design, sturdy forged steel crankshaft and massive four bolt main bearing caps used in the high performance versions, resulted in what many have considered to be the most rugged and reliable large displacement automotive V8 engine design of all time. The 366 Big block V-8 (6.0 L) gasoline engine was used only in Chevrolet Medium duty trucks and in school buses. It had a bore of 4.135" and a stroke of 3.790". This engine was made from the 1960s until the mid-1990s. The 366 used 4 compression rings on the pistons as it was designed from the very beginning as a truck engine. The 366 was only produced as a tall deck engine with a 0.400" taller deck than the 396, 402, & 454 short deck big blocks. The 396-cubic-inch (6.7 L) V8 was introduced in the 1965 Corvette as the L78 option and in the Z16 Chevelle. It had a bore of 4.1627 in (105.73 mm) and a stroke of 3.99 in (101 mm), and produced 375 hp (280 kW) and 560 lb·ft (760 N·m). This version of the 396 was equipped with four bolt main bearing caps and was very comfortable with being operated in the upper 6000 rpm range. Introduced in 1970, the 402-cubic-inch (6.7 L) was a 396-cubic-inch bored out by 0.050 in (1.3 mm). Despite the fact that it was 6 cubic inches (98 cc) larger, Chevy continued marketing it under the popular "396" label in the smaller cars while at the same time labeling it "Turbo-Jet 400" in the full-size cars. The 402 label was used in Light Pickup Trucks. Power rating(s) by year: Used in: Production codes The highly successful and versatile 427 cubic inch (426.7cuin)(7.4 L) version of the Mark IV engine was introduced in 1966 as a production engine option for full sized Chevrolets and Corvettes. The bore was increased to 4.20 inches (107 mm), with power ratings varying widely depending on the application. There were smooth running versions with hydraulic lifters suitable for powering the family station wagon, as well as rough idling, high-revving solid lifter models usually applied to a minimally equipped, plain looking, two door Biscayne sedan fitted with the 425 horsepower (317 kW) version of the 427— (RPO L72), resulting in a vehicle whose performance was the polar opposite of a taxi. This lightweight, big-block Biscayne was also commonly referred to as "Bisquick."][ Perhaps the ultimate 427 for street applications was the 435 horsepower (324 kW) L71 version available in 1967 to 1969 Corvettes, and in the Italian Iso Grifo. This engine was identical to the 425 hp (317 kW) L72 427 (first introduced in 1966) but was fitted with three two barrel carburetors (known as "Tri-Power") in lieu of the L72's single 4 barrel. Both engines used the same high lift, long duration, high overlap camshaft and large port, cast iron heads in order to maximize cylinder head airflow (and, hence, engine power) at elevated engine operating speeds. Consequently, the engines offered very similar performance and resulted in a car whose performance was described by one automotive journalist as "the ultimate in sheer neck-snapping overkill." Typical magazine road tests of the day yielded sub-6 second zero to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) times and quarter miles in the mid 13 second/106 MPH range for both the L72 and L71.][ In 2011, SUPER CHEVY MAGAZINE conducted a chassis dyno test of a well documented, production-line stock but well-tuned L-72 "COPO" Camaro and recorded 287 peak HP at the wheels, demonstrating how distorted the old "Gross" HP ratings actually were. RPO L89 was an L71 fitted with aluminum heads While this option produced no power advantage, it did reduce engine (and hence, vehicle) weight by roughly 75 pounds (34 kg). This resulted in superior vehicle weight distribution for improved handling, although any difference in straight line performance was essentially negligible. The 1969 ZL1 version of the 427 engine was developed primarily for Can-Am racing, where it was very successful in cars like the Chaparral 2F and McLaren M8B. The ZL1 had specifications nearly identical to the production L88 version of the 427, but featured an all-aluminum cylinder block in addition to aluminum cylinder heads, which dropped total engine weight into small block Chevy territory (approx. 575 lb or 261 kg dressed).][ The engine was also fitted with the new open combustion chamber cylinder heads, a light weight aluminum water pump, a camshaft that was slightly "hotter" than the L88's and a specially tuned aluminum intake manifold. Like the L88, the ZL1 required 103 octane RON (minimum) fuel, used an unshrouded radiator and had poor low speed idle qualities - all of which made the two engines largely unsuitable for street use. [102 octane RON (Sunoco 260) represented the highest octane gasoline sold at common retail stations.] As impressive as the ZL1 was in its day and despite the "larger than life legends" surrounding it, actual engine dyno tests of a certified production line stock ZL1 revealed 376 SAE net HP, with output swelling to 524 Gross HP with the help of optimal carb. and ignition tuning, open long tube racing headers and with no power sapping engine accessories or air cleaner in place. ZL1 DYNO TEST - COPO CAMARO WEBSITE A second engine dyno test conducted on a second production line stock (but recently rebuilt and partially blueprinted) ZL1 revealed nearly identical figures for the various "Gross" conditions. Period magazine tests of the ZL1 were quite rare due to the rarity of the engine itself. "High Performance Cars" tested a production line stock but well tuned example and recorded a 13.1 second/110 MPH quarter mile, which correlates quite well with the previously referenced 376 Net HP figure. "Super Stock and Drag Racing Magazine" recorded an 11.62 second/122.15 MPH quarter mile in a ZL1 Camaro that was professionally tuned and driven by drag racing legend Dick Harrell, although that car was also equipped with open long tube S&S equal length headers, drag slicks and minor suspension modifications. Using Patrick Hale's Power/Speed formula, the 122.15 MPH trap speed indicated low 11 second ET potential (e.g. with larger drag slicks) and suggested something on the order of 495 "as installed" HP in that modified configuration. This large difference in power suggests that the OEM exhaust manifolds and exhaust system were highly restrictive in the ZL1 application, as was also the case with the similar L88. The $4718 cost of the ZL1 option doubled the price of the 1969 Corvette, but resulted in a car with exceptional performance for its day. Just two production Corvettes (factory option at dealer) and 69 Camaros (non-dealer option from factory - COPO 9560) were built with the ZL1. Chevrolet capitalized on the versatility of the 427 design by producing a wide variety of high performance, "over the counter" engine components as well as ready-to-race "replacement" engines in shipping crates. Some of the components were developed to enhance the engine's reliability during high RPM operation, possibly justifying the use of the description "heavy duty." However, most of these items were racing parts originally designed for Can-Am competition that found their way on to dealers' shelves, and were meant to boost the engine's power output. Beginning in 1969, the highest performance 427 models were fitted with the new open (vs. closed) chamber cylinder heads, which, along with design improvements in crankshafts, connecting rods and pistons adopted from the Can-Am development program. Chevrolet gave all 427 engines except the ZL1 a torque rating of 460 lb·ft (620 N·m). Notes: The big-block was expanded again for 1970 to 454.2 cubic inches (7.821 L) with a 4.451 in (113.1 mm) bore and 4 in (100 mm) stroke. The 1970 Chevy Corvette LS5 version of this engine produced 440 hp (328 kW) and 595 lb·ft (807 N·m), and the LS6 engine was rated at 500 hp (370 kW). It has been suggested that the LS6 was substantially underrated and actually produced well over 500 horsepower (370 kW) as delivered from the factory, although there is no empirical evidence to support this claim. Indeed, the AHRA ASA Class record holding Chevelle LS6 for the 1970 season posted a best of season trap speed of 106.76 mph (171.81 km/h) "1970 ASA LS6 454 Records", which suggests something on the order of 350 "as installed" (SAE Net) HP for a 3,900 pounds (1,800 kg) car and driver combination. Indeed, SUPER CHEVY MAGAZINE conducted a chassis dyno test of a well-documented, well tuned but production-line stock 1970 LS6 Chevelle and recorded 283 peak HP at the wheels - a figure that lines up quite well with the previously referenced 350 SAE Net HP figure. A 465 hp (347 kW) and 610 lb·ft (830 N·m) version of the 454, dubbed LS7 was also designed but never went to production. However, a handful of LS7 intake manifolds were produced and sold by a few Chevy dealers as performance parts. The LS7 was later offered as a crate engine from GM and advertised at 500 Gross HP. Power began falling off after 1970, with the 1971 LS5 producing 365 hp (272 kW) and 550 lb·ft (750 N·m), and the LS6 option coming in at 425 hp (317 kW) and 575 lb·ft (780 N·m). Only the LS5 remained in 1972, when SAE net power ratings and the move towards emission compliance resulted in to 270 hp (200 kW) and 468 lb·ft (635 N·m). The 1973 LS4 produced 275 hp (205 kW) and 468 lb·ft (635 N·m), with 5 hp (3.7 kW) and 10 lb·ft (14 N·m) gone the following year. Hardened valve seats helped allow these engines to last much longer than the earlier versions, even without the protection previously provided by lead from fuel. 1974 was the last year of the 454 in the Corvette though the Chevelle offered it in the first 1/2 of the 1975 model year. It was also available in the full size Impala/Caprice until model year 1976. GM continued to use the 7.4 L (454 cu in) in their truck line, introducing a new Vortec 7400 version in 1996. GM also introduced the 7.4 L 454 EFI in 1987 (GEN IV 1965-1990, GEN V 1990-1995, and GEN VI in 1996); the GEN prefix was used since Ford Motor Company owns the Mark V naming rights since it was used on a Lincoln automobile between 1977–79, which was electronically fuel injected giving more power and torque. The 454 EFI version was rated from 230 hp (170 kW) to 255 hp (190 kW) and from 385 lb·ft (522 N·m) to 405 lb·ft (549 N·m) of torque. The 7.4 L 454 EFI was found on GM 2500 and 3500 trucks made in 1987, until replaced with the Vortec 7400 (GEN VI) in 1996. The 502-cubic-inch (8.2 L) (501.3cuin) was offered in various fleet and service vehicles in the late '80s and early '90s][. It had a bore of 4.466 with a stroke of 4.00 and was a cast iron 4-bolt main block. Later GM offered it in their Performance Parts catalog, available as multiple crate motors with horse power ratings between 338 hp (252 kW) to 502 hp (374 kW), and torque of 470 lb·ft (637 N·m) to 567 lb·ft (769 N·m) in "Base" and "Deluxe" packages. The "Ram Jet 502" (502 hp (374 kW) / 565 lb·ft (766 N·m)) crate motor was offered with fuel injection, and came as a turn key setup which includes all the wiring and electronics needed to operate in any vehicle. It was also used in marine applications. Chevrolet began offering a 572-cubic-inch (9.4 L) "crate motor" in 1998. This was a 620 hp (462 kW) / 650 lb·ft (881 N·m) version capable of running on 92 octane street gasoline. Another version of the same engine is available as a high compression variant generating 720 hp on race gas. The large variety of aftermarket components manufactured for the big block family makes it possible to build a complete big block engine that contains no Chevrolet components. Blocks made of both iron and aluminum alloys are available in stock or modified. Configurations and also with increased deck height to allow longer stroke or more favorable rod length ratios, providing the ability to make 632-cubic-inch (10.4 L) engines (or larger). Mark IV engines saw extensive application in Chevrolet and GMC medium duty trucks, as well as in Blue Bird Corporation All American and TC/2000 transit buses (the latter up until 1995, using a purpose-built, carbureted 427). In addition to the 427, a 366-cubic inch (6.0 liter) version was produced for the commercial market. Both the 366 and 427 commercial versions were built with a raised deck, four bolt main bearing cap cylinder to accommodate an extra oil control ring on the pistons. Unfortunately, the raised deck design complicated the use of the block in racing applications, as standard intake manifolds required spacers for proper fit. Distributors with adjustable collars that allowed adjustments to the length of the distributor shaft also had to be used with 366 and 427 truck blocks. Mark IV engines also found themselves widely used in power boats, a natural application for these robust power plants. Many of these engines were ordinary Chevrolet production models that were fitted with the necessary accessories and drive system to adapt them to marine propulsion. Mercury Marine, in particular, was a major user of the Mark IV in marine drives, and relabeled the engines with their corporate logo. The Vortec 8100 7th generation (known as gen VII) Chevrolet big block, has the same bore as a 454 (4.25 inches), but has a stroke of 4.37 inches (111 mm). It is similar to the smaller GM LS engine family in that it has coil-near-plug ignition and a 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 firing order. It was used in 3/4 ton and larger light trucks, and medium duty commercial vehicles. From the 1950s through the 1970s, each GM division had its own V8 engine family. Many were shared among other divisions, but each design is most-closely associated with its own division: GM later standardized on the later generations of the Chevrolet design: Competitors' equivalent offerings:

GM Atlas engine
Atlas is a name for a family of modern inline piston engines for trucks from General Motors. The series debuted in 2002 with the Oldsmobile Bravada, and is also used in the Chevrolet TrailBlazer and Colorado and their GMC twins, the Envoy and Canyon. In production, the engines use GM's Vortec name, and I4, I5, and I6 engines are all part of the same family, sharing the same manufacturing equipment, rods, pistons, valves, and other parts. They feature variable valve timing on the exhaust side, electronic throttle control, and a special oil pan with a pass-through for the half shafts in four-wheel drive vehicles. The inclusion of VVT on the exhaust camshaft side allows the Atlas series to meet emissions standards without the use of EGR, simplifying the engine design and increasing power for a broad power curve. The Atlas program began in 1995 along with the planning for GM's next-generation mid-size SUVs and pickup trucks. These vehicles were designed around the I6 engine. The I6 version was used in a Baja 2000 racing truck, winning its first race in a class that also included V8 engines. Another I6-powered truck won the truck class at the Pikes Peak International Hillclimb. The I6 Atlas engines were produced at the Flint Engine South plant in Flint, Michigan, while the I4 and I5 versions are currently produced at the Tonawanda Engine plant in Tonawanda, New York. The LL8 (or Vortec 4200), is a straight-6 truck engine. It was the first Atlas engine, and was designed for GM's new SUV line. It displaces 4.2 L , with a 93 mm (3.7 in) bore and 102 mm (4.0 in) stroke. When introduced, this engine's power was 270 hp (205 kW) at 6000 rpm and torque was 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) at 3600 rpm. 2003 saw a slight bump in power to 275 hp (205 kW), while torque was unchanged. For 2006, power was increased to 291 hp (217 kW) at 6000 rpm and torque to 277 lb·ft (376 N·m) at 4800 rpm with the addition of a MAF and a complete internal redesign of the engine. The Atlas LL8 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2002 through 2005. Engine redline is 6300 rpm. LL8 Applications: With the closing of the Moraine, OH plant and the termination of the GMT-360 platform (Chevrolet TrailBlazer, GMC Envoy, etc.) the Atlas LL8 (Vortec 4200) has also been terminated. The smaller I4 and I5 variants are still produced. The L52 (also called Vortec 3500), is a straight-5 truck engine. It displaces 3.5 L (3,460 cc or 211 cu in), with a 93 mm (3.7 in) bore and 102 mm (4.0 in) stroke, and shares much with the rest of the Atlas family. Dynoed at the flywheel it produces 220 hp (164 kW) at 5600 rpm and 225 lb·ft (305 N·m) at 2800 rpm, while producing 179.13 hp at 6001 rpm when dynoed at the rear wheels. Engine redline is 6300 rpm. These engines have a known issue: The valve seats of the intake valves allow some exhaust gasses to travel back out the intake valve, causing a misfire condition. GM issued a recall to replace the cylinder heads on models triggering the specific problem code. It is used in the following vehicles: The LLR (also called Vortec 3700), is a straight-5 truck engine. It displaces 3.7 L (3,653 cc or 223 cu in), courtesy of a larger 95.5 mm (3.76 in) bore while keeping the 102 mm (4.0 in) stroke, and shares much with the rest of the Atlas family. The LLR also corrected the head issue found in the L52. It produces 242 hp (180 kW) at 5600 rpm and 242 lb·ft (327 N·m) at 4600 rpm. Engine redline is 6300 rpm. It is used in the following vehicles: The straight-4 LK5 engine is sold as the Vortec 2800 in GM trucks. Like its Atlas brothers, the LK5 has dual overhead cams, and shares their 93 mm (3.7 in) bore and 102 mm (4.0 in) stroke. The LK5 displaces 2.8 L and produces 175 hp (131 kW) at 5600 rpm and 185 lb·ft (251 N·m) at 2800 rpm. Engine redline is 6300 rpm. It is used in the following vehicles: The straight-4 LLV engine is sold as the Vortec 2900 in GM trucks. It shares the same 95.5 mm bore and 102 mm (4.0 in) stroke as the LLR Vortec 3700. The LLV displaces 2.9 L and produces 185 hp (138 kW) at 5600 rpm and 190 lb·ft (258 N·m) at 2800 rpm. Engine redline is 6300 rpm. It is used in the following vehicles:

Ford Windsor engine
The V8 Ford Windsor motor family is considered by Ford enthusiasts to be one of the greatest and most successful engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. It is referred to as the Small Block Ford by major aftermarket auto parts companies, parts catalogs, on internet forums, and by Ford itself. Introduced in 1962 as part of Ford's "Total Performance" era, the Ford Windsor design succeeded the Ford Y-block engine family, rendering the latter obsolete for performance purposes. The Windsor family evolved significantly during its 40-year history through technology, performance, and reliability enhancements. Engine displacement also increased from 221 cu in (3.6 L) up to 351 cu in (5.8 L). Engines and their components naturally vary between models and displacements. Despite this, however, many parts are interchangeable. For performance enthusiasts, this means that older motors can frequently be retrofitted with replacement or upgraded parts. An abundant supply of aftermarket parts also exists to fit a wide range of Windsor models. These motors were originally produced at Ford's Windsor, Ontario engine plant, hence the Windsor designation][. From 1969, though, all Ford small blocks (i.e., Windsors) were produced in Cleveland, Ohio. The mid-sized 335 "Cleveland" V8, introduced in 1970, was intended to replace the larger of the Windsor models. The Windsor, however, ended up outliving its replacement. Ultimately, in 1991, Ford began phasing out the Windsor engine and replacing it with their new 4.6 L Modular V8 engine. In 1996, Ford replaced the 5.0 L (302 cu in) pushrod Windsor V8 with the Modular 4.6 L in the Mustang. Its use continued until 1997 in the F-150 pickup truck, and until 2001 in the Explorer SUV. From the mid-1970s through the 1990s, the Windsor engine was also marinized for use in smaller recreational boats. As of 2008, Windsor engines, including the 5.8 L (351 cu in) and 5.0L 302, are still being manufactured; available as complete crate motors from Ford Racing and Performance Parts. The small block Ford engine uses a thin-wall cast iron block with a separate timing chain cover, made from aluminum. This feature differentiates it from later Cleveland, or 351-series engines, that use an integrated timing cover, cast in the block. All Windsors use 2-valve per cylinder heads regardless of whether they are "2V", "4V", or fuel-injected models. The 2V & 4V designations referred to the number of venturi (or barrels) in the carburetor, not valves per cylinder. The valves are in-line and use straight 6-bolt valve covers. Another simple differentiation between the Small Block and "335" Cleveland series is the location of the radiator hose — the Windsor routed coolant through the intake manifold, with the hose protruding horizontally, while the Cleveland had the radiator hose connecting vertically to the engine block. The Cleveland and later "Modified" engines used a canted valve design, allowing for larger valves within the same 4" bore. Something worth noting was the fact that the Ford Engineers designed the Cleveland heads with the same bore spacing and head bolt configuration making it possible (with some light machine work) to bolt Cleveland heads to the Windsor block and in 1969 they did just that creating the Boss 302. The oil routing in the engine block is unique in that a third passage is drilled parallel to the tappet passages. This passage ensures that oil reaches the main and cam bearings before the tappets, reducing the likelihood of lubricant starvation of the bearings (unlike the 351 Cleveland and the 385 series). The tappets are fed from an inverted 'V' passage cast in the rear under the intake manifold that connects with this passage and is sealed with a steel cap. The third oil passage is visible from the rear of the block with the transmission components removed. It is under and slightly right of the right bank tappet passage. The tappets on the left bank are the farthest from the oil pump and are last to be pressurized by oil upon a dry start. This gives an impression that there is insufficient lubrication, but this is normal and the noise ceases after several seconds of operation. With the exception of the 289 HiPo, Boss 302 and 351W, all connecting rods use the same 5/16 in. dia. bolts. The rod forgings had undergone some changes throughout its history. The 221, 260 and early 289 (C2OZ-A and C3AE-D) rods used an oil squirt hole to lubricate the piston pin and rings. The oil squirt hole was discontinued in 1964. The same forging continued to be used up to 1967 and all were the same length (5.155 in.). The 302 used a shorter beam (C8OE-A 5.090 in.) but used the same cap up to 1970. In 1971 the cap design was changed from flanged to flat (D1OE-A). This was changed back to the flange design in 1988 due to fatigue failures from increased power output of fuel injection and continued until the end of production. The 289 HiPo and Boss 302 were the same length (5.155 in) used heavier beam and cap forgings and 3/8 in bolts but were machined differently. The former used square head bolts and square cut and the latter were spot faced for 'football head' bolts. The first engine of this family, introduced for the 1962 model year as an option on the Ford Fairlane and Mercury Meteor, had a displacement of 221 cu in (3.6 L), from a 3.5 in (89 mm) bore and 2.87 in (72.9 mm) stroke, with wedge combustion chambers for excellent breathing. An advanced, compact, thinwall-casting design, it was 24 in wide, 29 in long, and 27.5 in tall (610 mm × 737 mm × 699 mm). It weighed only 470 lb (210 kg) dry despite its cast iron construction, making it one of the lightest and most compact V8 engines of its class. Although all of the 1962 through 1964 221-289 engines used a five-bolt bell housing, the block mount pads varied in length between the 221, and the 260-289 motors requiring different motor mounts to be used. In stock form it used a two-barrel carburetor and a compression ratio of 8.7:1, allowing the use of regular (rather than premium) gasoline. Valve diameters were 1.59 in (40.4 mm) (intake) and 1.388 in (35.3 mm) (exhaust). Rated power and torque (SAE gross) were 145 hp (108 kW) at 4,400 rpm and 216 lb·ft (293 N·m) at 2,200 rpm. The 221 was dropped after the 1963 model year. The second version of the Windsor, introduced during the middle of the 1962 model year, had a larger bore of 3.80 in (96.5 mm), increasing displacement to 260 cu in (4.3 L). Compression ratio was raised fractionally to 8.8:1. The engine was slightly heavier than the 221, at 482 lb (219 kg). Rated power (still SAE gross) rose to 164 hp (122 kW) @ 4400 rpm, with a peak torque of 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) @ 2200 rpm. In 1962 and 1963 valve diameters remained the same as the 221, but starting in 1964 they were enlarged to 1.67 in. (42.4 mm) (intake) and 1.45 in (36.8 mm) (exhaust). Rated power was not changed. In 1963 the 260 became the base engine on full-size Ford sedans. Later in the model year its availability was expanded to the Ford Falcon and Mercury Comet. The early "1964½" Ford Mustang also offered the 260, although it was dropped by mid-year, as did the 1964-1966 Sunbeam Tiger Mk I. The 1967 Sunbeam Tiger Mk II used the 289 CID V8 (see 289). The special rally version of the Falcon and Comet and early AC Cobra sports cars used a high-performance version of the 260 with higher compression, hotter camshaft timing, and a four-barrel carburetor. This engine was rated (SAE gross) 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5800 rpm and 269 lb·ft (365 N·m) @ 4800 rpm. Ford dropped the 260 after the 1964 model year. The 289 cu in (4.7 L) Windsor was also introduced in 1963. Bore was expanded to 4.0 in (102 mm), becoming the standard bore for most factory Windsor engines. The 289 weighed 506 lb (230 kg). In 1963 the 289 was available in two forms: with a two-barrel carburetor and 8.7:1 compression, (SAE gross) rated at 195 hp (145 kW) at 4,400 rpm and 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) at 2,200 rpm. The two-barrel 289 replaced the 260 as the base V8 for full-sized Fords. The second form was the K-code listed below, in 1963 it was available only in the Fairlane. In 1964 with a four-barrel carburetor and 9.0:1 compression, rated at 210 hp (157 kW) at 4,400 rpm and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) at 2,800 rpm was available in Mercury Comets. 1964 1/2 (Early 1965) Mustang 289 D-code 4V Engine - The D-code V8 Mustang engine with the Autolite four-barrel carburetor was a rare engine. It was only offered as an option in the 1964 1/2 (Early 1965) Mustangs dated March - September 1964. Some characteristics setting the rare engine apart from other earlier V8s include: Both 1963 and 1964 versions had a five-bolt bell housing pattern that was different from later six-bolt units (Mustangs switched bolt patterns around August 3, 1964). For 1965 the compression ratio of the base 289 was raised to 9.3:1, increasing power and torque to 200 hp (149 kW) at 4,400 rpm and 282 lb·ft (382 N·m) at 2,400 rpm. The four-barrel version was increased to 10.0:1 compression, and was rated at 225 hp (168 kW) at 4,800 rpm and 305 lb·ft (414 N·m) at 3,200 rpm. Engine specifications were unchanged for 1966 and 1967. In 1968 the four-barrel 225 hp (168 kW) engine was dropped, leaving only the two-barrel — now reduced back to 195 hp (145 kW).The HiPo 271 H.P. engine was also dropped, making room for the new for 1968 302 V-8. 1968 was the last year of production for the 289 in the U.S. The 289 was also the engine for the first Australian Ford Falcon GT, the XR Falcon GT. A high-performance version of the 289 engine was introduced late in the 1963 model year as a special order for Ford Fairlanes. The engine is informally known as the "HiPo" or the K-code (after the engine letter used in the VIN of cars so equipped). Oddly, this engine was introduced in 1963 as the only 289 engine available in the intermediate Fairlanes. Lesser powered cars had the 260 engine in that year. Starting in June 1964, it became an option for the Mustang. NOTE: K-code Mercury Comets were the 210 HP 4 bbl carb engine not the High Performance engine as the K-code Fords. The HiPo engine was engineered to increase performance and high-RPM reliability over standard 289 fare. It had solid lifters with hotter cam timing; 10.5:1 compression; a dual point, centrifugal advance distributor; smaller combustion chamber heads with cast spring cups and screw-in studs; low restriction exhaust manifolds; and a bigger, manual choke 595 CFM carburetor (std 289-4V was 480 CFM). The water pump, fuel pump, and alternator/generator pulley were altered; fewer vanes, extra spring, and larger diameter respectively; to help handle the higher engine speeds. Even the HiPo’s fan was unique. Bottom end improvements included thicker main bearing caps and balancer, larger diameter rod bolts, and a hardness tested and counterweighted crankshaft, all for high-rpm reliability. The HiPo carried SAE gross ratings of 271 hp (202 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 312 lb·ft (423 N·m) at 3,400 rpm. The HiPo engine was used in modified form by Carroll Shelby for the 1965-1967 Shelby GT350, raising rated power to 306 hp (228 kW) at 6,000 rpm through use of special exhaust headers, an aluminum intake manifold, and a larger carburetor. The Shelby engine also had a larger oil pan with baffles to reduce oil starvation in hard cornering. Shelby also replaced the internal front press-in oil gallery plugs with a screw-in type plug to reduce chances of failure. From 1966 to 1968, Shelby offered an optional Paxton supercharger for the 289, raising its power (on Shelby GT350s) to around 390 hp (291 kW). The K-code HiPo engine was an expensive option and its popularity was greatly diminished after the 390 and 428 big-block engines became available in the Mustang and Fairlane lines, which offered similar power (at the expense of greater weight) for far less cost. In 1968 the small block Ford was stroked to 3.0 in (76.2 mm), giving a total displacement of 302 CI (4,942 cc). The connecting rods were shortened to allow the use of the same pistons as the 289. It replaced the 289 early in the 1968 model year. The most common form of this engine used a two-barrel carburetor, initially with 9.5:1 compression. It had hydraulic lifters and valves of 1.773 in (45 mm) (intake) and 1.442 in (36.6 mm) (exhaust), and was rated (SAE gross) at 220 hp (164 kW) at 4,600 rpm and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) at 2,600 rpm. Optional was a four-barrel version rated at 250 hp (186 kW) at 4,800 rpm. For 1968 only, a special high-performance version of the 302 was offered for the Shelby GT350][. Its main features included an angled, high-rise aluminum or iron intake manifold, a larger Holley four-barrel carburetor, and bigger valves of 1.875 in (47.6 mm) intake and 1.6 in (41 mm) exhaust. It had a longer-duration camshaft, still with hydraulic lifters. The block was a high-strength, higher nickel content design made in Mexico. "Hecho en Mexico" casting marks are present in the lifter valley, and its main strength was the appearance of much larger and stronger two-bolt main bearing caps on the engine's bottom end. The heads had special close tolerance pushrod holes to guide the pushrods without rail rocker arms or stamped steel guide plates. The combustion chambers also featured a smaller quench design for a higher compression ratio and enhanced flow characteristics. Additionally, high flow cast exhaust manifolds similar to those on the 289 Hi-Po K-code engine further improved output. Heavy-duty connecting rods with high strength bolts and a nodular iron crankshaft were also included in this package. Rated power (SAE gross) was estimated at 315 hp (235 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 333 lb·ft (451 N·m) at 3,800 rpm. The package, which cost $692 (USD) including some other equipment, was not popular and did not return for 1969. This engine was not a factory engine. Rather, like all Shelby Mustang engines, it was modified by Shelby American in their capacity as a vehicle upfitter. This special engine is well documented in the Ford factory engine repair manual for 1968 Mustangs and Fairlanes. This engine block is considered the strongest production 302 block other than the Boss 302 and the Trans Am 302. The heavy duty Mexican 302 block was produced for several more years, and even showed up on Ford trucks and vans throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s. Emission regulations saw a progressive reduction in compression ratio for the 302 two-barrel, to 9.0:1 in 1972, reducing SAE gross horsepower to 210 hp (157 kW). In that year U.S. automakers began to quote horsepower in SAE net ratings; the 302 two-barrel carried a net rating of 140 hp (104 kW). By 1975 its power would drop as low as 122 hp (91 kW). Not until fuel injection began to appear in the 1980s would net power ratings rise above 210 hp (157 kW). Throttle body fuel injection first appeared for the 302 on the Lincoln Continental in 1980, and was made standard on all applications in 1983 except manual transmission equipped Mustangs, Mercury Capris (equipped first with two-barrel (1982), then later 4-barrel carburetor (1983–85)), and also F-series trucks. The block was fitted with revised, taller lifter bosses to accept roller lifters, and a steel camshaft in 1985, and electronic sequential fuel injection was introduced in 1986. While sequential injection was used on the Mustang since 1986, many other vehicles, including trucks continued to use a batch fire fuel injection system. The speed-density based EFI systems used a large, two-piece, cast aluminum manifold. It was fitted on all engines through 1988, after which year it was replaced by a mass-air type measuring system, with the same manifold. The MAF system continued, with minor revisions, until the retirement of the engine in 2001. Ford offered a performance head that was a stock part on 1993 - 1995 Mustang Cobra models and pre- 1997-1/2 Ford Explorers and Mercury Mountaineers equipped with the 5.0 L engine called the GT-40 head (casting id F3ZE-AA). In mid-1997, the Explorer and Mountaineer 5.0 L heads were revised and renamed GT40P. The GT40P heads, unlike the GT40 heads, had a very well developed port shape/design which yielded ~200 cfm on the intake side and ~140 cfm on the exhaust side without increasing the size of the ports at all from standard E7TE castings, and without increasing the exhaust valve size. They also had smaller 59 - 61 cc combustion chambers for added compression, and the combustion chamber shape was revised to put the spark plug tip near the center of the chamber for a more even burn. These GT40P heads are considered by many enthusiasts to be extremely efficient. The 302 was also offered for marine applications in both standard and reverse rotation setups. In the 1980s the 302 became more commonly known as the 5.0 Liter, although its metric displacement is 4,942 cc. It is speculated][ that Ford used the "5.0" moniker to distinguish the 302 from their 300 cu. in. inline Six, which was known as the 4.9. Despite its advertised displacement, Car and Driver referred to the 302 as a 4.9 liter engine. The 302 remained a mainstay of various Ford cars and trucks through the late 90's, although it was progressively replaced by the 4.6 L Ford Modular engine starting in the early 1990s. The last 302 engine was produced for installation in a production vehicle was at Cleveland Engine Plant #1 in December 2000, as part of a build ahead to supply Ford of Australia, who installed their last such engine in a new vehicle in August 2002. The 302 is still available as a complete crate motor, from Ford Racing and Performance Parts. In 2001, Ford Australia also built some stroked, 5.6 L (5,605 cc, 342 cu in) Windsors with reworked GT40P heads (featuring larger valves), a unique eight trumpet inlet manifold, long throw crank, H beam rods and roller rockers. They produced 335 hp (250 kW) at 5,250 rpm and 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) at 4,250 rpm. The 5.6 litres of displacement was reached by lengthening the stroke from 76.2 mm (3.0 in) to 86.4 mm (3.4 in). The Boss 302 was a performance variant of the Windsor, putting what would become Cleveland heads on a special, heavy duty, 4 bolt main Windsor block to improve rated power to 290 hp (216 kW). According to some reports, the canted valve, deep breathing, high revving engine could produce more than 310 hp (231 kW), although as delivered, it was equipped with an electrical rev limiter that restricted maximum engine speed to 6150 rpm. A bulletproof bottom end, thicker cylinder walls, steel screw-in freeze plugs, race prepped crank, special HD connecting rods and Cleveland style forged pistons kept the engine together at high speeds. The key to this engine's power was the large port, large valve, quench chambered, free flowing heads. The Boss 302 Mustang was offered only for the 1969 and 1970 model years. In a January 2010 issue of Hot Rod magazine, a Boss 302 engine built to the exact specifications, settings and conditions to the original engine was tested. It produced a solid 372 hp @ 6,800rpm and 325 lb-ft of torque @ 4,200rpm. The 351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor featured a 1.3 in (32.5 mm) taller deck height than the 302, allowing a stroke of 3.5 in (88.9 mm). Although related in general configuration to the 289-302 and sharing the same bell housing, motor mounts and other small parts, the 351W had a unique, tall deck block, larger main bearing caps, thicker, longer connecting rods, and a distinct firing order (1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8 versus the usual 1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8), adding some 25 lb (11 kg) to the engine's dry weight. The distributor is slightly different to accommodate a larger oil pump shaft and larger oil pump. Some years had threaded dipstick tubes. It had a unique head which optimized torque over high-rpm breathing, frequently replaced by enthusiasts with aftermarket heads providing better performance. The early 1969 and 1970 heads had larger valves and ports for better performance. The intake valves and ports were slightly larger on the early engines. The head castings and valve head sizes from 1969 to 1976 were different, notably in passages for air injection and spark plug diameters (1969-1974 18 mm, 1975 and up 14 mm). From 1977 onward, the 351W shared the same head casting as the 302, differing only in bolt hole diameters (7/16 inch for 302, 1/2 inch for 351W). Early blocks (casting id C9OE-6015-B had enough metal on bearing saddles 2, 3, and 4 for four bolt mains) as with all SBF, were superior in strength to most late model, lightweight castings. Generally the 1969 to 1974 blocks are considered to be far superior in strength than the later blocks making these early units some of the strongest and most desirable in the entire SBF engine family including the 335 series. During the 1980s a four barrel version (intake manifold casting id E6TE-9425-B) was re-introduced for use in light trucks and vans. In 1988 fuel-injection replaced the four barrel carburetor. Roller lifters were introduced in this engine in 1994. The original connecting rod beam (forging id C9OE-A) featured drilled oil squirt bosses to lubricate the piston pin and cylinder bore and rectangular head rod bolts mounted on broached shoulders. There were a number of fatigue failures attributed to the machining of the part and so the bolt head area was spot-faced to retain metal in the critical area, requiring the use of 'football head' bolts. In 1975, The beam forging (D6OE-AA) was updated with more metal in the bolt head area. The oil squirt bosses were drilled for use in export engines, where the quality of accessible lubricants was questionable. The rod cap forging remained the same on both units (part id C9OE-A). In 1982, the design of the Essex V6 engine used a new version of the 351W connecting rod (E2AE-A), the difference between the two parts was that the V6 and V8 units was machined in metric and SAE units respectively. The cap featured a longer boss for balancing than the original design. The block underwent some changes since its inception. In 1971, The deck height was extended from 9.480 in. to 9.503 in. (casting id D1AE-6015-DA) to lower the compression ratio to reduce NOx emissions without the need to change piston or cylinder head design. In 1974 a boss was added on the front of the right cylinder bank to mount the air injection pump (casting id D4AE-A). In 1974 the oil dipstick tube moved from the timing case to the skirt under the left cylinder bank near the rear of the casting. These details made swapping older blocks from passenger cars with front sump oil pans to more recent rear-sumped Mustang and LTD/Crown Vic Ford cars more difficult unless an oil pan had the dipstick mounted therein. In the 1990s the rear main seal was changed from a two-piece component to a one-piece design and provisions for roller tappets were also added. Introduced in 1969, it was initially rated (SAE gross) at 250 hp (186 kW) with a two-barrel carburetor or 290 hp (216 kW) with a four-barrel. When Ford switched to net power ratings in 1972 it was rated at 153 to 161 hp (114 to 120 kW), although actual, installed horsepower was only fractionally lower than in 1971. During the 1990s, motor enthusiasts were modifying 351 Cleveland 2V cylinder heads (by re-routing coolant exit from the block surfaces to the intake manifold surfaces) for use in the 351W resulting in the Clevor (combining Cleveland and Windsor). This modification required the use of custom pistons by reason of differing combustion chamber terrain (canted valves vs. straight valves) and intake manifolds. This combination yielded the horsepower potential of the 351C with the ruggedness of the 351W small block and was possible because more 351C 2V cylinder heads were manufactured than the corresponding engine blocks (the 351M and 400 used the same head as the 351C 2V). From the late 1960s through the early to mid-1990s the 351 Windsor had a long history of being marinized by Pleasure Craft Marine (PCM) and Indmar for use in Correct Craft and MasterCraft inboard competition ski boats. The early marinized engines were rated at 220 hp (164 kW). Most PCM and Indmar marinized 351’s were rated at 240 hp (179 kW). In the early 1990s, a 260 hp (194 kW) version as well as a "HO" (High Output) version that used GT-40 heads and the Holley 4160 marine carburetor was rated at 285 hp (213 kW). A few 351 GT-40/HO engines were marinized equipped with Throttle Body fuel Injection (TBI) and were rated at 310 hp (231 kW). The marine industry's relationship with the 351W platform ended when Ford was unable or unwilling to compete with GM's mass production of TBI and MPI equipped engines in mass quantity. It was during that time that the recreational marine community's small-block V8 platform of choice shifted to the 350 cu in (5.7L) GM L31 (vortec 5700) engine series. The Racing Boss 351, not to be confused with the Ford 335 engine Cleveland based Boss 351, is a crate engine from Ford Racing Performance Parts. The block was based on the 351 cu in (5,752 cc) Ford Windsor engine, but uses Cleveland sized 2.75 in (70 mm) main bearing journals. Deck height choices include 9.2 in (234 mm) and 9.5 in (241 mm). Maximum displacements are 4.25 in (108 mm) stroke and 4.125 in (105 mm) bore. The non cross-drilled block with increased bore capacity became available from the third quarter of 2009. A 427 cu in (6,997 cc) Boss 351-based crate engine producing 535 hp (399 kW) was available from the first quarter of 2010. In 2010, the MSRP for the Boss 351 block was . In 1980, a very urgent need to meet EPA CAFE standards led to the creation of the 255 cu in (4.2 L) version, essentially a 302 with the cylinder bores debored to 3.68 in (93.5 mm). Rated power (SAE net) was 115-122 hp (86-91 kW), depending on year and application. Cylinder heads used smaller combustion chambers and smaller valves and the intake ports were ovals whereas the others were rectangular. The only externally visible cue was the use of an open runner intake manifold with a stamped steel lifter valley cover attached to its underside, giving the appearance of previous generation engines, such as the Y-Block and the MEL. It was optional in Fox chassis cars including the Mustang and corporate cousin Mercury Capri, Thunderbird, Fairmont, and standard equipment in the Ford LTD. Some variants (i.e. Mercury Grand Marquis) were fitted with a variable venturi carburetor which were capable of highway fuel economy in excess of 27 MPG. Poorly received due to its dismal performance, the 255 was dropped after the 1982 model year.

GMC V8 engine
GMC generally shared engines with other General Motors divisions. But like their straight-6, GMC did have its own V8. Prior to developing their own engines, GMC used the Chevrolet Straight-6 engine and Pontiac V8 engine. They used the Pontiac 287-cubic-inch (4.7 L) motor for 1955 and 316-cubic-inch (5.2 L) motor in 1956, but advertised the engines as the "GMC 288" and "GMC 316". They used Pontiac's 347-cubic-inch (5.7 L) in 1957. For 1958 and 1959, GMC reduced the bore of Pontiac's 370-cubic-inch (6.1 L) to 3.875 in (98.4 mm), resulting in a displacement of 336-cubic-inch (5.5 L). In Canada, however, GMC used the Chevrolet Small-Block engine rather than the Pontiac. From 1955 through 1983, GMC shared Chevrolet's small-block V8. This came in 265, 283, 305, 327, 350, and 400-cubic-inch (4.3, 4.6, 5.3, 5.7, and 6.6 L) sizes. GMC also shared Chevrolet's big-block from 1968 through 1976. The company used the 366, 396, 402, 427, 454, and 496 cubic inches (6.0, 6.5, 6.6, 7.0,7.4 and 8.1 L) versions. GMC's own V8 was the 336-cubic-inch (5.5 L) OHV/pushrod engine. It used a 3.875 in (98.4 mm) bore and was produced only in 1958 and 1959. While both the '58 and '59 GMC V8 engines were advertised as 336-cubic-inch (5.5 L), the '58 version was based on the Pontiac 370-cubic-inch (6.1 L), but with a smaller 3.875-inch bore giving 336.1 cubic inches (5,508 cc). The '59 version was based on Pontiac's 389-cubic-inch (6.4 L), but with a smaller 3.78-inch bore giving 336.9 cubic inches (5,521 cc). An unusual 637-cubic-inch (10.4 L) 60° V8 was based on GMC's V6 design.

Pontiac V8 engine

Pontiac began as an adjunct to the Oakland division of the General Motors line of automobiles in 1926. Pontiac successfully competed against more expensive 4-cylinder models with their inline flathead 6 engines. After outselling Oakland, Pontiac became the sole survivor of the two by 1932. In addition to the inline 6, Pontiac also had an inline 8 by 1933. These two engines were used through 1954, when Pontiac unveiled its V8 in 1955. From 1955 to 1981 the Pontiac Division of General Motors manufactured its own engines, distinct from Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, or Oldsmobile. Displacement began at 287 cu in and grew as large as 455 (7.5 L) by 1970. Pontiac engines were used in its U.S.-market cars; Canadian-built Pontiac automobiles generally used Chevrolet engines. From 1955 through 1959, the Pontiac V8 was also used in some GMC pick-up trucks. The development of Pontiac's OHV V8 dates back to 1946, when engineers began considering new engine designs for postwar cars. Despite these experiments, the division's conservative management saw no immediate need to replace the Pontiac Straight-8 engine, which had served well since 1933. When Robert Critchfield took over as general manager in 1952, however, he launched an ambitious plan to move Pontiac into the upscale, mid-range market segment occupied by Oldsmobile, and that demanded V8 power. The development of the new engine was fast-tracked, but since its relatively late development let it take advantage of the experience gained in the Oldsmobile V8 engine and Cadillac V8 engine, it was remarkably free of teething problems. The main innovation of the Pontiac engine was the stamped rocker-arm system, which had been devised by Pontiac engineer Clayton Leach in 1948. At the request of Ed Cole, general manager of Chevrolet, the layout was also used by the Chevrolet V8 released in 1955, an exception to the customary GM policy of allowing a division one year of exclusive use of an internally developed advance. Federal emissions standards and the drive towards "corporate" engines shared among all GM divisions led to the progressive demise of the Pontiac V8 through the late 1970s. The last "true" Pontiac V8's, a 265 cu in and a 301 cu in, ended production in 1981. Pontiac also used the Oakland V8 engine in 1932 only. During 1951–1952, Pontiac had 23 1953 model production prototypes running tests on the GM proving grounds. These 23 cars were equipped with the new 287 V8 engine. Pontiac planned to produce the 1953 models with the V8, but Buick and Oldsmobile feared a sizeable loss in customers, if they had to compete with Pontiac having a new V8 engine. After hearing from Buick and Oldsmobile, GM's board of directors ordered Pontiac to delay the V8 introduction until 1955. Pontiac's V8 development that started in 1946 was a 269-cubic-inch L-head design. The 287 cu in overhead design started in 1949. Pontiac engineers tested their 269 V8 in 1949 or 1950 against a downsized Olds rocket V8 overhead engine. The Olds engine was a 303 cu in, Pontiac reduced the size to 270 cu in for testing against the 269 engine. The test results showed Pontiac that a L head engine couldn't compete with the overhead engines. The 1955-up Pontiac V8 was an overhead valve engine with wedge combustion chambers. It used cast iron cylinder heads and a cast-iron block. An innovative design feature was mounting the rocker arms on ball pivots on studs set into the cylinder-head, rather than using a separate rocker shaft; this allowed more consistent valve action with less weight than a conventional shaft. It was also cheaper to build than a rocker shaft; this Pontiac-patented technology was immediately handed to the Chevrolet division for their first postwar V-8, which appeared the same year. All (except the 303 Ram Air V engine and 265 and 301) used 6.625 in (168.3 mm) connecting rods. All Pontiac V8s from 1955 to 1959 were reverse cooled, known as the "gusher" cooling system. It was removed from the design for the 1960 model year because designers moved the generator and the power steering pump from atop the front of the engine down to the front of the heads to accommodate a lower hoodline. However, the 1959 389 engines had the generator in front of the heads with reverse flow cooling still in use. This suggests that the cost of the reverse cooling was the reason for the change to "equa-flow" cooling. Most iterations had an overall length (to the edge of the water pump pulley) of 28.25 in, an overall width of 27 in, and a height (not including air cleaner) of 31 in (790 mm) × 686 mm × 787 mm). Dry weight ranged from 590 to 650 pounds (270 to 290 kg), depending on displacement and year. Most Pontiac engines were painted light blue. The 1958 370" engine and the 1959–60 389 version was named the "Tempest" V-8 and changed in 61 to the "Trophy" V8. Pontiac in the 1950s was one of a few US manufacturers which did not regularly identify its engine names and sizes with air-cleaner or valve-cover decals. The V8 engine was introduced for the 1955 model year as the "Strato Streak". Not long before the model year introduction, Pontiac management decided that the entire line would be V8-powered. This was based on results of over 1 million test miles, which was unheard of at the time. The 287 was an "oversquare" engine with a bore of 3.75 in (95 mm) and a stroke of 3.25 in (83 mm), for a total displacement of 287.2 cu in (4,706 cc). Compression ratio was a modest 8.00:1, with valve diameters of 1.781 in (45.2 mm) (intake) and 1.500 in (38.1 mm) (exhaust). It was rated 180 hp (130 kW) @ 4600 rpm and 264 lb·ft (358 N·m) @ 2400 rpm with a two-barrel carburetor, 200 hp (150 kW) @ 4600 rpm and 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) @ 2800 rpm with the four-barrel carburetor. For 1956 the V8 was bored out to in (100.0 mm), increasing displacement to 316.6 cu in (5.188 L). It was offered in the following forms: (with manual transmission) (with Hydramatic) For 1957 the V8's stroke was increased to in (90.5 mm), for a displacement of 347 cu in (5,690 cc). For the first time, Pontiac offered Tri-Power, three two-barrel carburetors with a sequential linkage (replacing the previous dual-quad set-up). Power ratings increased accordingly: (with manual transmission) (with Hydramatic) Several dealer-installed camshafts were optional to increase power further to 310 hp (230 kW). Standard only for the Pontiac Bonneville was Pontiac's first-ever fuel injection system. A mechanical system built by Rochester, it was similar in principle, but not identical, to the contemporary Chevrolet "fuelie". Pontiac did not release official power ratings for this engine, saying only that it had more than 300 hp (220 kW). Contemporary road tests suggest that it was actually somewhat inferior to the Tri-Power engines, although it did have better fuel economy. Only 630 Bonnevilles were produced for 1957, all of them fuel-injected. For 1958 the V8's bore was increased again to in (103.2 mm), increasing displacement to 369.4 cu in (6.053 L). The engine is now called the TEMPEST V-8 and will be called this until the end of 1960 The fuel-injected engine was now an option on any Pontiac model, carrying a staggering price tag of $500 (almost 15% of the car's base price). It was rated at 310 hp (230 kW) @ 4800 rpm and 400 lb·ft (540 N·m) @ 3,000 rpm on 10.5:1 compression. Only about 400 were produced before the fuel injection system was quietly dropped. For 1959 the V8's stroke was increased to 3.75 in (95 mm), raising displacement to 388.9 cu in (6,373 cc). This was the beginning of factory supplied performance items such as 4 bolt main bearings and windage trays to reduce friction from crankcase oil. The 389 would remain the standard Pontiac V8 engine through 1966, offered in a bewildering variety of outputs ranging from 215 to 368 horsepower (160 to 274 kW). The 389 was the standard engine for the Pontiac GTO through 1966. Beginning in 1961 the Pontiac V-8 (389 and 421) is now called the TROPHY V-8, due to its many victories in racing. In 1963 Pontiac dropped the Buick division built 215 aluminum V8 it had offered on the Pontiac Tempest and replaced it with a small-bore version of the standard 389 Pontiac V8. It shared the 389's 3.75 in (95 mm) stroke, but its bore was originally 3.78 giving it a displacement of 336 C.I.D.It was rated at 250 hp (190 kW) with 8.6:1 compression and 260 hp (194 kW) at 10.25:1 compression. Both used a single two-barrel carburetor. A 4-barrel version was rated at 280 hp. In 1964 when the new "A" body intermediates came out there was a new corporate (GM) engine size limitation to anything less than 330 cu. in. and so the 326 bore size was reduced to 3.72 giving a true 326 The 326 subsequently became the optional V8 engine for Tempests, and later the Pontiac Firebird, through 1967. A higher-output version was offered, called the 326 HO (High Output). It had a four-barrel carburetor, dual exhaust, and higher compression, and was good for 280 hp (209 kW) for 1963–1965, and 285 hp (213 kW) for 1966 and the final year, 1967. For 1967, Pontiac introduced the 400 cu in (6,555 cc). The '400' V8 was essentially a bored-out (+.060) 389 with 4.1225-inch (104.71 mm) bore and 3.75-inch (95 mm) stroke 400.4 cu in (6,561 cc). It replaced the 389 in 1967 and remained in production through the 1978 model year.The 1979 cars with a 400, had an engine produced in 1978. The 400 was a popular performance option for many of Pontiac's cars. The 400 produces a good balance of low end torque and higher RPM power when used with a 4-barrel carburetor or other high airflow components. In 1967, the cylinder head design was improved for all engines. The valve angle was changed for better breathing. 1967 was the last year for closed-chambered heads. The "670" head was a 1967-only casting, and the last PMD head to have a closed chamber. Pontiac went to open-chambered heads in 1967 to improve power, engine breathing and emissions. The valve size increased as well, to 2.11" intake and 1.77" exhaust valves on high-performance heads. Low-performance and 2-barrel applications got 1.96" intake and 1.66" exhaust valves and pressed in rocker arm studs. In 1968 the 326 was replaced by the 350, which used a 3.8750in bore and 3.75in stroke for a total displacement of 354.71 cu in (5,812.7 cc) although it was still called a 350 (5.7 L). This engine was offered in both 2bbl and 4-barrel variations similar to the previous 326 engine. In 1968 an HO option was available in the Tempest, and Firebirds that were rated at 325 horesepower. This engine was also offered in 1969 along with a second HO version. The later 350 HO was rated at 330 hp, and was equipped with the 400 CI large valve heads (# 48's) and the 400 HO camshaft. In 1974 it was used in the GTO and was rated at 200 hp In 1969, Pontiac unveiled its Trans Am model Firebird, and since racing rules required a sub-305 cid engine, Pontiac unveiled the 303 for racing models only, never available to the public. Bore and stroke were x , for 300.7 cu in (4,928 cc). It was rated at 475 hp (354 kW) The 301.6 cu in (4,942 cc) 301 was offered from 1977 to 1981 and also installed in other GM cars during those years. The 301 had a 4.00 in (102 mm) bore and 3.00 in (76 mm) stroke. Based in part on designs for the "short deck" 303 cu in (4,970 cc) engine designed for the 1970 racing season, it had a shorter deck than the big V8, and used thin-wall castings to reduce weight. The crankshafts were also unique in the fact that they featured only two counter weights instead of the usual five, and also featured lightened connecting rod journals. This resulted in a lightweight design weighing less than the Chevrolet small-block V-8. Power output ranged from 135 hp (101 kW) to 170 hp (127 kW). The heads were a new design featuring siamesed intake ports. The short-deck block and different intake ports also required the design of a new intake manifold. The Pontiac 301 EC (Electronic Controls) version offered in 1981 produced 155 hp (116 kW) and 245 lb·ft (332 N·m), although it's rumored that the actual HP was closer to 170 hp (127 kW). The 1980 301 Turbo was rated at 210 hp (157 kW) @ 4400 rpm and 345 lb·ft (468 N·m) @ 2800 rpm. The 1981 301 Turbo gained the electronic controls with an O2 sensor, feedback ECM and E4ME Quadrajet providing a slight reduction in output to 205 hp (153 kW) and 340 lb·ft (461 N·m). Although it is much different than the original 1955-vintage Pontiac V-8 powerplant, the 301 has the distinction of being the last true Pontiac V-8 engine, as Pontiac ceased production of these engines effective April 1, 1981. From 1977 to 1981 there were 4 distinct 301 versions: 301 2-barrel (135 hp), 301 4-barrel (150 hp), 301 4-barrel 'HO' or 'EC' (170 hp), and the 301 Turbo (210 hp). The 301 Turbo was unique in that it had a beefier block than the 1977–79 versions (which carried on in the non turbo versions in 1980 and 1981), a very mild camshaft with .350 in (8.9 mm) lift and 250 degrees gross duration, a 60 psi oil pump to ensure adequate oil to the oil-cooled Garrett TBO-305 Turbocharger, a rolled fillet crankshaft, a fully baffled oil pan, and a specific 800 cfm Quadrajet carburetor. This had extra-rich "DX" secondary metering rods and a remote vacuum source for the primary metering rod enrichment circuit to allow the Power Enrichment Vacuum Regulator (PEVR) to release the primary metering rods to move to the up position (enrichment) anytime during boosted conditions. This was to ensure there was enough fuel to cool the cast offset dished pistons. Boost was wastegate limited to 9 psi (+/- 1 psi). The 301 Turbo package mandated air conditioning, THM350 non-lockup automatic transmission (THM350C lockup in 1981 Trans Ams), and 3.08 rear axle gearing. The 301 Turbo was limited to Trans Am and Formula Firebird production only. Some literature has indicated the 301 Turbo may have found its way into the Chevrolet Camaro Z28. This was a limited run known as the "Yenko Z28". Based on the same short-deck as the 301, the 265.1 cu in (4,344 cc) was offered only in 1980 and 1981, and featured a smaller bore of 3.75 in (95 mm) coupled with the same 3.00 in (76 mm) stroke of the 301 (same bore and stroke used by Chevrolet when the first small block motor was introduced in 1955). It produced 135 hp (101 kW) Introduced in 1961 as a dealer-installed Super Duty option that had dual four-barrels, the 421 cu in (6.90 L) was bored to in (104 mm) and stroked to 4.00 in (102 mm) (421.2 cuin), and also featured larger, 3.25 in (83 mm) main journals. Unlike previous enlargements of this engine, it did not replace the 389. The 421 SD became factory installed in 1962 and in 1963 a street version became available from the factory with a four-barrel or tri-power carburetion. The Super Duty versions of this engine were extensively used in NASCAR stock car racing and drag racing competition. The 421 also marked the end of the option for a forged-steel crankshaft. The Armasteel cast crankshaft was the standard crankshaft of the entire Pontiac V-8 line until 1967. While "Armasteel" was no more than a fancy name for a hardened cast-iron unit, it did refer to the "locking ball" as opposed to the "flaking" type cast-iron found in other engines. In 1967, Pontiac out of concerns the public misunderstood the engineering terms, went to a Nodular cast-iron name crankshaft, which they used until 1975. In 1967 the 421 was bored to 4.120. this gave a displacement of 426.61 CID or a 427. The 428 had the same 4.00" stroke as the 421, and was produced from 1967 to 1969. this engine produced 360 hp and 376 hp in 1967, 375 hp and 390 hp in 1968 and 360 hp, 370 hp and 390 hp in 1969. The crankshaft in the 428 also had a "N" cast on them as opposed to the 421's Armasteel. In 1969, Pontiac also used a revised crankshaft out of a Pearlitic malleable-iron, although it still used the "N" casting letter. This new material had stronger alloys in the iron. All 428 engines were factory install in large cars only. However, there were a few dealers that would install a 428 in a customers GTO or Firebird for higher power levels. It was replaced by the 455 for the 1970 model year. For 1970 through 1976, the 428 bore was expanded .030" to 4.155 inches (105.5 mm), combined with a (107.16 mm) stroke, yielding 456.12. Oldsmobile and Buick also had '455' inch engines about the same time. For the 1970 model year variants of the engine became available on all full-size Pontiacs, the Grand Prix and for the first time as the 455 HO in the Pontiac GTO, as GM lifted its restrictions on the use of engines larger than 400 cubic inches (401 in some Buicks) (455's in some Olds 442's from 1968) in mid-sized cars. The Pontiac V8 design differs from most other manufacturers' designs in that the external dimensions of each engine, from 326 - 455 cu in displacement, is identical (AMCs 290-401 engines identical). The displacement is determined internally with changes to the bore and stroke; therefore, there is no "small-block" Pontiac engine,in fact the same connecting rod length ( 6.625" and journal size remains the same for traditional Pontiac engines of.. ( 287, 316.6, 347, 370, 389, 421, 336, 326, 350, 428, and 455 and the "Indy 4" .) with the exceptions of the later short deck 301 and 265. The 455 was used through 1976. The 455, with its "undersquare" dimensions (long stroke relative to bore), emphasized torque over hp, and though advertised as less powerful than some high-performance iterations of the 400, it had a torque rating of 500 ft/lbs., 55 more ft/lbs. of torque than the 1970 performance 400's. The horsepower ratings of this era were often dubious, with engines rated higher or lower in output for advertising, political, or insurance purposes][. Per Pontiac's sales brochure, the 1970 455, for example, had similar parts to the higher rated Ram Air 366 HP 400 cu. in., including the same 288/302 camshaft (manual trans. 455) yet was only rated at 360 HP. The 1970 Grand Prix with the same spec. 455 was rated at 370 HP. For 1971 Pontiac introduced another High Output, (H.O.), version with standard internal parts, a reinforced block with 4-bolt main bearing caps, and improved cylinder-head design with 1/8 inch taller intake-ports and special round exhaust-ports for better breathing, making some 335 hp (250 kW)/224 kW (310 hp in the more accurate SAE Net system), but this was an extremely rare engine (it was standard in the Firebird Trans Am). In 1973, a further refined and even stronger version, the Super Duty (SD) engine was introduced with "only" 310 hp (231 kW)/231 kW (SAE Net) using a similar camshaft specifications to the Ram Air IV 400. The 455 SD used round-port cylinder-heads similar to those used on the 1971 and 1972 455 HO, with specific "LS2" intake and cast-iron exhaust header-manifolds. Still, it was the strongest American engine offered that year. Its power was achieved through bending of EPA emissions-testing procedures, which led engineers to de-tune the engine to 290 hp (220 kW) via a camshaft change to the same profile used in the early RA III 400 engines for mid-1973 and 1974, after which point it was discontinued. While an evolution of the RA IV and H.O. engine designs, the 455 SD was a much improved engine. In addition to the more refined cylinder heads, block casting reinforcements in the lifter galley and main bearing oil pan rail area along with the addition of forged connecting rods with larger -inch-diameter (11 mm) bolts, the SD was made with a provision for dry sump oiling from the factory. This truly was a racing engine, detuned for use in passenger cars. While not officially called the Ram Air I when it was issued, it was indeed the first in a series of Ram Air V8 engines from Pontiac. This engine was installed in the 1967 GTO/Firebird as the top of the line option and at 360 hp (270 kW) (underrated),][ it was the most advanced 400 in the line. This carried the "744" 301/313 camshaft, as opposed to the "HO" cam which had less duration and overlap. It also had (along with the HO engine) the famous cast-iron "headers" which were much better at reducing backpressure than the regular manifolds. The cast "997" heads had taller valve spring heights than the standard D-port heads, making these heads unique. In 1968, Pontiac manufactured the Ram Air II which was a 400 cubic inch motor. In GTO trim the factory rated the car at 366 HP/445 Tq and 'only' 340Hp/430 Tq in the Firebird despite the fact that the engines were identical (save for a small throttle restrictor tab on the Firebird). The Ram Air II was the first engine that incorporated Pontiac's legendary round-port head design in a production vehicle, however the intake port was the same as other D-port heads, leaving a head which exhaust port could nearly match the intake at high valve lifts. The Ram Air II also incorporated the first computer-designed camshaft. This camshaft sported a wild 308-/320-degree duration with 0.470-inch (11.9 mm) lift. This same camshaft was also used in Pontiac's 1969–1970 RA IV production cars. The Ram Air II, when outfitted in the (relatively) lightweight 1968 Firebird, has produced some of the fastest 1/4 mile times of the muscle car era. In recent years, under the pure stock drags racing format, Ram Air II Firebirds (running on bias ply tires) have consistently posted ET's in the low to mid 12-second range. No production Pontiac before or since has run times lower. Without question, the RA II was one of Pontiac's most impressive factory offerings. The Ram Air III was the base engine in the Judge series of the GTO in 1969 and 1970. It also was the base engine in the Firebird Trans Am of 1969 and 1970. It basically was a 67-8 H.O version with a "Ram Air" air cleaner assembly. It utilized the 288/302 duration camshaft (auto trans.) and used the "744" cam (301-313) in the earlier manual trans versions, later downgraded to the "068" version. It was rated at 366 bhp in the GTO version. The Ram Air III had used a similar block to the Ram Air IV in that it was drilled for 4-bolt mains but used a cast crank and cast rods, and 2-bolt mains in 1969. In 1970 the casting number #9799914 Ram air III 4-bolt main block, also used the 4-bolt main caps on Ram Air applications. This engine also had the distinction of using the cast-iron "headers" made famous on the original HO engine in 1967. The Ram Air IV replaced the Ram Air II in 1969. All 1968–69 #9792506 Ram Air 400 blocks have 4-bolt caps. The Ram Air IV used the RA II's camshaft but lift in the RA IV was increased to .520 thanks to the use of 1.65 ratio rocker arms (vs 1.50). The RA IV, like the RA II that preceded it, used round-port cylinder-heads. The RA IV also used a lightweight aluminum intake-manifold that produced a weight savings of 10-15 lb. From 1969 though 1970, the RA IV was available in both A-Body (GTO/Judge) and F-body (Firebird/Trans Am) form. While 1969–70 A-body RA IV production was low (1517) only 102 RA IV Firebirds and 55 Trans Ams were built in 1969. RA IV Trans Am production 'jumped' to 88 units built in 1970. Today, any high-compression round-port Pontiac (i.e. RA II or RA IV) is a highly sought after car due to its low production and superior performance on the street and at the strip. After RA IV production ended, Pontiac continued using its round-port cylinder-head design in 1971. However, by this time compression had dramatically dropped off, marking the beginning of the end of the muscle car era. (303, 366, 400, 428) In 1969 Pontiac created several versions of their "tunnel-port" engine: a special short-deck version of the V8 for Trans Am racing and a 400 standard deck version. The factory also experimented with 366 and 428 cu in versions. The cylinder-head was patterned after the highly successful Ford 427 tunnel-port head. So large were the intake ports that the pushrods ran through the center of the ports via pressed-in tubes. 303 - The revised engine had shorter connecting rods, smaller 2.5 in (64 mm) journals, special "tunnel-port" heads, and a solid-lifter version of the 400's Ram Air IV camshaft. It shared the 4.125 in (104.8 mm) bore of the 400, but with a 2.84 in (72 mm) stroke for a displacement of 303 cu in (4.97 L). The short-deck engine weighed about 40 pounds (18 kg) less than the 400, and had an 8000 rpm redline. The 303 program was promising, with race-ready engines producing 475-525 hp (354.4-391.7 kW) and slated for advertised ratings of 355 hp (265 kW) in the Pontiac Firebird and 375 hp (280 kW) for the Pontiac GTO. Concerns about emissions, the response of the automobile safety lobby, and the warranty implications of a high-revving street engine led to its cancellation. SCCA Trans-Am series General Competition Rules required an engine to be a "Production" item, and required a production of no less than 250 units. The total number of Ram Air V 303 engines produced is not known, estimates range from the SCCA required 250 units, up to 500 units, with rumors of a handful of Ram Air V 303's making their way into the Pontiac Trans-Am production line. These engines are extremely rare and parts not readily available. Available only in the 1973 and 1974 Formula Firebird and Firebird Trans AM, the SD-455 consisted of a strengthened cylinder block that included 4-bolt main bearings and additional material in various locations for improved strength. Original plans called for a forged crankshaft, although actual production SD455s received nodular-iron crankshafts with minor enhancements. Forged rods and forged-aluminum pistons were specified, as were unique high-flow cylinder-heads. A camshaft with 301/313 degrees of advertised duration, 0.407 inch net valve lift, and 76 degrees of valve overlap was specified for actual production engines in lieu of the significantly more aggressive RAM AIR IV style cam that had originally been planned for the engine (initially rated at 310 hp (230 kW) with that cam), but ultimately proved incapable of meeting the tightening emissions standards of the era. The very modest cam, combined with a low-compression ratio of 8.4 (advertised) and 7.9:1 actual resulted in 290 SAE NET HP. The initial press cars that were given to the various enthusiast magazines (e.g. HOT ROD and CAR AND DRIVER) were fitted with the RAM AIR IV style cam and functional hood scoops - a fact that has been confirmed by several Pontiac sources. Actual production test cars ran considerably slower and yielded 1/4 miles times in the 14.5 second/98 MPH range in showroom tune - results that are quite consistent for a car with a curb weight of 3,850 pounds and the rated 290 SAE NET HP figure that some sources suggest was "under-rated." Various Pontiac sources have emphatically stated that NO 310 hp (230 kW) versions of the SD455 were installed in regular production cars. 1975 Factory Service Manual lists the SD455, but the SD455 did not meet emissions for the 1975 model year and was canceled. While not a V8, the SD4 (Super Duty 4-cylinder) was the last in a line of high-performance Pontiac engines. A 2.7L 232 hp (173 kW) SD4 engine powered the 1984 Indy Fiero Pace Car to over 138 mph (222 km/h) during the race. The SD4 was never available in a production vehicle, however Pontiac's Performance Parts counter had all the SD4 parts available and one could garner a 2.7L 272 hp (203 kW) version and a 3.2L 330 hp (250 kW) version. All 2000 Indy Fiero replicas came with the 2.5L 92 hp (69 kW) Iron Duke engine.][ In 1968, there was also a 350 "HO" which had an increased power with the addition of higher compression #18 heads (#17 and #46 were the most common 2-barrel heads), a four-barrel carburetor and matching intake that was also used on the 400 and 428 engines. There was also the addition of dual exhaust, and in the case of a stick shift car, a slightly more aggressive cam. In 1969 the 350 HO was upgraded again with the addition of the 400 HO cam, commonly referred to by Pontiac hobbyists as the 068 cam. Also added was the #48 casting number heads with a 68 cc chamber for higher compression, along with larger 2.11" and 1.77" valves. Free-flowing exhaust manifolds from the 400 RamAir were used late in the model year. This was underrated at 330 hp. Many of GM's other divisions' 350's like Chevrolet, Buick and Oldsmobile and even the base SS396 were handily beaten by this little 350 "High Output" (HO) Pontiac. This may be today one of the most overlooked high-performance engines of the era,][ as it was overlooked by the buyers of larger 400 engines available in the day. In 1977 the 400 cubic inch T/A 6.6, (RPO code W72) was created to fulfill the vacuum of the lackluster 76 455 HO, with improved flow cyl "6X" casting heads borrowed from the 350 yielding higher compression, specific camshaft and 3.23 gearing it made 200 hp (150 kW). In 1978 a new dual muffler exhaust was added making 220 hp (160 kW), and provided the Trans AM and Formula Firebird with a breath of new life after some dismal performance years. The 4-speed manual transmission was also available behind the 400 T/A 6.6 and the 301 HO. The 400 T/A 6.6 did not live long however, emission standards and fuel economy restrictions for 1980 model year doomed the powerplant. The 301 Turbo replaced the 400 T/A 6.6 in 1980, disappointing potential customers who were just getting excited about performance returning to Pontiac. The 400 T/A 6.6 Trans AM was the last of the performance cars available with the manual transmission, also yet another disappointment to potential customers. No hood scoop moniker denoted the 220 hp 400 HO except the standard "T/A 6.6". The 185 hp (138 kW) 403 Oldsmobile powered cars had "6.6L Litre". Historically the "T/A" prefix on the hoodscoop noted that it was a Pontiac sourced engine, and those ending in Litre were non Pontiac, with the exception of the 1976 50th Anniversary Pontiac Trans AM model and the overhead-cam 6-cylinder, used rarely, but the firebird in 67 bore this badge. 1977 also had a T/A 6.6 option that was rated at 200 hp (150 kW). This engine was first offered in 1967 as the third engine in the GTO and Firebird line (after the 400 2-barrel and the base 400)....It produced 360 bhp (268 kW; 365 PS), and had the cast iron headers. The camshaft was the HO cam with 288/301 duration. It was the top of the line engine until the 400 Ram Air was introduced later in the year. This engine was offered as an option in 1967 thru 1970. First offered as an option in 1963, the 421 HO came in a 4-barrel engine of 320 hp and with a tri power engines of 353 hp and a H-0 version of 370 hp. Pontiac offered this to the public as a streetable version of the 421 SD. The engine came with 543797 (4-barrel) and 9770716 heads for the tripower and special exhaust manifolds and a 7H cam with 292deg. intake duration and later 1964 L with 288deg intake essentially the same as the 068 cam. By 1966 the H-0 version would be 376 hp.
The 455 HO designation made its debut in 1970;
Rated at 360 (or 370 horsepower depending on which vehicle it was installed into) & 500 ft/lbs of torque, it differed from the regular full sized car 455 by large valve heads with smaller combustion chambers, and a larger camshaft.
The 1970 '455 HO' was a conventional "D" port engine - to simplfy things, it was a late model year offering which was truly a 'High Output' version of the 455 offered from the onset of the model year in all Pontiacs full sized cars. 1971
The "455 HO" moniker took on a whole new meaning with the introduction of the 1971 model year;
Intended as a low compression progression from the previous years Ram Air IV engine, all 1971 455 HO engines used a heavy duty 4 bolt main block, round port cylinder heads (casting #197; with 8.4: compression), "Ram Air" style exhaust manifolds, and a two-part aluminum intake manifold.
The 1971 Pontiac 455 HO was Pontiac's first engine to receive a special 800cfm Rochester Quadra-jet carburetor with specific jetting.
The 1971 455 HO was rated at 335 hp @ 4,800rpm & 480 ft/lbs of torque @ 3,200rpm (gross).
The 1971 455 HO was available in the Firebird (Formula and Trans Am), and the GTO. 1972
The 455 HO moniker was again carried over, this time as a near exact repeat of the 1971 offering, the only changes were the carburetors (they used a conventional 750cfm unit this year), and the head castings (casting #7F6).
According to GM mandates horsepower was now rated in net figures as opposed to gross, so on paper the 1972 455 HO appeared to have a significant drop in power, but in fact it was very much the same engine, and performance figures reveal this to be true.
The 1972 455 HO was rated at 300 hp @ 4,000rpm & 415 ft/lbs of torque @ 3,200rpm.
The 1972 455 HO was available in the Firebird (Formula and Trans Am), and the GTO. 1975
After the 1974 SD455 was dropped the 1975 Firebird's top performance engine was an 'L78' Pontiac 400cid.
Pontiac still offered the regular 455 (RPO L75) in its full sized cars, and after some public outcry a "455 HO" package was offered for the Firebird's top of the line Trans Am model.
The 1975 455 HO was not simply an engine, but instead a package, this package consisted of: The 1975 455 'L75' was rated for 200 hp @ 3,500rpm (net).
The 455 HO package was only available to late model year Pontiac Firebird Trans Am's.
The 1975 455 HO package received some negative press/reviews as some buyers expected to see a return of the 1971-1972 engine. 1976
The 1975 late model year "455 HO" package was carried forward and offered again on the 1976 Trans Am - but for this year the "HO" was dropped as a result of the negative press/reviews from the model year prior.
Ordering the 'L75' 455 in the Pontiac Firebird Trans Am included the same packaged items as the previous model year, with the sole exception that the 'shaker' hood scoop call out now simply read "455".
Model year 1976 was the last year that Pontiac produced the 455cid engine, and the final year of any 455 HO engine or package. While not "high-output" fashion by the 1960s and 1970s standards and no "HO" moniker on the shaker hood scoop, the 301 did end up with a HO "performance" version, yielding 170 hp (130 kW) with only 4.9L (302 CID) for the 1980–1981 model years. The 301 HO was the base Trans AM engine in 1980 and 1981. The modifications over the standard 301 4-barrel were designated the 301 Turbo "301T" block. This included the ESC (Electronic Spark Control) distributor and controller borrowed from the 301 Turbo, which allowed for higher timing without the penalty of engine damaging pinging or preignition. A large 4" ram air duct to the air cleaner, specific carburetor calibration for the 301 HO, and cam similar in grind to the 220 hp 400 from the 1978–1979 model year were also included. Unfortunately, there were no improvements in the casting number "01" small-valve high-velocity heads, which would have yielded greater improvements in power. This was a project started by Pontiac with the end goal of building a Pontiac 427 Hemi. Pontiac asked Mopar (Chrysler, Dodge, Plymouth) for help in designing it and making it work. Surprisingly, Mopar actually agreed and sent over several of the engineers that designed both the 392 and 426 Hemi. The goal of making a Pontiac Hemi succeeded but was never produced. Features: Thin Wall, Cast Aluminum Block 4.257 Bore x 3.75" stroke (3.0" Mains) Forged Steel 6.625" rods (Ram Air V style) 12:1 compression Mechanical Port Fuel Injection Large Valve Heads: 2.40" Intake Valve 2.00" Exhaust Valve Small Valve High Rpm 2.19" Intake Valve 2.00" Exhaust Valve Splayed Main Caps, head bolts tie into main caps. Head bolts do not pull on the cylinder wall causing distortion. Cam Drive: Fiberglass Belt Max RPM (High RPM Engine): >8000 rpm Engine Weight: Estimated 550 lb (249 kg) complete Dimensions: Width: 32" Length: 32" Height: 24.6" Power: estimated 640 hp (480 kW) @ 7500 rpm Originally made in 1966 for the Pontiac GTO. Perhaps the most unusual variation of the durable Pontiac V8 was not a V8 at all, but an inline four. Nicknamed the "INDY 4", created for the 1961 Pontiac Tempest, it was essentially the right bank of the 389, sharing most of its tooling and many of its parts (more than 120 were identical). The bore and stroke of in (103.2 mm) and in (95.2 mm) were the same, giving a displacement of 195.5 cu in (3.204 L). This degree of commonality enabled it to be produced on the same lines as the V8, allowing substantial cost savings. A drawback was that the 195 weighed much more than a purpose-designed engine: at about 540 pounds (240 kg), it was not substantially lighter than the 389. The 195 produced 110 hp (82 kW) (gross) at 3800 rpm and 190 lb·ft (260 N·m) at 2000 rpm with a single-barrel carburetor, or 155 hp (116 kW) @ 4800 and 215 lb·ft (292 N·m) @ 2800 rpm with the optional four-barrel carburetor. For 1962 a "power pack" option increased rated power to 166 hp (124 kW). The Achilles heel of the 195 was engine shake. An inline four-cylinder engine produces unbalanced "couple," shaking in the vertical plane, and modern engineers consider the installation of twin counter-rotating balance shafts necessary for engines much larger than 122 cui (2.0 L). The V8-based design of the 195 had no such balance shafts, and costs prohibited adding them. The 195 was instead cushioned by flexible rubber engine mounts designed to isolate the engine from the rest of the car, and its forces were further dampened by the Tempest's unusual driveshaft. However, if the engine was out of tune or if a spark plug became fouled, the shaking overwhelmed the dampening of the mounts. A special high-strength timing chain was developed especially for the Tempest 4, since a standard chain would stretch and break rather easily from the inherent vibration in this engine design. The timing chain in the 195 was the same as the 389 initially; the upgraded Tempest chain also works on the V8 engines as a high strength upgrade. As an aside, former Pontiac engineer Malcolm McKellar joked in an interview with Collectible Automobile magazine that he and his fellow engineers sometimes called the four-cylinder Tempest "a traveling fatigue machine." The 195 was dropped after the 1963 model year.
Pickup trucks

A pickup truck, often simply referred to as a pickup or pick-up, is a light motor vehicle with an open-top, rear cargo area (bed).

In North America, the term pickup is used for light trucks with a lighter duty chassis and factory built, integrated bed, as well as for coupé utility vehicles, often based on a personal car chassis, but also often on a special dedicated chassis for such use.

Vortec is a trademarked name for a line of piston engines for General Motors trucks. The name first appeared in 1988 on a 4.3 L V6 that used "vortex technology" to create a vortex inside the combustion chamber, creating a better air/fuel mix. Now it is used on a wide range of different engines. Modern Vortec engines are named for their approximate displacement in milliliters.

The Vortec 2200 (RPO codes L43 and LN2) is an OHV straight-4 truck engine. It is entirely different from the Iron Duke having been the last North American iteration of the GM 122 engine. The 2200 uses an iron block and aluminum 2-valve pushrod cylinder head. Output is 120 hp (89 kW) and 140 lb·ft (190 N·m). Displacement is 2,189 cc (2.189 L; 133.6 cu in) with an 89 mm (3.5 in) bore and 88.00 mm (3.465 in) stroke. 2200s were built in Tonawanda, New York.

Hybrid electric vehicles

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance. There are a variety of HEV types, and the degree to which they function as EVs varies as well. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car, although hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) and buses also exist.

Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative braking, which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the battery, rather than wasting it as heat energy as conventional brakes do. Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator), to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system. A hybrid-electric produces less emissions from its ICE than a comparably sized gasoline car, since an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a comparably sized pure gasoline-burning vehicle (natural gas and propane fuels produce lower emissions) and if not used to directly drive the car, can be geared to run at maximum efficiency, further improving fuel economy.

V8 engine

A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft.

In its simplest form, it is basically two straight-4 engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. As a result, since the 1920s most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine which is smoother than a V6, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 engine. Most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs.

Station wagons

A station wagon, also called an estate car and an estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.

The American Heritage Dictionary defines a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of folding or removable seats behind the driver and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be loaded through a tailgate."

Chevrolet C/K

The C/K is the name for Chevrolet and GMC's full-size pickup truck line from 1960 until 1999 in the United States, from 1965 to 1999 in Canada, from 1964 through 2001 in Brazil, from 1975 to 1982 in Chile, and from 1960 to 2005 in South Korea. The first Chevrolet pickup truck appeared in 1924, though in-house designs did not appear until 1930. "C" indicated two-wheel drive and "K" indicated four-wheel drive. The aging C/K light-duty pickup truck was replaced with the Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra names in 1999 in the US and Canada, and 2001 in Brazil; the Chevrolet Silverado HD and GMC Sierra HD heavy-duty pickup trucks followed. Until this time the names Silverado and Sierra were used to identify the trim level of the C/K trucks.

For the first Chevrolet C Series, made from 1911 to 1913, see Chevrolet Series C Classic Six, (the first Chevy).

Chevrolet Tahoe

The Chevrolet Tahoe (and very similar GMC Yukon) are full-size SUVs from General Motors. Chevrolet and GMC sold two different-sized SUVs under their Blazer/Jimmy model names through the early 1990s. This situation changed when GMC rebadged the full-size Jimmy as the Yukon in 1992. Chevrolet waited until 1995 to rebadge the redesigned mid-size S-10 Blazer as the Blazer, renaming the full-size Blazer as the Tahoe. The Tahoe and Yukon gained a new 4-door model slotting in size between the 2-door models and the longer wheelbase and higher passenger capacity Chevrolet Suburban and newly named Yukon XL.

The Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon currently serve as a part of General Motors' full-size SUV family. Lengthened wheelbase models are available for both as the Suburban for Chevrolet and Yukon XL for GMC. A luxury Denali model joined the Yukon lineup in 1998. As of 2002, a Denali version of the Yukon XL has also been available as the Yukon XL Denali. The Cadillac Escalade is closely related to the Denali models of the Yukon.

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