A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, even if they consist of molecules that contain only multiple atoms of a single element (such as H2, S8, etc.), which are called diatomic molecules or polyatomic molecules.
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry–including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medicine, fuel, and agriculture.
Dihydrogen monoxide (DHMO)
Hydrogen hydroxide (HH or HOH)
The alkali hydroxides are a class of chemical compounds which are composed of an alkali metal cation and the hydroxide anion (HO-). The alkali hydroxides are:
"A strong base completely ionizes in aqueous solution to give HO- and a cation. Sodium hydroxide is an example of a strong base. The principal strong bases are the hydroxides of Group IA elements and group IIA elements."
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several concepts exist that provide alternative definitions for the reaction mechanisms involved and their application in solving related problems. Despite several differences in definitions, their importance becomes apparent as different methods of analysis when applied to acid–base reactions for gaseous or liquid species, or when acid or base character may be somewhat less apparent. The first of these scientific concepts of acids and bases was provided by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, circa 1776.