Question:

What is the difference between a compressional wave and a transverse wave?

Answer:

Longitudinal waves are waves that have the same direction of oscillation or vibration along their direction of travel, which means that the oscillation of the medium (particle) is in the same direction or opposite direction as the motion of the wave. Transverse waves are those in which the wave components oscillate in a perpendicular direction to that of the wave motion.

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Longitudinal waves, also known as "l-waves", are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of travel of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves are also called compressional waves or compression waves, because they produce compression and rarefaction when traveling through a medium. The other main type of wave is the transverse wave, in which the displacements of the medium are at right angles to the direction of propagation. Transverse mechanical waves are also called "t-waves" or "shear waves".

Waves Physics Wave mechanics Calculus

Longitudinal waves, also known as "l-waves", are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of travel of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves are also called compressional waves or compression waves, because they produce compression and rarefaction when traveling through a medium. The other main type of wave is the transverse wave, in which the displacements of the medium are at right angles to the direction of propagation. Transverse mechanical waves are also called "t-waves" or "shear waves".

Wave

A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer. If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction, its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the y–z plane. Light is an example of a transverse wave. For transverse waves in matter the displacement of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. A ripple in a pond and a wave on a string are easily visualized as transverse waves.

In elastodynamics, Love waves, named after A. E. H. Love, are horizontally polarized surface wave. In fact the Love wave is a result of the interferation of many shear waves (SH waves) guided by an elastic layer, which is "welded" to an elastic half space on one side while bordering a vacuum on the other side. In seismology, Love waves (also known as Q waves (Quer: German for lateral)) are surface seismic waves that cause horizontal shifting of the Earth during an earthquake. A. E. H. Love predicted the existence of Love waves mathematically in 1911; the name comes from him (Chapter 11 from Love's book "Some problems of geodynamics", first published in 1911). They form a distinct class, different from other types of seismic waves, such as P-waves and S-waves (both body waves), or Rayleigh waves (another type of surface wave). Love waves travel with a slower velocity than P- or S- waves, but faster than Rayleigh waves. These waves are observed only when there is a low velocity layer overlying a high velocity layer/ sub layers.

In fluid dynamics, wind waves or, more precisely, wind-generated waves are surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals or even on small puddles and ponds. They usually result from the wind blowing over a vast enough stretch of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves range in size from small ripples to huge waves over 30 m high.

When directly generated and affected by local winds, a wind wave system is called a wind sea. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swells. More generally, a swell consists of wind-generated waves that are not—or are hardly—affected by the local wind at that time. They have been generated elsewhere or some time ago. Wind waves in the ocean are called ocean surface waves.

Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that imparts low-frequency acoustic energy. Many other natural and anthropogenic sources create low amplitude waves commonly referred to as ambient vibrations. Seismic waves are studied by geophysicists called seismologists. Seismic wave fields are recorded by a seismometer, hydrophone (in water), or accelerometer.

The propagation velocity of the waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium. Velocity tends to increase with depth, and ranges from approximately 2 to 8 km/s in the Earth's crust up to 13 km/s in the deep mantle.

S-wave

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks.

Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.

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