If a female is 25-years old and is 5 feet 4 inches tall, an ideal body weight is between 112 and 126 pounds!
An inch (plural: inches; abbreviation or symbol: in or ″ – a double prime) is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. Historically an inch was also used in a number of other systems of units. Traditional standards for the exact length of an inch have varied in the past, but now the imperial or US customary inch is defined to be exactly 25.4 mm. There are 12 inches in a foot and therefore 36 inches in a yard.
The inch is a commonly used customary unit of length in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. For the United Kingdom, guidance on public sector use states that since 1 October 1995, without time limit, that the inch (along with the foot) is to be used as a primary unit for road signs and related measurements of distance (with the possible exception of clearance heights and widths) and may continue to be used as a secondary or supplementary indication following a metric measurement for other purposes.
The international standard symbol for inch is in (see ISO 31-1, Annex A) but traditionally the inch is denoted by a double prime, which is often approximated by double quotes, and the foot by a prime, which is often approximated by an apostrophe. For example can be written as 3′ 2″. Subdivisions of an inch are typically written using dyadic fractions with odd number numerators; for example, would be written as ″ and not as 2.375″ nor as ″.
1 international inch is equal to:
The English word inch comes from Latin uncia meaning "one-twelfth part" (in this case, one twelfth of a foot); the word ounce (one twelfth of a troy pound) has the same origin. The vowel change from u to i is umlaut; the consonant change from c (pronounced as k) to ch is palatalisation (see Old English phonology).
In some other languages, the word for "inch" is similar to or the same as the word for "thumb"; for example, Catalan: inch, polze thumb; French: inch/thumb; Italian: inch/thumb; Spanish: inch, pulgar thumb; Portuguese: inch, polegar thumb; Swedish: inch, tumme thumb; Dutch: inch/thumb; Czech: inch/thumb; Slovak: inch/thumb; Hungarian: inch/thumb, Danish and Norwegian: / tommer inch/inches and tommel thumb. Given the etymology of the word "inch", it would seem that the inch is a unit derived from the foot unit in Latin in Roman times.
The earliest known reference to the inch in England is from the Laws of Æthelberht dating to the early 7th century, surviving in a single manuscript from 1120. Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths: one inch, one shilling, two inches, two shillings, etc. "Gif man þeoh þurhstingð, stice ghwilve vi scillingas. Gife ofer ynce, scilling. æt twam yncum, twegen. ofer þry, iii scill."
An Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066, 1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorn, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, with the barleycorn being the base unit. One of the earliest such definitions is that of 1324, where the legal definition of the inch was set out in a statute of Edward II of England, defining it as "three grains of barley, dry and round, placed end to end, lengthwise".
Similar definitions are recorded in both English and Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyvnwal, an even earlier definition of the inch in Wales. Both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales (vol i., pp. 184,187,189), are that "three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch".
King David I of Scotland in his Assize of Weights and Measures (c. 1150) is said to have defined the Scottish inch as the width of an average man's thumb at the base of the nail, even including the requirement to calculate the average of a small, a medium, and a large man's measures. However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century and appear to have been altered with the inclusion of newer material.
Charles Butler, a mathematics teacher at Cheam School, in 1814 recorded the old legal definition of the inch to be "three grains of sound ripe barley being taken out the middle of the ear, well dried, and laid end to end in a row", and placed the barleycorn, not the inch, as the base unit of the English Long Measure system, from which all other units were derived. John Bouvier similarly recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. Butler observed, however, that "[a]s the length of the barley-corn cannot be fixed, so the inch according to this method will be uncertain", noting that a standard inch measure was now (by his time) kept in the Exchequer chamber, Guildhall, and that was the legal definition of the inch. This was a point also made by George Long in his 1842 Penny Cyclopædia, observing that standard measures had since surpassed the barleycorn definition of the inch, and that to recover the inch measure from its original definition, in the event that the standard measure were destroyed, would involve the measurement of large numbers of barleycorns and taking their average lengths. He noted that this process would not perfectly recover the standard, since it might introduce errors of anywhere between one hundredth and one tenth of an inch in the definition of a yard.
The now obsolete Scottish inch (Scottish Gaelic: ), of a Scottish foot, was about 1.0016 imperial inches (about 2.5441 cm). It was used in the popular expression , in English "Give him an inch and he'll take an ell.", first published as "For when I gave you an inch, you tooke an ell." by John Heywood in 1546. (The ell, equal to 37 inches (about 94 cm), was in use in England until 1685.)
The current internationally accepted value for the imperial and US customary inch is exactly 25.4 millimetres. This is based on the international yard of exactly 0.9144 metres adopted through the International yard and pound agreement in 1959. Before the adoption of the international inch various definitions were in use. In the United Kingdom and most countries of the British Commonwealth][ the inch was defined in terms of the Imperial Standard Yard. The US adopted the conversion factor 1 metre = 39.37 inches by an act in 1866, and in 1893 Mendenhall ordered the physical realization of the inch be based on the international prototype metres numbers 21 and 27, which had been received from the CGPM together with the previously adopted conversion factor.
In 1930 the British Standards Institution adopted an inch of exactly 25.4 mm. The American Standards Association followed suit in 1933. By 1935 industry in 16 countries had adopted the "industrial inch" as it came to be known.
In 1946 the Commonwealth Science Congress recommended a yard of exactly 0.9144 metres for adoption throughout the British Commonwealth. This was adopted by Canada in 1951. The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa signed a treaty agreeing to the same standards on 1 July 1959. This gives an inch of exactly 25.4 mm. However, the US retains the -metre definition for survey purposes creating a slight difference between the international and US survey inches.
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity. Its magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g; thus: . The term weight and mass are often confused with each other in everyday discourse but they are distinct quantities. The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a body can be weightless only if it is far away from any gravitating mass. There is also a rival tradition within Newtonian physics and engineering which sees weight as that which is measured when one uses scales. There the weight is a measure of the magnitude of the reaction force exerted on a body. Typically, in measuring someone's weight, the person is placed on scales at rest with respect to the earth but the definition can be extended to other states of motion. Thus in a state of free fall, the weight would be zero. In this second sense of weight, terrestrial objects can be weightless. Ignoring air resistance, an apple on its way to meet Newton's head is weightless.
Further complications in elucidating the various concepts of weight have to do with the theory of relativity according to which gravity becomes reduced to a space-time curvature. In the teaching community, a considerable debate has existed for over half a century on how to define weight for their students. The current situation is that a multiple set of concepts co-exist and find use in their various contexts.
Discussion of the concepts of heaviness (weight) and lightness (levity) date back to the ancient Greek philosophers. These were typically viewed as inherent properties of objects. Plato described weight as the natural tendency of objects to seek their kin. To Aristotle weight and levity represented the tendency to restore the natural order of the basic elements: air, earth, fire and water. He ascribed absolute weight to earth and absolute levity to fire. Archimedes saw weight as a quality opposed to buoyancy, with the conflict between the two determining if an object sinks or floats. The first operational definition of weight was given by Euclid, who defined weight as: "weight is the heaviness or lightness of one thing, compared to another, as measured by a balance." Operational balances (rather than definitions) had, however, been around much longer.
According to Aristotle, weight was the direct cause of the falling motion of an object, the speed of the falling object was supposed to be directly proportionate to the weight of the object. As medieval scholars discovered that in practice the speed of a falling object increased with time, this prompted a change to the concept of weight to maintain this cause effect relationship. Weight was split into a "still weight" or pondus, which remained constant, and the actual gravity or gravitas, which changed as the object fell. The concept of gravitas was eventually replaced by Jean Buridan's impetus, a precursor to momentum.
The rise of the Copernican view of the world led to the resurgence of the Platonic idea that like objects attract but in the context of heavenly bodies. In the 17th century, Galileo made significant advances in the concept of weight. He proposed a way to measure the difference between the weight of a moving object and an object at rest. Ultimately, he concluded weight was proportionate to the amount of matter of an object, and not the speed of motion as supposed by the Aristotelean view of physics.
The introduction of Newton's laws of motion and the development of Newton's law of universal gravitation led to considerable further development of the concept of weight. Weight became fundamentally separate from mass. Mass was identified as a fundamental property of objects connected to their inertia, while weight became identified with the force of gravity on an object and therefore dependent on the context of the object. In particular, Newton considered weight to be relative to another object causing the gravitational pull, e.g. the weight of the Earth towards the Sun.
Newton considered time and space to be absolute. This allowed him to consider concepts as true position and true velocity.][ Newton also recognized that weight as measured by the action of weighing was affected by environmental factors such as buoyancy. He considered this a false weight induced by imperfect measurement conditions, for which he introduced the term apparent weight as compared to the true weight defined by gravity.
Although Newtonian physics made a clear distinction between weight and mass, the term weight continued to be commonly used when people meant mass. This led the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) of 1901 to officially declare "The word weight denotes a quantity of the same nature as a force: the weight of a body is the product of its mass and the acceleration due to gravity", thus distinguishing it from mass for official usage.
In the 20th century, the Newtonian concepts of absolute time and space were challenged by relativity. Einstein's principle of equivalence put all observers, moving or accelerating, on the same footing. This led to an ambiguity as to what exactly is meant by the force of gravity and weight. A scale in an accelerating elevator cannot be distinguished from a scale in a gravitational field. Gravitational force and weight thereby became essentially frame-dependent quantities. This prompted the abandonment of the concept as superfluous in the fundamental sciences such as physics and chemistry. Nonetheless, the concept remained important in the teaching of physics. The ambiguities introduced by relativity led, starting in the 1960s, to considerable debate in the teaching community as how to define weight for their students, choosing between a nominal definition of weight as the force due to gravity or an operational definition defined by the act of weighing.
Several definitions exist for weight, not all of which are equivalent.
The most common definition of weight found in introductory physics textbooks defines weight as the force exerted on a body by gravity. This is often expressed in the formula , where W is the weight, m the mass of the object, and g gravitational acceleration.
In 1901, the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) established this as their official definition of weight:
"The word weight denotes a quantity of the same nature as a force: the weight of a body is the product of its mass and the acceleration due to gravity."
— Resolution 2 of the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures
This resolution defines weight as a vector, since force is a vector quantity. However, some textbooks also take weight to be a scalar by defining:
"The weight W of a body is equal to the magnitude Fg of the gravitational force on the body."
The gravitational acceleration varies from place to place. Sometimes, it is simply taken to a have a standard value of , which gives the standard weight.
The force whose magnitude is equal to mg newtons is also known as the m kilogram weight (which term is abbreviated to kg-wt)
Measuring weight versus mass
In the operational definition, the weight of an object is the force measured by the operation of weighing it, which is the force it exerts on its support. This can make a considerable difference, depending on the details; for example, an object in free fall exerts little if any force on its support, a situation that is commonly referred to as weightlessness. However, being in free fall does not affect the weight according to the gravitational definition. Therefore, the operational definition is sometimes refined by requiring that the object be at rest.][ However, this raises the issue of defining "at rest" (usually being at rest with respect to the Earth is implied by using standard gravity][). In the operational definition, the weight of an object at rest on the surface of the Earth is lessened by the effect of the centrifugal force from the Earth's rotation.
The operational definition, as usually given, does not explicitly exclude the effects of buoyancy, which reduces the measured weight of an object when it is immersed in a fluid such as air or water. As a result, a floating balloon or an object floating in water might be said to have zero weight.
In the ISO International standard ISO 80000-4(2006), describing the basic physical quantities and units in mechanics as a part of the International standard ISO/IEC 80000, the definition of weight is given as:
— ISO 80000-4 (2006)
The definition is dependent on the chosen frame of reference. When the chosen frame is co-moving with the object in question then this definition precisely agrees with the operational definition. If the specified frame is the surface of the Earth, the weight according to the ISO and gravitational definitions differ only by the centrifugal effects due to the rotation of the Earth.
In many real world situations the act of weighing may produce a result that differs from the ideal value provided by the definition used. This is usually referred to as the apparent weight of the object. A common example of this is the effect of buoyancy, when an object is immersed in a fluid the displacement of the fluid will cause an upward force on the object, making it appear lighter when weighed on a scale. The apparent weight may be similarly affected by levitation and mechanical suspension. When the gravitational definition of weight is used, the operational weight measured by an accelerating scale is often also referred to as the apparent weight.
In modern scientific usage, weight and mass are fundamentally different quantities: mass is an "extrinsic" (extensive) property of matter, whereas weight is a force that results from the action of gravity on matter: it measures how strongly the force of gravity pulls on that matter. However, in most practical everyday situations the word "weight" is used when, strictly, "mass" is meant. For example, most people would say that an object "weighs one kilogram", even though the kilogram is a unit of mass.
The scientific distinction between mass and weight is unimportant for many practical purposes because the strength of gravity is almost the same everywhere on the surface of the Earth. In a uniform gravitational field, the gravitational force exerted on an object (its weight) is directly proportional to its mass. For example, object A weighs 10 times as much as object B, so therefore the mass of object A is 10 times greater than that of object B. This means that an object's mass can be measured indirectly by its weight, and so, for everyday purposes, weighing (using a weighing scale) is an entirely acceptable way of measuring mass. Similarly, a balance measures mass indirectly by comparing the weight of the measured item to that of an object(s) of known mass. Since the measured item and the comparison mass are in virtually the same location, so experiencing the same gravitational field, the effect of varying gravity does not affect the comparison or the resulting measurement.
The Earth's gravitational field is not uniform but can vary by as much as 0.5% at different locations on Earth (see Earth's gravity). These variations alter the relationship between weight and mass, and must be taken into account in high precision weight measurements that are intended to indirectly measure mass. Spring scales, which measure local weight, must be calibrated at the location at which the objects will be used to show this standard weight, to be legal for commerce.][
This table shows the variation of acceleration due to gravity (and hence the variation of weight) at various locations on the Earth's surface.
The historic use of "weight" for "mass" also persists in some scientific terminology – for example, the chemical terms "atomic weight", "molecular weight", and "formula weight", can still be found rather than the preferred "atomic mass" etc.
In a different gravitational field, for example, on the surface of the Moon, an object can have a significantly different weight than on Earth. The gravity on the surface of the Moon is only about one-sixth as strong as on the surface of the Earth. A one-kilogram mass is still a one-kilogram mass (as mass is an extrinsic property of the object) but the downward force due to gravity, and therefore its weight, is only one-sixth of what the object would have on Earth. So a man of mass 180 pounds weighs only about 30 pounds-force when visiting the Moon.
In most modern scientific work, physical quantities are measured in SI units. The SI unit of weight is the same as that of force: the newton (N) – a derived unit which can also be expressed in SI base units as kg·m/s2 (kilograms times meters per second squared).
In commercial and everyday use, the term "weight" is usually used to mean mass, and the verb "to weigh" means "to determine the mass of" or "to have a mass of". Used in this sense, the proper SI unit is the kilogram (kg).
In United States customary units, the pound can be either a unit of force or a unit of mass. Related units used in some distinct, separate subsystems of units include the poundal and the slug. The poundal is defined as the force necessary to accelerate an object of one-pound mass at 1 ft/s2, and is equivalent to about 1/32.2 of a pound-force. The slug is defined as the amount of mass that accelerates at 1 ft/s2 when one pound-force is exerted on it, and is equivalent to about 32.2 pounds (mass).
The kilogram-force is a non-SI unit of force, defined as the force exerted by a one kilogram mass in standard Earth gravity (equal to 9.80665 newtons exactly). The dyne is the cgs unit of force and is not a part of SI, while weights measured in the cgs unit of mass, the gram, remain a part of SI.
The sensation of weight is caused by the force exerted by fluids in the vestibular system, a three-dimensional set of tubes in the inner ear.] [ It is actually the sensation of g-force, regardless of whether this is due to being stationary in the presence of gravity, or, if the person is in motion, the result of any other forces acting on the body such as in the case of acceleration or deceleration of a lift, or centrifugal forces when turning sharply.
Weight is commonly measured using one of two methods. A spring scale or hydraulic or pneumatic scale measures local weight, the local force of gravity on the object (strictly weight forceapparent). Since the local force of gravity can vary by up to 0.5% at different locations, spring scales will measure slightly different weights for the same object (the same mass) at different locations. To standardize weights, scales are always calibrated to read the weight an object would have at a nominal standard gravity of 9.80665 m/s2 (approx. 32.174 ft/s2). However, this calibration is done at the factory. When the scale is moved to another location on Earth, the force of gravity will be different, causing a slight error. So to be highly accurate, and legal for commerce, spring scales must be re-calibrated at the location at which they will be used.
A balance on the other hand, compares the weight of an unknown object in one scale pan to the weight of standard masses in the other, using a lever mechanism – a lever-balance. The standard masses are often referred to, non-technically, as "weights". Since any variations in gravity will act equally on the unknown and the known weights, a lever-balance will indicate the same value at any location on Earth. Therefore, balance "weights" are usually calibrated and marked in mass units, so the lever-balance measures mass by comparing the Earth's attraction on the unknown object and standard masses in the scale pans. In the absence of a gravitational field, away from planetary bodies (e.g. space), a lever-balance would not work, but on the Moon, for example, it would give the same reading as on Earth. Some balances can be marked in weight units, but since the weights are calibrated at the factory for standard gravity, the balance will measure standard weight, i.e. what the object would weigh at standard gravity, not the actual local force of gravity on the object.
If the actual force of gravity on the object is needed, this can be calculated by multiplying the mass measured by the balance by the acceleration due to gravity – either standard gravity (for everyday work) or the precise local gravity (for precision work). Tables of the gravitational acceleration at different locations can be found on the web.
Gross weight is a term that is generally found in commerce or trade applications, and refers to the total weight of a product and its packaging. Conversely, net weight refers to the weight of the product alone, discounting the weight of its container or packaging; and tare weight is the weight of the packaging alone.
The table below shows comparative gravitational accelerations at the surface of the Sun, the Earth's moon, each of the planets in the solar system. The “surface” is taken to mean the cloud tops of the gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune). For the Sun, the surface is taken to mean the photosphere. The values in the table have not been de-rated for the centrifugal effect of planet rotation (and cloud-top wind speeds for the gas giants) and therefore, generally speaking, are similar to the actual gravity that would be experienced near the poles.
The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of a four-legged mammal. In many species it is the tallest point of the body, and in horses and dogs it is the standard place to measure the animal's height (in contrast, cattle are normally measured to the top of the hips).
The withers in horses are formed by the dorsal spinal processes of roughly the 3rd through 11th thoracic vertebrae (most horses have 18 thoracic vertebrae), which are unusually long in this area. The processes at the withers can be more than 12 inches (30 cm) long.
Since they do not move relative to the ground (as the horse's head does), the withers are used as the measuring point for the height of a horse. Horses are commonly measured in hands – one hand is 4 inches (10.16 cm). Horse heights are extremely variable, from small pony breeds to large draft breeds. The height at the withers of an average Thoroughbred is 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm), and ponies are up to 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm)
The withers of the horse are considered in evaluating conformation. Generally, a horse should have well-defined withers, as they are considered an important attachment point for the muscles of the torso. Withers of medium height are preferred, as high withers make it difficult to fit a saddle and are often associated with a narrow chest, and low withers (known as "mutton withers") do not provide a ridge to help keep the saddle in place.
More importantly, the dorsal spinal processes provide an attachment for the muscles that support the shoulder and neck. Horses do not have a clavicle, so the shoulder can freely rotate backwards. If the vertebrae of the withers are long (front to back), the shoulder is more free to move backwards. This allows for an increase of stride length (and so it can increase the horse's speed). It is also important in jumping, as the shoulder must rotate back for the horse to make his forearm more parallel to the ground, which will then raise the animal's knees upward and get the lower legs out of the way. Therefore, the withers have a direct impact on one of the most important points of conformation: the shoulder.][
In dogs, the height of the withers is often used to determine the dog's jump height in various dog sports. It is also often a determining factor in whether the dog conforms to the show-quality standards for its breed.
Zebras have very low withers, making it far more difficult for a saddle to stay in place.
Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) in this region is called fistulous withers.
The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), harimau Bali in Indonesian, or referred to as samong in archaic Balinese language, was a subspecies of tiger which was found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. This was one of three subspecies of tigers found in Indonesia, together with the Javan tiger, which is also extinct, and the critically endangered Sumatran tiger. It was the smallest of the tiger subspecies.
The last specimen definitely recorded was a female shot at Sumbar Kima, west Bali, on September 27, 1937. However, a few animals likely survived into the 1940s and possibly 1950s. The subspecies became extinct because of habitat loss and hunting. Given the small size of the island, and limited forest cover, the original population could never have been large.
The Bali tiger was the smallest of all nine tiger subspecies, rather comparable with the leopard or cougar in size. The weight of a male was usually 90–100 kg (198-221 lb); that of a female was 65–80 kg (142-175 lb). The male was about 220 cm (7.2 ft or 86.6 in) in length (with tail), and the female 195–200 cm (6.4-6.6 ft, 76.8-78.7 in).
Bali tigers had short fur that was a deeper, darker orange and had fewer stripes than other tiger subspecies. Occasionally, between the stripes, were small black spots. Bali tigers also had unusual, bar-shaped patterns on their heads. The white fur on their underbellies often stood out more than that of the other tiger subspecies because of its darker-colored fur. The white fur also had a more distinct and curved line.
They preyed on most mammals that lived within their habitat. Their major sources of food were wild boar, rusa deer, Indian muntjac, red junglefowl, monitor lizards, monkeys, and possibly banteng (the last now also extirpated on the island). The only known predators of Bali tigers were humans.
Bali tigers had an average gestation period of 14-15 weeks. They gave birth to two or three cubs per litter. The average birth weight of a cub was two to three pounds. Cubs were born blind and helpless, and were weaned around one year of age, becoming fully independent at 18 months to two years of age. Their lifespans were about eight to 10 years.
Two common theories regarding the divergence of Balinese and Javan tigers are discussed: The first suggests the two subspecies developed when Bali became isolated from Java by formation of the Bali Strait by rising sea levels after the ice age. This split the tigers into two groups which then went on to develop independently.][ The second possibility is the tigers swam from one island to colonize the other. The Bali Strait is only 2.4 km wide, making it well within the swimming ability of the average tiger. Whichever it was, the two went on to become quite different.][
In Balinese culture, the tiger had a special place in folk tales and traditional arts, as in the Kamasan paintings of Klungkung kingdom. However, they were perceived as a destructive force, and culling efforts were encouraged until extinction.
Very few reliable accounts of encounters and even fewer visual documentations remain. One of the most complete records was left by the Hungarian baron Oszkár Vojnich, who trapped, hunted, and took photos of a Balinese tiger. On November 3, 1911, he shot dead an adult specimen in the northwest region, between Gunung Gondol and Banyupoh River, documenting it in his book In The East Indian Archipelago (Budapest 1913).
According to the same book, the preferred method of hunting tigers in the island was catching them with a large, heavy steel foot trap hidden under bait (goat or muntjak), and then killing them with a firearm at close range.
A final blow to the island's already low tiger population came during the Dutch colonial period, when shikari hunting trips were conducted by European sportsmen coming from Java, armed with high-powered rifles and a romantic but disastrous Victorian hunting mentality. Surabayan gunmaker E. Munaut is confirmed to have killed over 20 Bali tigers in only a few years.
The last confirmed tiger sighting was of an adult female, killed on Sep. 27, 1937, at Sumbar Kima, in western Bali. Since then, claims of sighting have been made, but without proof, mostly by forestry officers, in 1952, 1970, and 1972. Any remaining tigers likely were pushed to the western side of the island, mostly into area that is now West Bali National Park, established in 1947.
The Balinese tiger was never captured alive on film or motion picture, or displayed in a public zoo, but a few skulls, skins, and bones are preserved in museums. The British Museum in London has the largest collection, with two skins and three skulls; others include Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt, Naturkunde Museum in Stuttgart, Naturalis museum in Leiden and Zoological Museum of Bogor, Indonesia, which owns the remnants of the last known Balinese tiger. In 1997, a skull emerged from the old collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum, and was scientifically studied and properly documented.
Unlike stag hunting, which they mastered, very few, if any, Balinese embraced tiger hunting before the arrival of Europeans to the island, because tigers were seen as evil, dangerous creatures. Still, tigers had a well-defined position in folkloric beliefs and magic. For example, the Balinese considered the ground powder of tiger whiskers to be a potent and undetectable poison for one's foe. According to the same book mentioning this, Miguel Covarrubias's "Island Of The Gods", 1937, when a Balinese baby was born, he was given a protective amulet necklace with black coral and "a tiger's tooth or a piece of tiger bone".
Like in other Asian nations, Balinese people are fond of wearing tiger parts as jewelry for status or spiritual reasons, such as power and protection. Necklaces of teeth and claws or male rings cabochoned with polished tiger tooth ivory still exist in everyday use. Since tigers have disappeared on both Bali and neighboring Java, old parts have been recycled, or leopard and sun bear body parts have been used, instead. One of the traditional Balinese dances, the Barong, still preserves in one of its four forms, a type called the Tiger Barong (Barong Macan).
The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, lbm, ℔) is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. A number of different definitions have been used, the most common today being the international avoirdupois pound which is legally defined as exactly
The unit is descended from the libraRoman (hence the abbreviation "lb"); the name pound is a Germanic adaptation of the Latin phrase libra pondo, 'a pound by weight'.
Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of mass and weight. This accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-mass and pound-force.
The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as exactly .
In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963.
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, and an (international) grain is thus equal to exactly
Historically, in different parts of the world, at different points in time, and for different applications, the pound (or its translation) has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.
A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these are the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete tower, merchant's and London pounds. The weight of precious metals when given in pounds and/or ounces usually assumes Troy pounds and ounces; these units are not otherwise used today.
Historically the pound sterling was a tower pound of silver. In 1528 the standard was changed to the Troy pound.
The avoirdupois pound, also known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was initially equal to 6992 troy grains. The pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since then, the grain has often been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, and when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.
In the United Kingdom, weights and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of which has been to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud. The standards themselves are legally defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts; only legally defined measures will be recognised by the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders (weights, weighing machines, containers of volumes, measures of length) are subject to official inspection, and penalties apply if they are fraudulent.
The Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, and the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus (Section 4) 'The ... platinum weight ... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade ... shall continue to be the imperial standard of ... weight ... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom'. Paragraph 13 states that the weight 'in vacuo' of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, and that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone. The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound:- It is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, and 1.15 inches diameter, and the edges are carefully rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted using an ivory fork. It was constructed following the destruction of the Houses of Parliament by fire in 1834, and is stamped P.S. 1844, 1 lb (P.S. stands for 'Parliamentary Standard'). This definition of the Imperial pound remains unchanged.
The 1878 Act said that contracts worded in terms of metric units would be deemed by the courts to be made according to the Imperial units defined in the Act, and a table of metric equivalents was supplied so that the Imperial equivalents could be legally calculated. Thus defining, in UK law, metric units in terms of Imperial ones. The equivalence for the pound is given as 1 lb = or 0.45359 kg, which would make the kilogram weigh approximately . In 1883, it was determined jointly by the Standards Department of the Board of Trade and the Bureau International that was a better approximation, and this figure, rounded to was given legal status by an Order in Council in May 1898.
However in 1963 a new Weights and Measures Act reversed this relationship and the pound was defined for the first time as a mass equal to to match the definition of the international pound agreed in 1959.
A troy pound is equal to 12 troy ounces and to 5,760 grains, that is exactly grams. Troy weights were used in England by apothecaries and jewellers.
Troy weight probably takes its name from the French market town of Troyes in France where English merchants traded at least as early as the early 9th century.
The troy pound is no longer in general use or legal unit for trade. In the United Kingdom, the use of the troy pound was abolished on 6 January 1879 by the WMA Weights and Measures Act of 1878, though the troy ounce was retained. The troy ounce is still used for measurements of precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum, and sometimes gems such as opals.
Most measurements of the mass of precious metals using pounds refer to troy pounds, even though it is not always explicitly stated that this is the case. Some notable exceptions are:
The system called tower weight was the more general name for King Offa's pound. This dates to 757 AD and was based on the silver penny. This in turn was struck over Arabic dirhams (2d). The pound was based on the weight of 120 Arabic silver dirhams, which have been found in Offa's Dyke. The same coin weight was used throughout the Hanseatic League.][
The mercantile pound (1304) of 6750 troy grains, or 9600 tower grains, derives from this pound, as 25 shilling-weights or 15 tower ounces, for general commercial use. Multiple pounds based on the same ounce were quite common. In much of Europe, the apothecaries' and commercial pounds were different numbers of the same ounce.][
The tower system was referenced to a standard prototype found in the Tower of London and ran concurrently with the avoirdupois and troy systems, until it fell out of use and was abolished in 1527.
The tower pound is equivalent to about 350 grams.
The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria or commercial pound) was equal to 9,600 wheat grains (15 tower ounces or 6,750 grains) and was used in England until the 14th century for most goods (other than money, spices and electuaries).
The London pound is that of the Hansa, as used in their various trading places. This is based on 16 tower ounces, each ounce divided as the tower ounce. It never became a legal standard in England; the use of this pound waxed and waned with the influence of the Hansa itself.
A London pound was equal to 7,200 troy grains (16 tower ounces or, equivalently, 15 troy ounces).
In the United States, the avoirdupois pound as a unit of mass has been officially defined in terms of the kilogram since the Mendenhall Order of 1893. That Order defined the pound to be 2.20462 pounds to a kilogram. The following year this relationship was refined as 2.20462234 pounds to a kilogram, following a determination of the British pound.
According to a 1959 NIST publication, the United States 1894 pound differed from the international pound by approximately one part in 10 million. The difference is so insignificant that it can be ignored for almost all practical purposes.
The libra (Latin for "scales / balance") is an ancient Roman unit of mass that was equivalent to approximately 328.9 grams. It was divided into 12 uncia, or ounces. The libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, lb. The commonly used abbreviation lbs to indicate the plural unit of measurement does not reflect Latin usage, in which lb is both the singular and plural abbreviation.
The Byzantines used a series of measurements known as pound (Latin: , Greek: , litra). The most common was the logarikē litra (λογαρική λίτρα, "pound of account"), established by Constantine the Great in 309/310. It formed the basis of the Byzantine monetary system, with one litra of gold equivalent to 72 solidi. A hundred litrai were known as a kentēnarion (κεντηνάριον, "hundredweight"). Its weight seems to have decreased gradually from the original 324 grams to 319. Due to its association with gold, it was also known as the chrysaphikē litra (χρυσαφική λίτρα, "gold pound") or thalassia litra (θαλάσσια λίτρα, "maritime pound"), but it could also be used as a measure of land, equalling a fortieth of the thalassios modios.
The soualia litra was specifically used for weighing olive oil or wood, and corresponded to 4/5 of the logarikē, i.e. 256 g. Some outlying regions, especially in later times, adopted various local measures, based on Italian, Arab or Turkish measures. The most important of these was the argyrikē litra (αργυρική λίτρα, "silver pound") of 333 g, found in Trebizond and Cyprus, and probably of Arab origin.
Since the Middle Ages, various pounds (livre) have been used in France. Since the 19th century, a livre has referred to the metric pound, 500g.
The livre esterlin was equivalent to about 367.1 grams (5,665 gr) and was used between the late 9th century and the mid-14th century.
The livre poids de marc or livre de Paris was equivalent to about 489.5 grams (7,555 gr) and was used between the 1350s and the late 18th century. It was introduced by the government of John II.
The livre métrique was set equal to the kilogram by the decree of 13 Brumaire an IX between 1800 and 1812. This was a form of official metric pound.
The livre usuelle was defined as 500 grams, by the decree of 28 March 1812. It was abolished as a unit of mass effective 1 January 1840 by a decree of 4 July 1837, but is still used informally.
Originally derived from the Roman libra, the definition varied throughout Germany in the Middle Ages and onward. The measures and weights of the Habsburg monarchy were reformed in 1761 by Empress Maria Theresia of Austria. The unusually heavy Habsburg (civil) pound of 16 ounces was later defined in terms of 560.012 grams. Bavarian reforms in 1809 and 1811 adopted essentially the same standard pound. In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined a uniform civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water, resulting in a Prussian pound of 467.711 grams.
Between 1803 and 1815 all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre. As a result of the Congress of Vienna these became part of various German states. However, many of these regions retained the metric system and adopted a metric pound of precisely 500 grams. In 1854 the pound of 500 grams also became the official mass standard of the German Customs Union, but local pounds continued to co-exist with the Zollverein pound for some time in some German states. Nowadays, the term Pfund is still in common use and universally refers to a pound of 500 grams.
The Russian pound (Фунт, funt) is an obsolete Russian unit of measurement of mass. It is equal to 409.51718 grams. As of 1899 Russian pound was the basic unit of weight, all other units of weight were formed from it.
The Skålpund was a Scandinavian measurement that varied in weight between regions. From the 17th century onward, it was equal to 425.076 grams in Sweden but was abandoned in 1889 when Sweden switched to the metric system.
In Norway the same name was used for a weight of 498.1 grams. In Denmark it equalled 471 grams.
In the 19th century Denmark followed Germany's lead and redefined the pound as 500 grams.
A Jersey pound is an obsolete unit of mass used on the island of Jersey from the 14th century to the 19th century. It was equivalent to about 7,561 grains (490 grams). It may have been derived from the French livre poids de marc.
The trone pound is one of a number of obsolete Scottish units of measurement. It was equivalent to between 21 and 28 avoirdupois ounces (about 600-800 grams).
In many countries upon the introduction of a metric system, the pound (or its translation) became an informal term for 500 grams,
The Dutch pond is an exception. It was officially redefined as 1 kilogram, with an ounce of 100 grams, but people seldom use it this way. In daily life pond is exclusively used for amounts of 500 grams, and to a lesser extent, ons for 100 grams.
In German the term is Pfund, in French livre, in Dutch pond, in Spanish and Portuguese libra, in Italian libbra, and in Danish and Swedish pund.
Though not from the same linguistic origin, the Chinese jin (also known a "catty") has a modern definition of exactly 500 grams, divided into ten cun. Traditionally about 605 grams, the jin has been in use for more than two thousand years, serving the same purpose as "pound" for the common-use measure of weight.
Hundreds of older pounds were replaced in this way. Examples of the older pounds are one of around 459 to 460 grams in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America; one of 498.1 grams in Norway; and several different ones in what is now Germany.
Although the use of the pound as an informal term persists in these countries to a varying degree, scales and measuring devices are denominated only in grams and kilograms. A pound of product must be determined by weighing the product in grams as the use of the pound is not sanctioned for trade within the European Union.
Smoothbore cannon and carronades are designated by the weight in imperial pounds of round solid iron shot of diameter to fit the barrel. A cannon that fires a six-pound ball, for example, is called a six-pounder. Standard sizes are 6, 12, 18, 24, 32 and 42 pounds; 68-pounders also exist, and other nonstandard weapons use the same scheme. See carronade.
A similar definition, using lead balls, exists for determining the gauge of shotguns.
The riddle, "What weighs more, a pound of feathers or a pound of gold?" assumes the use of different pound units to measure the two substances — avoirdupois for feathers and Troy for gold. As an avoirdupois pound (approximately 454 g) is heavier than a Troy pound (approximately 373 g), the correct answer is, "A pound of feathers."
The term body weight
is used colloquially and in the biological and medical sciences to refer to a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the world, although in some countries such as the United States it is measured in pounds, or as in the United Kingdom, stones and pounds. Most hospitals, even in the United States, now use kilograms for calculations, but use kilograms and pounds together for other purposes. Strictly speaking, the body weight is the weight of the person without any items on, but practically body weight is taken with clothes on but often without the shoes and heavy accessories like mobile phones and wallets. Body weight is one way of determining a person's health.
While the terms mass and weight are often used interchangeably in the context of body weight, they actually refer to separate but related concepts in physics. Mass is a measure of an object's inertia and is independent of the effects of gravity, while weight is a measure of the force due to gravity. Thus, if a person were to travel from Earth to the Moon, where there is less gravity, their mass would remain unchanged but their weight would decrease.
Ideal body weight (IBW) was initially introduced by Devine in 1974 to allow estimation of drug clearances in obese patients; researchers have since shown that the metabolism of certain drugs relate more to IBW than total body weight. The term was based on the use of insurance data that demonstrated the relative mortality for males and females according to different height–weight combinations. The most common estimation of IBW is by the Devine formula; other models exist and have been noted to give similar results. Another method of estimating ideal body weight is using the body mass index.
Researchers at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine published a study of average weights of adult humans in the journal BMC Public Health and at the United Nations conference Rio+20.
The stability of body weight depends on the energy intake and expenditure. When energy intake exceeds output, the excess energy is stored in the body as carbohydrates, proteins or fats and this causes a gain in body weight. The converse is also true. When energy expenditure exceeds energy intake, body weight decreases.
A number of ways to estimate weight in children have been developed for circumstances (such as emergencies) when actual weight cannot be measured. The most commonly used methods include guesses of the child's weight by parents or healthcare providers, weight-estimation formulas based on the child's age and tape-based systems of weight estimation. Some of the many formulas that have been used include the APLS formula, the Leffler formula, and Theron formula. There are several tape-based systems for estimating children's weight, the most well-known of which is the Broselow tape. The Broselow tape is based on length with weight read from the appropriate color area. Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction.
The Leffler formula is used for children 0–10 years of age. In those less than a year old it is
and for those 1–10 years old it is
is the number of kilograms the child weighs and am
respectively are the number of months or years old the child is.
The Theron formula is
and ay are as above.
Participants in sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts, wrestling, rowing, judo, and weight-lifting are classified according to their body weight, measured in units of mass such as pounds or kilograms. See, e.g., wrestling weight classes, boxing weight classes, judo at the 2004 Summer Olympics, boxing at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Health Medical Pharma
Health Medical Pharma
Para Draine (born December 28, 1972 in Seattle, Washington) is an American female boxer who has been a world champion two times. She is a former 112 pounds and current 115 pound champion. Draine stands 5 feet eight inches (68 inches) tall, making her relatively tall for a boxer of her weight.
Draine's nicknames are "Hurricane" and "The Spokane Spike". The latter nickname reflects the city she currently resides at. Draine has fought a large part of her fights in the American Northwest, specially in Worley, Idaho, but, because of her achievements, she has become well known in the world of boxing.
Her first professional fight came on May 14, 1997, when she defeated Dolores Lira by a four round decision, at Worley. Her first knockout win was on June 25 of that same year, when she beat Trena Drotar in the fourth round. Draine won her first five fights.
After she beat the experienced Sue Chase in her fifth fight, she and her management team thought she was ready for a world title try, so, on November 12, she challenged Theresa Arnold for the IBA's women's version of the world Bantamweight title. She lost that fight by a ten round split decision.
Draine then decided to go down in weight and try to become a world Flyweight champion. After two wins, including one over the famed British boxer Michelle Sutcliffe, she challenged the WIBF world Flyweight champion, Yvonne Trevino. On August 8, 1998 at Spirit Lake, North Dakota, Draine became a world champion by beating Trevino by a ten round split decision. She is a boxer who often jumps from one division to another, so she returned to the Bantamweight division. Despite losing her next fight, she got a world title try in her first fight at as a Super Bantamweight: On April 18, 1999, she and Silke Weikenmeyer fought for the vacant WIBF Super Bantamweight title. In what was Draine's first overseas fight, she lost a ten round decision in Germany.
Next, she beat two well known opponents, Jo Wyman and Brenda Burnside, before once again returning to the Flyweight division, to make her first title defense: on April 6, 2000, she lost her title to the then 8-0 Margaret Sidoriff, in Toronto, Canada.
Draine kept fighting well known female boxers after losing that fight: she beat Robin Pinto, lost to Yvonne Caples, drew (tied) with Marylin Salcedo, and beat Bridgett Riley before receiving another world title shot.
On December 18, 2002, she and Salcedo were rematched, with the vacant IFBA world Super Flyweight title on the line. Draine became world Super Flyweight champion by defeating Salcedo with a split decision.
Draine has had one more fight after that, but she remains, on record anyway, active as a professional boxer.
Her career record is of 13 wins, 6 losses and 1 draw, with two knockout wins.