Question:

What is the best thing to do when you have an urinary tract infection?

Answer:

UTIs are treated with antibacterial drugs. Best thing to do is to see your doctor for a prescription. Take care!

More Info:


Nitrofuran
Nitrofurans are a class of drugs typically used as antibiotics or antimicrobials. The defining structural component is a furan ring with a nitro group. Members of this class of drugs include: M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc) M: PRO ambz, excv, chrm (strc) ambz, excv, chrm ambz, excv, chrm

Dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor
A dihydropteroate synthetase inhibitor is a drug that inhibits the action of dihydropteroate synthetase. Most are sulfonamides. In bacteria, antibacterial sulfonamides act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (-aminobenzoatepara) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide. Hence the sulfonamide antibacterials exhibit a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal effect. Folate is not synthesized in mammalian cells, but is instead a dietary requirement. This explains the selective toxicity to bacterial cells of these drugs. These antibiotics are used to treat pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and shigellosis. M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc) M: PRO ambz, excv, chrm (strc) ambz, excv, chrm ambz, excv, chrm M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), adenofibromyomatous hyperplasia and benign prostatic hypertrophy (technically incorrect usage), is an increase in size of the prostate. BPH involves hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra, which interferes with the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections, urinary retention, or contribute to or cause insomnia. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in these patients because of increased organ volume and inflammation due to urinary tract infections, BPH does not lead to cancer or increase the risk of cancer.][ BPH involves hyperplasia (an increase in the number of cells) rather than hypertrophy (a growth in the size of individual cells), but the two terms are often used interchangeably, even amongst urologists. Adenomatous prostatic growth is believed to begin at approximately age 30 years. An estimated 50% of men have histologic evidence of BPH by age 50 years and 75% by age 80 years; in 40–50% of these men, BPH becomes clinically significant. Benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms are classified as storage or voiding. Storage symptoms include urinary frequency, urgency (compelling need to void that cannot be deferred), urgency incontinence, and voiding at night (nocturia). Voiding symptoms include urinary stream hesitancy (needing to wait for the stream to begin), intermittency (when the stream starts and stops intermittently), straining to void, and dribbling. Pain and dysuria are usually not present. These storage and voiding symptoms are evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, designed to assess the severity of BPH. BPH can be a progressive disease, especially if left untreated. Incomplete voiding results in stasis of bacteria in the bladder residue and an increased risk of urinary tract infection. Urinary bladder stones are formed from the crystallization of salts in the residual urine. Urinary retention, termed acute or chronic, is another form of progression. Acute urinary retention is the inability to void, while in chronic urinary retention the residual urinary volume gradually increases, and the bladder distends. This can result in bladder hypotonia. Some patients who suffer from chronic urinary retention may eventually progress to renal failure, a condition termed obstructive uropathy. Most experts consider androgens (testosterone and related hormones) to play a permissive role. This means that androgens have to be present for BPH to occur, but do not necessarily directly cause the condition. This is supported by the fact that castrated boys do not develop BPH when they age. On the other hand, administering exogenous testosterone is not associated with a significant increase in the risk of BPH symptoms.][ Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a metabolite of testosterone, is a critical mediator of prostatic growth. DHT is synthesized in the prostate from circulating testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5α-reductase, type 2. This enzyme is localized principally in the stromal cells; hence, those cells are the main site for the synthesis of DHT. DHT can act in an autocrine fashion on the stromal cells or in paracrine fashion by diffusing into nearby epithelial cells. In both of these cell types, DHT binds to nuclear androgen receptors and signals the transcription of growth factors that are mitogenic to the epithelial and stromal cells. DHT is 10 times more potent than testosterone because it dissociates from the androgen receptor more slowly. The importance of DHT in causing nodular hyperplasia is supported by clinical observations in which an inhibitor of 5α-reductase such as finasteride is given to men with this condition. Therapy with a 5α-reductase inhibitor markedly reduces the DHT content of the prostate and, in turn, reduces prostate volume and, in many cases, BPH symptoms.][ Testosterone promotes prostate cell proliferation, but relatively low levels of serum testosterone are found in patients with BPH. One small study has shown that medical castration lowers the serum and prostate hormone levels unevenly, having less effect on testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in the prostate. While there is some evidence that estrogen may play a role in the etiology of BPH, this effect appears to be mediated mainly through local conversion of androgens to estrogen in the prostate tissue rather than a direct effect of estrogen itself. In canine in vivo studies castration, which significantly reduced androgen levels but left estrogen levels unchanged, caused significant atrophy of the prostate. Studies looking for a correlation between prostatic hyperplasia and serum estrogen levels in humans have generally shown none. In 2008, Yigal Gat et al. published evidence that BPH is caused by failure in the spermatic venous drainage system resulting in increased hydrostatic pressure and local testosterone levels elevated more than 100 fold above serum levels. If confirmed, this mechanism explains why serum androgen levels do not seem to correlate with BPH and why giving exogenous testosterone would not make much difference. This also has implications for treatment (see Minimally invasive therapies below). On a microscopic level, BPH can be seen in the vast majority of men as they age, in particular over the age of 70 years, around the world. However, rates of clinically significant, symptomatic BPH vary dramatically depending on lifestyle. Men who lead a western lifestyle have a much higher incidence of symptomatic BPH than men who lead a traditional or rural lifestyle. This is confirmed by research in China showing that men in rural areas have very low rates of clinical BPH, while men living in cities adopting a western lifestyle have a skyrocketing incidence of this condition, though it is still below rates seen in the West. Much work remains to be done to completely clarify the causes of BPH. Both the glandular epithelial cells and the stromal cells (including muscular fibers) undergo hyperplasia in BPH.:694 Most sources agree that of the two tissues, stromal hyperplasia predominates, but the exact ratio of the two is unclear.:694 Anatomically, BPH is most strongly associated with the posterior urethral glands (PUG) and transitional zone (TZ) of the prostate. The earliest microscopic signs of BPH usually begin between the age of 30 and 50 years old in the PUG, which are posterior to the proximal urethra.:694 However, the majority of growth eventually occurs in the TZ.:694 In addition to these two classic areas, the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate is also involved to a lesser extent.:695 Since prostatic cancer also occurs in the PZ, BPH nodules in the PZ are often biopsied to rule out cancer.:695 Rectal examination (palpation of the prostate through the rectum) may reveal a markedly enlarged prostate, usually affecting the middle lobe. Often, blood tests are performed to rule out prostatic malignancy: Elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels needs further investigations such as reinterpretation of PSA results, in terms of PSA density and PSA free percentage, rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography. These combined measures can provide early detection. Ultrasound examination of the testicles, prostate, and kidneys is often performed, again to rule out malignancy and hydronephrosis. Screening and diagnostic procedures for BPH are similar to those used for prostate cancer. Some signs to look for include: Patients should decrease fluid intake before bedtime, moderate the consumption of alcohol and caffeine-containing products, and follow timed voiding schedules.][ The two main medications for management of BPH are alpha blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors. Alpha blockers (technically α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists) are the most common choice for initial therapy in the USA and Europe. Alpha blockers used for BPH include doxazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin. All five are equally effective but have slightly different side effect profiles. The older drugs phenoxybenzamine and prazosin are not recommended. Alpha blockers relax smooth muscle in the prostate and the bladder neck, thus decreasing the blockage of urine flow. Common side effects of alpha blockers include orthostatic hypotension, (a head rush or dizzy spell when standing up or stretching,) ejaculation changes, headaches, nasal congestion, and weakness.][ The 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride are another treatment option. These medications inhibit 5a-reductase, which in turn inhibits production of DHT, a hormone responsible for enlarging the prostate. Effects may take longer to appear than alpha blockers, but they persist for many years. When used together with alpha blockers, a reduction of BPH progression to acute urinary retention and surgery has been noted in patients with larger prostates. Side effects include decreased libido and ejaculatory or erectile dysfunction. Antimuscarinics such as tolterodine may also be used, especially in combination with alpha blockers. They act by decreasing acetylcholine effects on the smooth muscle of the bladder, thus helping control symptoms of an overactive bladder.][ In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Cialis (tadalafil) to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and for the treatment of BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED), when the conditions occur simultaneously. Cialis was approved in 2003 for the treatment of ED. Sildenafil citrate shows some symptomatic relief, suggesting a possible common etiology with erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil was considered then rejected by NICE in the UK for the treatment of symptoms associated with BPH. The European Urology Review published in 2009 that two Israeli doctors, Yigal Gat and Menahem Goren, have developed the Gat-Goren nonsurgical method for BPH. Using an interventional radiological technique that reduces prostate volume and reverses BPH symptoms, the treatment, known as super-selective intra-prostatic androgen deprivation (SPAD) therapy, involves a percutaneous venography and sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic vein network, including associated venous bypasses and retroperitoneal collaterals. The European Urology Review also declared that using the Gat Goren nonsurgical method results in decreased prostate volume, which leads to significantly decreased nocturia, improved urine stream, and also improves emptying of the urinary bladder, and that without the potential side effects and complications of the classic surgery. Although medication is often prescribed as the first treatment option, there are many patients who do not achieve success with this line of treatment. Those patients may not achieve sustained improvement in symptoms or they may stop taking the medication because of side-effects. There are options for treatment in a urologist's office before proceeding to surgery. The two most common types of office-based therapies are transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) and transurethral needle ablation (TUNA). Both of these procedures rely on delivering enough energy to create sufficient heat to cause cell death (necrosis) in the prostate. The goal of the therapies is to cause enough necrosis so that, when the dead tissue is reabsorbed by the body, the prostate shrinks, relieving the obstruction of the urethra. These procedures are typically performed with local anesthesia, and the patient returns home the same day. Some urologists have studied and published long-term data on the outcomes of these procedures, with data out to five years. The most recent American Urological Association (AUA) Guidelines for the Treatment of BPH in 2003 lists minimally invasive therapies including TUMT and TUNA as acceptable alternatives for certain patients with BPH. Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT) was originally approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996, with the first generation system by EDAP Technomed. Since 1996, other companies have received FDA approval for TUMT devices, including Urologix, Dornier, Thermatrix, Celsion, and Prostalund. Multiple clinical studies have been published on TUMT. The general principle underlying all the devices is that a microwave antenna that resides in a urethral catheter is placed in the intraprostatic area of the urethra. The catheter is connected to a control box outside of the patient's body and is energized to emit microwave radiation into the prostate to heat the tissue and cause necrosis. It is a one-time treatment that takes approximately 30 minutes to 1 hour, depending on the system used. It takes approximately 4 to 6 weeks for the damaged tissue to be reabsorbed into the patient's body. Some of the devices incorporate circulating coolant through the treatment area with the intent of preserving the urethra while the microwave energy heats the prostatic tissue surrounding the urethra. Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) operates with a different type of energy, radio frequency (RF) energy, but is designed along the same premise as TUMT devices, that the heat the device generates will cause necrosis of the prostatic tissue and shrink the prostate. The TUNA device is inserted into the urethra using a rigid scope much like a cystoscope. The energy is delivered into the prostate using two needles that emerge from the sides of the device, through the urethral wall and into the prostate. The needle-based ablation devices are very effective at heating a localized area to a high enough temperature to cause necrosis. The treatment is typically performed in one session, but may require multiple sticks of the needles depending on the size of the prostate. If medical treatment fails, and the patient elects not to try office-based therapies or the physician determines the patient is a better candidate for transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), surgery may need to be performed. In general, TURP is still considered the gold standard of prostate interventions for patients who require a procedure. This involves removing (part of) the prostate through the urethra. There are also a number of new methods for reducing the size of an enlarged prostate, some of which have not been around long enough to fully establish their safety or side-effects. These include various methods to destroy or remove part of the excess tissue while trying to avoid damaging what remains. Transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TVP), laser TURP, visual laser ablation (VLAP), ethanol injection, and others are studied as alternatives. Newer techniques involving lasers in urology have emerged in the last 5–10 years, starting with the VLAP technique involving the Nd:YAG laser with contact on the prostatic tissue. A similar technology called Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate (PVP) with the GreenLight (KTP or LBO crystal) laser have emerged very recently. This procedure involves a high-power 180-watt 532 nm wavelength laser with a 650-micrometre laser fiber inserted into the prostate. This fiber has an internal reflection with a 70-degree deflecting angle. It is used to vaporize the tissue to the prostatic capsule. GreenLight 532 nm lasers target haemoglobin as the chromophore and typically have a penetration depth of 0.8mm (two times deeper than holmium). Another procedure termed Holmium Laser Ablation of the Prostate (HoLAP) has also been gaining acceptance around the world. Like KTP, the delivery device for HoLAP procedures is a 550 um disposable side-firing fiber that directs the beam from a high-power 100-watt laser at a 70-degree angle from the fiber axis. The holmium wavelength is 2,140 nm, which falls within the infrared portion of the spectrum and is invisible to the naked eye. Whereas GreenLight relies on haemoglobin as a chromophore, water within the target tissue is the chromophore for Holmium lasers. The penetration depth of Holmium lasers is <0.4 mm, avoiding complications associated with tissue necrosis often found with the deeper penetration and lower peak powers of Nd:YAG lasers used in the 1990s. HoLEP, Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate, is another Holmium laser procedure reported to carry fewer risks compared with either TURP or open prostatectomy. HoLEP is largely similar to the HoLAP procedure; the main difference is that this procedure is typically performed on larger prostates. Instead of ablating the tissue, the laser cuts a portion of the prostate, which is then cut into smaller pieces and flushed with irrigation fluid. As with the HoLAP procedure, there is little bleeding during or after the procedure. Both wavelengths, GreenLight and Holmium, ablate approximately one to two grams of tissue per minute. Post surgery care often involves placement of a Foley catheter or a temporary prostatic stent to permit healing and allow urine to drain from the bladder. People often seek herbal remedies for BPH. Several are approved in European countries, and available in the USA. Saw palmetto extract from Serenoa repens is one of the most extensively studied. It showed promise in early studies, though later trials of higher methodological quality have had mixed results. Other herbal medicines that have research support in systematic reviews include beta-sitosterol from Hypoxis rooperi (African star grass) and pygeum (extracted from the bark of Prunus africana), while there is less substantial support for the efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) root. There is weak evidence that pollen extracts from rye grass (Secale cereale) may also correlate with modest symptomatic relief. A vast majority of patients find considerable relief in Saw palmetto. There are two common types .. capsules with the berry extract, and oils in the form of soft gels. Some people react to one better than another. Also in supplement form there is beta-sitosterol, which is an active ingredient of saw palmetto, Pygeum (AKA African plum), Pumpkin seed oil, stinging nettle, as well as other supplements. Many supplement manufacturers market blends of these supplements to create a targeted therapy for BPH. In general these supplements are side effect free, which cannot be said of the medicines listed above. Globally, benign prostatic hyperplasia affects about 210 million males as of 2010 (6% of the population). The prostate gets larger in most men as they get older. For a symptom-free man of 46 years, the risk of developing BPH over the next 30 years is 45%. Incidence rates increase from 3 cases per 1000 man-years at age 45–49 years, to 38 cases per 1000 man-years by the age of 75–79 years. While the prevalence rate is 2.7% for men aged 45–49, it increases to 24% by the age of 80 years. M: ♂ MRS anat/phys/devp noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (G3B/4BE/4C)

Antifungal medication
An antifungal medication is a pharmaceutical fungicide used to treat mycoses such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription or purchased over-the-counter. Apart from side effects like liver damage or affecting estrogen levels, many antifungal medicines can cause allergic reactions in people. For example, the azole group of drugs is known to have caused anaphylaxis. There are also many drug interactions. Patients must read in detail the enclosed data sheet(s) of the medicine. For example, the azole antifungals such as ketoconazole or itraconazole can be both substrates and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein, which (among other functions) excretes toxins and drugs into the intestines. Azole antifungals also are both substrates and inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 family CYP3A4, causing increased concentration when administering, for example, calcium channel blockers, immunosuppressants, chemotherapeutic drugs, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides and SSRIs. A polyene is a molecule with multiple conjugated double bonds. A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene with a heavily hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system. This makes polyene antifungals amphiphilic. The polyene antimycotics bind with sterols in the fungal cell membrane, principally ergosterol. This changes the transition temperature (Tg) of the cell membrane, thereby placing the membrane in a less fluid, more crystalline state. (In ordinary circumstances membrane sterols increase the packing of the phospholipid bilayer making the plasma membrane more dense.) As a result, the cell's contents including monovalent ions (K+, Na+, H+, and Cl-), small organic molecules leak and this is regarded one of the primary ways cell dies. Animal cells contain cholesterol instead of ergosterol and so they are much less susceptible. However, at therapeutic doses, some amphotericin B may bind to animal membrane cholesterol, increasing the risk of human toxicity. Amphotericin B is nephrotoxic when given intravenously. As a polyene's hydrophobic chain is shortened, its sterol binding activity is increased. Therefore, further reduction of the hydrophobic chain may result in it binding to cholesterol, making it toxic to animals. Azole antifungal drugs inhibit the enzyme lanosterol 14 α-demethylase; the enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. Depletion of ergosterol in fungal membrane disrupts the structure and many functions of fungal membrane leading to inhibition of fungal growth. Allylamines inhibit squalene epoxidase, another enzyme required for ergosterol synthesis: Echinocandins may be used for systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, they inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall via the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase: Echinocandins are poorly absorbed when administered orally. When administered by injection they will reach most tissues and organs with concentrations sufficient to treat localized and systemic fungal infections. Research conducted in 1996 indicated the following substances or essential oils had antifungal properties:
Researchers at Tel Aviv University's Department of Plant Sciences published a study in 2009 indicating carnivorous plants, such as the Venus flytrap, contain compounds that may be useful in providing a new class of antifungal drugs for use in humans, for fungal infections that are resistant to current drugs. Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organism with fewer adverse effects to the host. Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the biological level. This makes it more difficult to discover drugs that target fungi without affecting human cells. As a consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side effects. Some of these side effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are not used properly. Antifungal agents (such as ketoconazole) are often found in antidandruff shampoos. The antifungal drugs inhibit the yeast Malassezia globosa which encourages seborrhoeic dermatitis and tinea versicolor. M: MYC fung, clas fung drug (fung)

Prostatitis
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis is classified into acute, chronic, asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In the United States, prostatitis is diagnosed in 8 percent of all urologist visits and 1 percent of all primary care physician visits. The term prostatitis refers, in its strictest sense, to histological (microscopic) inflammation of the tissue of the prostate gland. Like all forms of inflammation, it can be associated with an appropriate response of the body to an infection, but it also occurs in the absence of infection. In 1999, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) devised a new classification system. For more specifics about each type of prostatitis, including information on symptoms, treatment, and prognosis, follow the links to the relevant full articles. In 1968, Meares and Stamey determined a classification technique based upon the culturing of bacteria. This classification is no longer used. The conditions are distinguished by the different presentation of pain, white blood cells (WBCs) in the urine, duration of symptoms and bacteria cultured from the urine. To help express prostatic secretions that may contain WBCs and bacteria, prostate massage is sometimes used.
Arthritis  Dermatomyositis  soft tissue (Myositis, Synovitis/Tenosynovitis, Bursitis, Enthesitis, Fasciitis, Capsulitis, Epicondylitis, Tendinitis, Panniculitis)
female: Oophoritis  Salpingitis  Endometritis  Parametritis  Cervicitis  Vaginitis  Vulvitis  Mastitis male: Orchitis  Epididymitis  Prostatitis  Balanitis  Balanoposthitis M: ♂ MRS anat/phys/devp noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (G3B/4BE/4C)

Urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) (also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include painful urination and either frequent urination or urge to urinate (or both), while those of pyelonephritis include fever and flank pain in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. In the elderly and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non specific. The main causal agent of both types is Escherichia coli, however other bacteria, viruses or fungi may rarely be the cause. Urinary tract infections occur more commonly in women than men, with half of women having at least one infection at some point in their lives. Recurrences are common. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse and family history. Pyelonephritis, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood borne infection. Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on symptoms alone. In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. In complicated cases or if treatment has failed, a urine culture may be useful. In those with frequent infections, low dose antibiotics may be taken as a preventative measure. In uncomplicated cases, urinary tract infections are easily treated with a short course of antibiotics, although resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing. In complicated cases, longer course or intravenous antibiotics may be needed, and if symptoms have not improved in two or three days, further diagnostic testing is needed. In women, urinary tract infections are the most common form of bacterial infection with 10% developing urinary tract infections yearly. Lower urinary tract infection is also referred to as a bladder infection. The most common symptoms are burning with urination and having to urinate frequently (or an urge to urinate) in the absence of vaginal discharge and significant pain. These symptoms may vary from mild to severe and in healthy women last an average of six days. Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present. People experiencing an upper urinary tract infection, or pyelonephritis, may experience flank pain, fever, or nausea and vomiting in addition to the classic symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection. Rarely the urine may appear bloody or contain visible pyuria (pus in the urine). In young children, the only symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may be a fever. Because of the lack of more obvious symptoms, when females under the age of two or uncircumcised males less than a year exhibit a fever, a culture of the urine is recommended by many medical associations. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur. Urinary tract symptoms are frequently lacking in the elderly. The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that many elderly people have preexisting incontinence or dementia. E. coli is the cause of 80–85% of urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. Rarely they may be due to viral or fungal infections. Other bacterial causes include: Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter. These are uncommon and typically related to abnormalities of the urinary system or urinary catheterization. Urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections. In young sexually active women, sexual activity is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections, with the risk of infection related to the frequency of sex. The term "honeymoon cystitis" has been applied to this phenomenon of frequent UTIs during early marriage. In post-menopausal women, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing a UTI. Spermicide use, independent of sexual frequency, increases the risk of UTIs. Women are more prone to UTIs than men because, in females, the urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. As a woman's estrogen levels decrease with menopause, her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three to six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in decreasing symptomatic infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter. Male scuba divers utilizing condom catheters or the female divers utilizing She-p external catching device for their dry suits are also susceptible to urinary tract infections. A predisposition for bladder infections may run in families. Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. Complicating factors are rather vague and include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation. Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, and in part because of voiding dysfunction. It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population. The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's immune response. In straightforward cases, a diagnosis may be made and treatment given based on symptoms alone without further laboratory confirmation. In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase. Another test, urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per mL of a typical urinary tract organism. Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. However, women with negative cultures may still improve with antibiotic treatment. As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly. A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated. Otherwise if a woman is healthy and premenopausal it is considered uncomplicated. In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection. To make the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection in children, a positive urinary culture is required. Contamination poses a frequent challenge depending on the method of collection used, thus a cutoff of 105 CFU/mL is used for a "clean-catch" mid stream sample, 104 CFU/mL is used for catheter-obtained specimens, and 102 CFU/mL is used for suprapubic aspirations (a sample drawn directly from the bladder with a needle). The use of "urine bags" to collect samples is discouraged by the World Health Organization due to the high rate of contamination when cultured, and catheterization is preferred in those not toilet trained. Some, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (watching a person's urethra and urinary bladder with real time x-rays while they urinate) in all children less than two year old who have had a urinary tract infection. However, because there is a lack of effective treatment if problems are found, others such as the National Institute for Clinical Excellence only recommends routine imaging in those less than six month old or who have unusual findings. In women with cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) or vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and in young men with UTI symptoms, a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause. Vaginitis may also be due to a yeast infection. Interstitial cystitis (chronic pain in the bladder) may be considered for people who experience multiple episodes of UTI symptoms but urine cultures remain negative and not improved with antibiotics. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) may also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins. Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide with rates of 2 to 40%. Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others. A number of measures have not been confirmed to affect UTI frequency including: urinating immediately after intercourse, the type of underwear used, personal hygiene methods used after urinating or defecating, or whether a person typically bathes or showers. There is similarly a lack of evidence surrounding the effect of holding one's urine, tampon use, and douching. In those with frequent urinary tract infections who usespermicide or a diaphragm as a method of contraception, they are advised to use alternative methods. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of uncomplicated urinated tract infection. For those with recurrent infections, a prolonged course of daily antibiotics is effective. Medications frequently used include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Methenamine is another agent frequently used for this purpose as in the bladder where the acidity is low it produces formaldehyde to which resistance does not develop. In cases where infections are related to intercourse, taking antibiotics afterwards may be useful. In post-menopausal women, topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence. As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. Antibiotics following short term urinary catheterization decreases the subsequent risk of a bladder infection. A number of vaccines are in development as of 2011. The evidence that preventative antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor. However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, resulting in less than a third of a percent (0.33%) of chronic kidney disease in adults. Whether routine circumcisions prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011. Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the incidence in those with frequent infections; however a Cochrane Review of the available research has concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small. Long-term tolerance is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%. Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication. As of 2011, intravaginal probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial. The mainstay of treatment is antibiotics. Phenazopyridine is occasionally prescribed during the first few days in addition to antibiotics to help with the burning and urgency sometimes felt during a bladder infection. However, it is not routinely recommended due to safety concerns with its use, specifically an elevated risk of methemoglobinemia (higher than normal level of methemoglobin in the blood). Acetaminophen (paracetamol) may be used for fevers. Women with recurrent simple UTIs may benefit from self-treatment upon occurrence of symptoms with medical follow-up only if the initial treatment fails. A prescription for antibiotics can be delivered to a pharmacist by phone. A complicated UTI is more difficult to treat and usually requires more aggressive evaluation, treatment and follow-up. Uncomplicated infections can be diagnosed and treated based on symptoms alone. Oral antibiotics such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, or a fluoroquinolone substantially shorten the time to recovery with all being equally effective. A three-day treatment with trimethoprim, TMP/SMX, or a fluoroquinolone is usually sufficient, whereas nitrofurantoin requires 5–7 days. With treatment, symptoms should improve within 36 hours. About 50% of people will recover without treatment within a few days or weeks. The Infectious Diseases Society of America does not recommend fluoroquinolones as first treatment due to the concern of generating resistance to this class of medication. Amoxicillin-clavulanate appears less effective than other options. Despite this precaution, some resistance has developed to all of these medications related to their widespread use. Trimethoprim alone is deemed to be equivalent to TMP/SMX in some countries. For simple UTIs, children often respond to a three-day course of antibiotics. Pyelonephritis is treated more aggressively than a simple bladder infection using either a longer course of oral antibiotics or intravenous antibiotics. Seven days of the oral fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is typically used in areas where the resistance rate is less than 10%. If the local resistance rates are greater than 10%, a dose of intravenous ceftriaxone is often prescribed. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanate orally for 14 days is another reasonable option. In those who exhibit more severe symptoms, admission to a hospital for ongoing antibiotics may be needed. Complications such as urinary obstruction from a kidney stone may be considered if symptoms do not improve following two or three days of treatment. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women. They occur most frequently between the ages of 16 and 35 years, with 10% of women getting an infection yearly and 60% having an infection at some point in their lives. Recurrences are common, with nearly half of people getting a second infection within a year. Urinary tract infections occur four times more frequently in females than males. Pyelonephritis occurs between 20–30 times less frequently. They are the most common cause of hospital acquired infections accounting for approximately 40%. Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine increase with age from two to seven percent in women of child bearing age to as high as 50% in elderly women in care homes. Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%. Urinary tract infections may affect 10% of people during childhood. Among children urinary tract infections are the most common in uncircumcised males less than three months of age, followed by females less than one year. Estimates of frequency among children however vary widely. In a group of children with a fever, ranging in age between birth and two years, two to 20% were diagnosed with a UTI. In the United States, urinary tract infections account for nearly seven million office visits, a million emergency department visits, and one hundred thousand hospitalizations every year. The cost of these infections is significant both in terms of lost time at work and costs of medical care. In the United States the direct cost of treatment is estimated at 1.6 billion USD yearly. Urinary tract infections have been described since ancient times with the first documented description in the Ebers Papyrus dated to c. 1550 BC. It was described by the Egyptians as "sending forth heat from the bladder". Effective treatment did not occur until the development and availability of antibiotics in the 1930s before which time herbs, bloodletting and rest were recommended. Urinary tract infections are more concerning in pregnancy due to the increased risk of kidney infections. During pregnancy, high progesterone levels elevate the risk of decreased muscle tone of the ureters and bladder, which leads to a greater likelihood of reflux, where urine flows back up the ureters and towards the kidneys. While pregnant women do not have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, if bacteriuria is present they do have a 25-40% risk of a kidney infection. Thus if urine testing shows signs of an infection—even in the absence of symptoms—treatment is recommended. Cephalexin or nitrofurantoin are typically used because they are generally considered safe in pregnancy. A kidney infection during pregnancy may result in premature birth or pre-eclampsia (a state of high blood pressure and kidney dysfunction during pregnancy that can lead to seizures). M: URI anat/phys/devp/cell noco/acba/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, urte proc/itvp, drug (G4B), blte, urte M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc) Klebsiella pneumoniae (Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia)  Klebsiella granulomatis (Granuloma inguinale)  Klebsiella oxytoca Escherichia coli: Enterotoxigenic  Enteroinvasive  Enterohemorrhagic  O157:H7  O104:H4 (Hemolytic-uremic syndrome) M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc)

Cystitis
A urinary tract infection (UTI) (also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include painful urination and either frequent urination or urge to urinate (or both), while those of pyelonephritis include fever and flank pain in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. In the elderly and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non specific. The main causal agent of both types is Escherichia coli, however other bacteria, viruses or fungi may rarely be the cause. Urinary tract infections occur more commonly in women than men, with half of women having at least one infection at some point in their lives. Recurrences are common. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse and family history. Pyelonephritis, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood borne infection. Diagnosis in young healthy women can be based on symptoms alone. In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. In complicated cases or if treatment has failed, a urine culture may be useful. In those with frequent infections, low dose antibiotics may be taken as a preventative measure. In uncomplicated cases, urinary tract infections are easily treated with a short course of antibiotics, although resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing. In complicated cases, longer course or intravenous antibiotics may be needed, and if symptoms have not improved in two or three days, further diagnostic testing is needed. In women, urinary tract infections are the most common form of bacterial infection with 10% developing urinary tract infections yearly. Lower urinary tract infection is also referred to as a bladder infection. The most common symptoms are burning with urination and having to urinate frequently (or an urge to urinate) in the absence of vaginal discharge and significant pain. These symptoms may vary from mild to severe and in healthy women last an average of six days. Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present. People experiencing an upper urinary tract infection, or pyelonephritis, may experience flank pain, fever, or nausea and vomiting in addition to the classic symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection. Rarely the urine may appear bloody or contain visible pyuria (pus in the urine). In young children, the only symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may be a fever. Because of the lack of more obvious symptoms, when females under the age of two or uncircumcised males less than a year exhibit a fever, a culture of the urine is recommended by many medical associations. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur. Urinary tract symptoms are frequently lacking in the elderly. The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that many elderly people have preexisting incontinence or dementia. E. coli is the cause of 80–85% of urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. Rarely they may be due to viral or fungal infections. Other bacterial causes include: Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter. These are uncommon and typically related to abnormalities of the urinary system or urinary catheterization. Urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections. In young sexually active women, sexual activity is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections, with the risk of infection related to the frequency of sex. The term "honeymoon cystitis" has been applied to this phenomenon of frequent UTIs during early marriage. In post-menopausal women, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing a UTI. Spermicide use, independent of sexual frequency, increases the risk of UTIs. Women are more prone to UTIs than men because, in females, the urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. As a woman's estrogen levels decrease with menopause, her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three to six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in decreasing symptomatic infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter. Male scuba divers utilizing condom catheters or the female divers utilizing She-p external catching device for their dry suits are also susceptible to urinary tract infections. A predisposition for bladder infections may run in families. Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. Complicating factors are rather vague and include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation. Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, and in part because of voiding dysfunction. It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population. The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's immune response. In straightforward cases, a diagnosis may be made and treatment given based on symptoms alone without further laboratory confirmation. In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase. Another test, urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per mL of a typical urinary tract organism. Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. However, women with negative cultures may still improve with antibiotic treatment. As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly. A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated. Otherwise if a woman is healthy and premenopausal it is considered uncomplicated. In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection. To make the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection in children, a positive urinary culture is required. Contamination poses a frequent challenge depending on the method of collection used, thus a cutoff of 105 CFU/mL is used for a "clean-catch" mid stream sample, 104 CFU/mL is used for catheter-obtained specimens, and 102 CFU/mL is used for suprapubic aspirations (a sample drawn directly from the bladder with a needle). The use of "urine bags" to collect samples is discouraged by the World Health Organization due to the high rate of contamination when cultured, and catheterization is preferred in those not toilet trained. Some, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (watching a person's urethra and urinary bladder with real time x-rays while they urinate) in all children less than two year old who have had a urinary tract infection. However, because there is a lack of effective treatment if problems are found, others such as the National Institute for Clinical Excellence only recommends routine imaging in those less than six month old or who have unusual findings. In women with cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) or vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and in young men with UTI symptoms, a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause. Vaginitis may also be due to a yeast infection. Interstitial cystitis (chronic pain in the bladder) may be considered for people who experience multiple episodes of UTI symptoms but urine cultures remain negative and not improved with antibiotics. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) may also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins. Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide with rates of 2 to 40%. Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others. A number of measures have not been confirmed to affect UTI frequency including: urinating immediately after intercourse, the type of underwear used, personal hygiene methods used after urinating or defecating, or whether a person typically bathes or showers. There is similarly a lack of evidence surrounding the effect of holding one's urine, tampon use, and douching. In those with frequent urinary tract infections who usespermicide or a diaphragm as a method of contraception, they are advised to use alternative methods. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of uncomplicated urinated tract infection. For those with recurrent infections, a prolonged course of daily antibiotics is effective. Medications frequently used include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Methenamine is another agent frequently used for this purpose as in the bladder where the acidity is low it produces formaldehyde to which resistance does not develop. In cases where infections are related to intercourse, taking antibiotics afterwards may be useful. In post-menopausal women, topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence. As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. Antibiotics following short term urinary catheterization decreases the subsequent risk of a bladder infection. A number of vaccines are in development as of 2011. The evidence that preventative antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor. However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, resulting in less than a third of a percent (0.33%) of chronic kidney disease in adults. Whether routine circumcisions prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011. Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the incidence in those with frequent infections; however a Cochrane Review of the available research has concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small. Long-term tolerance is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%. Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication. As of 2011, intravaginal probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial. The mainstay of treatment is antibiotics. Phenazopyridine is occasionally prescribed during the first few days in addition to antibiotics to help with the burning and urgency sometimes felt during a bladder infection. However, it is not routinely recommended due to safety concerns with its use, specifically an elevated risk of methemoglobinemia (higher than normal level of methemoglobin in the blood). Acetaminophen (paracetamol) may be used for fevers. Women with recurrent simple UTIs may benefit from self-treatment upon occurrence of symptoms with medical follow-up only if the initial treatment fails. A prescription for antibiotics can be delivered to a pharmacist by phone. A complicated UTI is more difficult to treat and usually requires more aggressive evaluation, treatment and follow-up. Uncomplicated infections can be diagnosed and treated based on symptoms alone. Oral antibiotics such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, or a fluoroquinolone substantially shorten the time to recovery with all being equally effective. A three-day treatment with trimethoprim, TMP/SMX, or a fluoroquinolone is usually sufficient, whereas nitrofurantoin requires 5–7 days. With treatment, symptoms should improve within 36 hours. About 50% of people will recover without treatment within a few days or weeks. The Infectious Diseases Society of America does not recommend fluoroquinolones as first treatment due to the concern of generating resistance to this class of medication. Amoxicillin-clavulanate appears less effective than other options. Despite this precaution, some resistance has developed to all of these medications related to their widespread use. Trimethoprim alone is deemed to be equivalent to TMP/SMX in some countries. For simple UTIs, children often respond to a three-day course of antibiotics. Pyelonephritis is treated more aggressively than a simple bladder infection using either a longer course of oral antibiotics or intravenous antibiotics. Seven days of the oral fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is typically used in areas where the resistance rate is less than 10%. If the local resistance rates are greater than 10%, a dose of intravenous ceftriaxone is often prescribed. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanate orally for 14 days is another reasonable option. In those who exhibit more severe symptoms, admission to a hospital for ongoing antibiotics may be needed. Complications such as urinary obstruction from a kidney stone may be considered if symptoms do not improve following two or three days of treatment. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women. They occur most frequently between the ages of 16 and 35 years, with 10% of women getting an infection yearly and 60% having an infection at some point in their lives. Recurrences are common, with nearly half of people getting a second infection within a year. Urinary tract infections occur four times more frequently in females than males. Pyelonephritis occurs between 20–30 times less frequently. They are the most common cause of hospital acquired infections accounting for approximately 40%. Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine increase with age from two to seven percent in women of child bearing age to as high as 50% in elderly women in care homes. Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%. Urinary tract infections may affect 10% of people during childhood. Among children urinary tract infections are the most common in uncircumcised males less than three months of age, followed by females less than one year. Estimates of frequency among children however vary widely. In a group of children with a fever, ranging in age between birth and two years, two to 20% were diagnosed with a UTI. In the United States, urinary tract infections account for nearly seven million office visits, a million emergency department visits, and one hundred thousand hospitalizations every year. The cost of these infections is significant both in terms of lost time at work and costs of medical care. In the United States the direct cost of treatment is estimated at 1.6 billion USD yearly. Urinary tract infections have been described since ancient times with the first documented description in the Ebers Papyrus dated to c. 1550 BC. It was described by the Egyptians as "sending forth heat from the bladder". Effective treatment did not occur until the development and availability of antibiotics in the 1930s before which time herbs, bloodletting and rest were recommended. Urinary tract infections are more concerning in pregnancy due to the increased risk of kidney infections. During pregnancy, high progesterone levels elevate the risk of decreased muscle tone of the ureters and bladder, which leads to a greater likelihood of reflux, where urine flows back up the ureters and towards the kidneys. While pregnant women do not have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, if bacteriuria is present they do have a 25-40% risk of a kidney infection. Thus if urine testing shows signs of an infection—even in the absence of symptoms—treatment is recommended. Cephalexin or nitrofurantoin are typically used because they are generally considered safe in pregnancy. A kidney infection during pregnancy may result in premature birth or pre-eclampsia (a state of high blood pressure and kidney dysfunction during pregnancy that can lead to seizures). M: URI anat/phys/devp/cell noco/acba/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, urte proc/itvp, drug (G4B), blte, urte M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc) Klebsiella pneumoniae (Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia)  Klebsiella granulomatis (Granuloma inguinale)  Klebsiella oxytoca Escherichia coli: Enterotoxigenic  Enteroinvasive  Enterohemorrhagic  O157:H7  O104:H4 (Hemolytic-uremic syndrome) M: BAC bact (clas) gr+f/gr+a (t)/gr-p (c)/gr-o drug (J1p, w, n, m, vacc)
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