The Alliance-Union universe is a fictional universe created by science fiction and fantasy author C. J. Cherryh. It is the setting for an epic future history series extending from the 21st century out into the far future.
To date, the corpus of the Alliance-Union universe consists of 27 science fiction novels along with a series of seven short story anthologies edited by Cherryh and a few other miscellaneous works. It encompasses both books for which Cherryh won the Hugo Award for Best Novel, Downbelow Station and Cyteen, and also incorporates various other series books such as the Faded Sun trilogy, the Chanur novels, the four Morgaine books, and the Merovingen Nights shared universe series.
Figure skating jumps are an element of three competitive figure skating disciplines – men's singles, ladies' singles, and pair skating but not ice dancing. Different jumps are identified by the take-off edge and the number of revolutions completed. There are six kinds of jumps currently counted as jump elements in ISU regulations. Three are edge jumps – the Salchow, loop, and Axel – and three are toe jumps which use the toe picks on the front of the blade – the toe loop, flip, and Lutz. The Axel is the most difficult due to an extra half rotation.
Each jump receives a score according to its base value and grade of execution (GOE). The GOE ranges from +3 to -3 and is weighted according to the jump's base value. Quality of execution, technique, height, speed, flow and ice coverage are considered by the judges. An under-rotated jump (indicated by < ) is "missing rotation of more than ¼, but less than ½ revolution" and receives 70% of the base value. A downgraded jump (indicated by <<) is "missing rotation of ½ revolution or more". A triple which is downgraded is treated as a double, while a downgraded double is treated as a single jump. The ISU defines a fall as a loss of control with the result that the majority of the skater's body weight is not on the blade but supported by hands, knees, or buttocks.