You will get maximum UV exposure between 10 AM and 3 PM. This is the worst time to lay out for risk of burning and skin cancer.
Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. The process is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or from artificial sources, such as a tanning bed. People who deliberately tan their skin by exposure to the sun engage in sun bathing. Some people use chemical products which can produce a tanning effect without exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Moderate exposure to the sun contributes to the production of vitamin D by the body, but excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays has detrimental health effects, including sunburn and increased risk of skin cancer, as well as depressed immune system function and accelerated aging of the skin. Some people tan or sunburn more easily than others. This may be the result of different skin types and natural skin color, and these may be as a result of genetics.
Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, that is, in the range between 400 nm and 10 nm, corresponding to photon energies from 3 eV to 124 eV. It is so-named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet. These frequencies are invisible to humans, but near UV is visible to a number of insects and birds.
UV light is found in sunlight and is emitted by electric arcs and specialized lights such as mercury lamps and black lights. It can cause chemical reactions, and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. A large fraction of UV, including all that reaches the surface of the Earth, is classified as non-ionizing radiation. The higher energies of the ultraviolet spectrum from wavelengths about 120 nm to 10 nm ('extreme' ultraviolet) are ionizing, but due to this effect, these wavelengths are absorbed by nitrogen and even more strongly by dioxygen, and thus have an extremely short path length through air. However, the entire spectrum of ultraviolet radiation has some of the biological features of ionizing radiation: it does far more damage to many molecules in biological systems than is accounted for by simple heating effects (an example is sunburn). These properties derive from the ultraviolet photon's power to alter chemical bonds in molecules, even without having enough energy to ionize atoms.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object has a different meaning, and is instead the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object.
The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end, thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. The limit for long wavelengths is the size of the universe itself, while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length, although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous.
Skin cancers (skin neoplasms) are named after the type of skin cell from which they arise. Basal cell cancer originates from the lowest layer of the epidermis, and is the most common but least dangerous skin cancer. Squamous cell cancer originates from the middle layer, and is less common but more likely to spread and, if untreated, become fatal. Melanoma, which originates in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes), is the least common, but most aggressive, most likely to spread and, if untreated, become fatal.
Most cases are caused by over-exposure to UV rays from the sun or sunbeds. Treatment is generally via surgical removal.
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The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun at a particular place on a particular day. It is a scale primarily used in daily forecasts aimed at the general public, and is now available as an hourly forecast as well.
Its purpose is to help people to effectively protect themselves from UV light, of which excessive exposure causes sunburns, eye damage such as cataracts, skin aging, immunosuppression, and skin cancer (see the section health effects of ultraviolet light). Public health organizations recommend that people protect themselves (for example, by applying sunscreen to the skin and wearing a hat) when the UV Index is 3 or higher; see the table below for complete recommendations.