In organic chemistry, functional groups are lexicon-specific groups of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. However, its relative reactivity can be modified by nearby functional groups.
The word moiety // is often used synonymously with "functional group" but, according to the IUPAC definition, a moiety is a part of a molecule that may include either whole functional groups or parts of functional groups as substructures. For example, an ester (RCOOR') has an ester functional group (COOR) and is composed of an alkoxy moiety (-OR') and an acyl moiety (RCO-), or, equivalently, it may be divided into carboxylate (RCOO-) and alkyl (-R') moieties. This definition allows for a recursive nature, where moieties may contain functional groups which may contain moieties, etc. almost without limit (by definition, a functional group or moiety must have more than one atom, and the combination and structure must be of interest in itself). For example, methyl para-hydroxybenzoate contains a phenol functional group within the acyl moiety, which in turn is part of the paraben moiety.
The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds, as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The rules are commonly known as "The Red Book" Ideally, every inorganic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous formula can be determined. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry.
The names "caffeine" and "3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione" both signify the same chemical. The systematic name encodes the structure and composition of the caffeine molecule in some detail, and provides an unambiguous reference to this compound, whereas the name "caffeine" just names it. These advantages make the systematic name far superior to the common name when absolute clarity and precision are required. However, for the sake of brevity, even professional chemists will use the non-systematic name almost all of the time, because caffeine is a well-known common chemical with a unique structure. Similarly, H2O is most often simply called water in English, though other chemical names do exist.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit. The prefix "poly-" means "many," in Greek, but even ions of two atoms are commonly referred to as polyatomic. In older literature, a polyatomic ion is also referred to as a radical, and less commonly, as a radical group. In contemporary usage, the term radical refers to free radicals that are (not necessarily charged) species with an unpaired electron.
An example of a polyatomic ion is the hydroxide ion - consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, hydroxide has a charge of −1. Its chemical formula is OH−. An ammonium ion is made up of one nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms: it has a charge of +1, an its chemical formula is NH4+.