Atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat to work transformations (and the reverse) in the earth’s atmospheric system in relation to weather or climate. Following the fundamental laws of classical thermodynamics, atmospheric thermodynamics studies such phenomena as properties of moist air, formation of clouds, atmospheric convection, boundary layer meteorology, and vertical stabilities in the atmosphere. Atmospheric thermodynamic diagrams are used as tools in the forecasting of storm development. Atmospheric thermodynamics forms a basis for cloud microphysics and convection parameterizations in numerical weather models, and is used in many climate considerations, including convective-equilibrium climate models.
Atmospheric thermodynamics focuses on water and its transformations. Areas of study include the law of energy conservation, the ideal gas law, specific heat capacities, adiabatic processes (in which entropy is conserved), and moist adiabatic processes. Most of tropospheric gases are treated as ideal gases and water vapor is considered as one of the most important trace components of air.
A phase transition is the transformation of thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another.
A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties.
Vapor compression desalination refers to a distillation process where the evaporation of sea or saline water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. Since compression of the vapor increases both the pressure and temperature of the vapor, it is possible to use the latent heat rejected during condensation to generate additional vapor. The effect of compressing water vapor can be done by two methods.
The first method utilizes an ejector system motivated by steam at manometric pressure from an external source in order to recycle vapor from the desalination process. The form is designated Ejecto or Thermo Compression.
A rotary evaporator (or rotavap/rotovap) is a device used in chemical laboratories for the efficient and gentle removal of solvents from samples by evaporation. When referenced in the chemistry research literature, description of the use of this technique and equipment may include the phrase "rotary evaporator", though use is often rather signaled by other language (e.g., "the sample was evaporated under reduced pressure").
Rotary evaporators are also used in molecular cooking for the preparation of distillates and extracts.
Chemical engineering is a branch of chemistry and engineering that applies the physical sciences (e.g., chemistry and physics) and/or life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to production, transformation, transportation and proper usage of molecules, chemicals, materials and energy. Modern chemical engineers are concerned with processes that convert raw-materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition, they are also concerned with pioneering valuable materials and related techniques – which are often essential to related fields such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and biomedical engineering. Within chemical engineering, two broad subgroups include design, manufacture, and operation of plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes ("chemical process engineers") and development of new or adapted substances for products ranging from foods and beverages to cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products ("chemical product engineers").