The Hoyle State: A Primordial Nucleus behind the Elements of Life
The theoretical astrophysicist Fred Hoyle reasoned that his own existence meant that an unknown, exotic state of the carbon atom with about 7.65 million electron volts ... carbons relax into their stable, ground-state configuration, giving off the extra ...
Can the electron be cut in half?
In fact, in the 103 years since its discovery, there has been no other evidence whatsoever that the electron is divisible. It is the modern incarnation of Democritus's "uncuttable" atom ... bagged the lowest energy state-the ground state-an interloper ...
A Simple Derivation Of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
The following image illustrates the fuzzy position of the electron relative to the nucleus (a proton) in the ground state ... of the atom thus requires that the product ΔrΔp has a positive lower limit, as dictated by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
In every ionic bond, one atom is characterized by a small ionization ... These atoms start our story as neutral, ground-state atoms with the electron configurations and Lewis electron dot diagrams shown below. From the point of electron transfer to smaller ...
Observing impact of subtle changes in electron distribution of crystal on its atomic structure on ultrashort time scales
Credit: Thorsten Naeser When a crystal is hit by an intense ultrashort light pulse, its atomic ... electron distribution. In consequence, the equilibrium position of the lattice was shifted even further from the initial position of the ground state.