Question:

What is the difference between a single circulatory system and a double circulatory system?

Answer:

The double circulatory system of blood flow refers to the separate systems of pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation in amphibians, birds and mammals (including humans.) In contrast, fish have a single circulation system because they do not have lungs. All animals with lungs have a double circulatory system.

More Info:

The circulatory system is an organ system that permits blood and lymph circulation to transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.

This system is often seen as strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system to be composed collectively of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart'-'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.

Anatomy Biology Angiology

The circulatory system is an organ system that permits blood and lymph circulation to transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.

This system is often seen as strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system to be composed collectively of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart'-'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.

In a first order circulatory circuit, blood is pumped to the lungs, thus acquiring oxygen while simultaneously releasing carbon dioxide. Fully oxygenated blood then enters the second order circuit, going to the brain and body. The second order systemic output blood is selectively deoxygenated by the needs of the peripheral organs, returning once again to the heart.It is referred to as a closed circulatory system because blood usually travells in the body through blood vessels.

The double circulatory system of blood flow references two distinct and separate systems. This distinction is shared by most vertebrates to varying degrees to include amphibians, birds and mammals (including humans.) In contrast, fish have a single circulation system because they lack lungs. Most animals living above the water require a double circulatory system to allow the added benefit of direct oxygenation from a developed pulmonary circuit. Embryology of the human circulatory system is an advanced study of the double circulatory system as the distinction between the right and left portions of the heart is founded.

Organs Lung

Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This physiologic theory of circulation was first described by Amato Lusitano (João Rodrigues from Castelo Branco, 1511-1568), a Portuguese doctor working in Italy, in his work composed by seven volumes Curationum Medicinalium Centuriæ Septem 1st. edition in 1551. He was the first to describe venous valves. In 1628 William Harvey launches his De motu cordis.

This term is opposed and contrasted to the term pulmonary circulation first proposed by Ibn al-Nafis.

Blood Amphibian

Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood back to the heart. The term pulmonary circulation is readily paired and contrasted with the systemic circulation. A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung.

Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.

Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

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