Soft matter is a subfield of condensed matter comprising a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by thermal stresses or thermal fluctuations. They include liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, granular materials, and a number of biological materials. These materials share an important common feature in that predominant physical behaviors occur at an energy scale comparable with room temperature thermal energy. At these temperatures, quantum aspects are generally unimportant. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who has been called the "founding father of soft matter," received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1991 for discovering that the order parameter from simple thermodynamic systems can be applied to the more complex cases found in soft matter, in particular, to the behaviors of liquid crystals and polymers.
The Cola Wars are a campaign of mutually-targeted television advertisements and marketing campaigns since the 1980s between soft drink manufacturers The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo.
As of March 2011[update], Pepsi was in third place behind Coca-Cola and Diet Coke. In 2010, Diet Coke outsold Pepsi; Coca-Cola sold 1.6 billion cases of its regular soda and 927 million cases of its diet soda, while Pepsi sold only 892 million cases.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, chiefly caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental or physical stimulation. They may or may not be carbonated, and generally contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants, and many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts and amino acids. They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels. There are many brands and varieties of energy drinks.
Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Soft drinks such as cola, may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Four Loko, contain caffeine and other stimulants and are marketed as energy drinks, although such drinks are banned in some American states.
A non-alcoholic beverage (also known as a virgin drink) is defined in the U.S. as a beverage that contains less than 0.5% alcohol by volume. Non-alcoholic versions of some alcoholic beverages, such as non-alcoholic beer ("near beer") and cocktails ("mocktails"), are widely available where alcoholic beverages are sold.
Sodas, juices and sparkling cider contain no alcohol. However, non-alcoholic beer and non-alcoholic wine undergo an alcohol-removal process that may leave a small amount of alcohol. Because of this, some states have legal restrictions on non-alcoholic beer and wine.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.
Sports drinks can be split into three major types: