The Ford Bronco is a sport utility vehicle that was produced from 1966 to 1996, with five distinct generations. Broncos can be divided into two categories: early Broncos (1966–77) and full-size Broncos (1978–96).
The Bronco was introduced in 1966 as a competitor to the small four-wheel-drive compact SUVs such as the Jeep CJ-5 and International Harvester Scout, and built on its own platform. A major redesign in 1978 moved the Bronco to a larger size, and it was built using a shortened Ford F-Series truck chassis to compete with both the similarly adapted Chevy K5 Blazer, and S-10 Blazer.
The Ford Bronco II was a compact SUV sold between 1984 and 1990. It was commissioned as a smaller complement to the full-size Bronco as well as to offer a Ford alternative to the Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, Jeep Cherokee (XJ), and Toyota 4Runner. The Bronco II was Ford's first compact SUV since the original Bronco sold from 1966 to 1977. It is mechanically and (except in detail) structurally identical to the Ford Ranger. It had a 94-inch (2,388 mm) wheelbase and was enclosed in the rear. All 1984 and 1985 Bronco IIs were 4wd. Starting in 1986 the Bronco II offered four wheel drive as an option, whereas the full size Bronco was always 4wd. The Bronco II did not have a removable roof, except for a low production run of Sherrod modified Bronco IIs. These had a soft top and custom fiberglass to finished off the cut roof.
A sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a vehicle similar to a station wagon or estate car, and are usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability. Some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan.
Since SUVs are considered light trucks in North America, and often share the same platform with pick-up trucks, at one time, they were regulated less strictly than passenger cars under the two laws in the United States, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act for fuel economy, and the Clean Air Act for emissions. Starting in 2004, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began to hold sport utility vehicles to the same tailpipe emissions standards as cars.
The Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership. It is described by Forbes as "the most important industrial company in the history of the United States."
Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.
Twin-Traction Beam (TTB) is an independent suspension system for front drive axles in four-wheel drive Ford F-Series trucks and sport utility vehicles.
The Dana Corporation manufactured the TTB axle for Ford. It uses a universal joint in the center that allows the wheels to move independently of each other. The differential is offset to the driver's side, and a slip yoke is used on the long axle side to allow the shaft to change length. The TTB axles are variations of the Dana 28, Dana 35, Dana 44, and Dana 50.