Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while intoxicated (DWI), drunk(en) driving, drink driving, drunk driving, operating under the influence, drinking and driving, or impaired driving is the crime of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit ("Blood Alcohol Content", or "BAC"). Similar regulations cover driving or operating certain types of machinery while affected by drinking alcohol or taking other drugs, including, but not limited to prescription drugs. This is a criminal offense in most nations. Convictions do not necessarily involve actual driving of the vehicle.
In most jurisdictions, a quantitative measurement such as a blood alcohol content (BAC) in excess of a specific threshold level, such as 0.05% or 0.08%, defines the offense with no need to prove impairment or intoxication. In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at a higher BAC level, such as 0.12%. In most countries, anyone who is convicted of injuring or killing someone while under the influence of alcohol or drugs can be heavily fined, as in France, in addition to being given a lengthy prison sentence. Many employers or occupations have their own rules and BAC limits; for example, the United States Federal Railroad Administration has a 0.04% limit for train crew.[dead link] Certain large corporations have their own rules; for example, Union Pacific Railroad has their own BAC limit of 0.02% that, if violated during a random test or a for-cause test — for example, after a traffic accident — can result in termination of employment with no chance of future re-hire. Some jurisdictions have multiple levels of BAC for different categories of drivers; for example, the state of California has a general 0.08% BAC limit, a lower limit of 0.04% for commercial operators, and a limit of 0.01% for drivers who are under 21 or on probation for previous DUI offenses.
Household chemicals are non-food chemicals that are commonly found and used in and around the average household. They are a type of consumer goods, designed particularly to assist cleaning, pest control and general hygiene purposes.
Food additives generally do not fall under this category, unless they have a use other than for human consumption. Cosmetics products can partially be counted in, because even though they are not for direct application to parts of the human body, they may contain artificial additives that have nothing to do with their dedicated purpose (e.g. preservatives and fragrances in hair spray). Additives in general (e.g. stabilizers and coloring found in washing powder and dishwasher detergents) make the classification of household chemicals more complex, especially in terms of health - some of these chemicals are irritants or potent allergens - and ecological effects.
Alcohol abuse, as described in the DSM-IV, is a psychiatric diagnosis describing the recurring use of alcoholic beverages despite its negative consequences. Alcohol abuse is sometimes referred to by the less specific term alcoholism. However, many definitions of alcoholism exist, and only some are compatible with alcohol abuse. There are two types of alcoholics: those who have anti social and pleasure-seeking tendencies, and those who are anxiety-ridden- people who are able to go without drinking for long periods of time but are unable to control themselves once they start. Binge drinking is another form of alcohol abuse. According to research done through international surveys, the heaviest drinkers happen to be the United Kingdom's adolescent generation.
When differentiating between alcohol abuse and alcoholism, one should remember that alcohol abuse is when the abuser has faced critical consequences for their actions, recently. Where an alcoholic has experienced a sense of withdrawal in the same time period.
Drinking culture refers to the customs and practices associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Although alcoholic beverages and social attitudes toward drinking vary around the world, nearly every civilization has independently discovered the processes of brewing beer, fermenting wine, and distilling spirits.
Alcohol and its effects have been present in societies throughout history. Drinking is documented in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, in the Qur'an, in art history, in Greek literature as old as Homer, and in Confucius’s Analects.
Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, influence and sale of ethanol (ethyl alcohol, EtOH) or alcoholic beverages that contains ethanol.
Some countries forbid alcoholic beverages, or have forbidden them in the past. People trying to get around prohibition turn to smuggling of alcohol - known as bootlegging or rum-running - or make moonshine, a distilled beverage in an unlicensed still.
Transport law (or transportation law) is the area of law dealing with transport. The laws can apply very broadly at a transport system level or more narrowly to transport things or activities within that system such as vehicles, things and behaviours. Transport law is generally found in two main areas —
Legislation typically consists of statutes known as Acts and delegated legislation like regulations, orders or notices. Case law consists of judgments, findings and rulings handed down by courts.
Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
Blood alcohol content is usually expressed as a percentage of alcohol (generally in the sense of ethanol) in the blood. For instance, a BAC of 0.10 means that 0.10% (one tenth of one percent or one permille) of a person's blood, by volume (usually, but in some countries by mass), is alcohol.
An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethanol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes for taxation and regulation of production: beers, wines, and spirits (distilled beverages). They are legally consumed in most countries around the world. More than 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. Beer is the third most popular drink in the world, after water and tea.
Alcoholic beverages have been consumed by humans since the Neolithic era; the earliest evidence of alcohol was discovered in Jiahu, dating from 7000–6600 BC. The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.
Alcohol intoxication (also known as drunkenness or inebriation) is a physiological state induced by the consumption of alcohol.
Intoxication is the consequence of alcohol entering the bloodstream faster than it can be metabolized by the liver. Some effects of alcohol intoxication (such as euphoria and lowered social inhibitions) are central to alcohol's desirability as a beverage and its history as the world's most widespread recreational drug. Despite this widespread use and alcohol's legality in most countries, many medical sources tend to describe any level of alcohol intoxication as a form of poisoning, and some religions consider alcohol intoxication to be a sin.