In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. The Latin anatomical name is tunica serosa. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement. Serosa is entirely different from the adventitia, a connective tissue layer which binds together structures rather than reducing friction between them. The serous membrane covering the heart and lining the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs is referred to as the pleura, and that lining the abdominopelvic cavity and the viscera is referred to as the peritoneum.
In anatomy, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being bone. Soft tissue includes tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, fibrous tissues, fat, and synovial membranes (which are connective tissue), and muscles, nerves and blood vessels (which are not connective tissue).
It is sometimes defined by what it is not. For example, soft tissue has been defined as "nonepithelial, extraskeletal mesenchyme exclusive of the reticuloendothelial system and glia".
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives humans (and many animal species) the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body.
It is made up of the body's bones (the skeleton), muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.
Synovial fluid is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. With its yolk-like consistency ("synovial" partially derives from ovum, Latin for egg), the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.
The inner membrane of synovial joints is called the synovial membrane and secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity. The fluid contains hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblast-like cells in the synovial membrane and interstitial fluid filtered from the blood plasma.]page needed[ This fluid forms a thin layer (roughly 50 μm) at the surface of cartilage and also seeps into microcavities and irregularities in the articular cartilage surface, filling all empty space. The fluid in articular cartilage effectively serves as a synovial fluid reserve. During movement, the synovial fluid held in the cartilage is squeezed out mechanically to maintain a layer of fluid on the cartilage surface (so-called weeping lubrication). The functions of the synovial fluid include:
Synovial membrane (also known as synovium or stratum synoviale) is the soft tissue found between the articular capsule (joint capsule) and the joint cavity of synovial joints.
The word "synovium" is related to the word "synovia" (synovial fluid), which is the clear, viscid, lubricating fluid secreted by synovial membranes. The word "synvovia" or "sinovia" was coined by Paracelsus, and may have been derived from the Greek word "syn" ("with") and the Latin word "ovum" ("egg") because the synovial fluid in joints that have a cavity between the bearing surfaces is similar to egg white.
A tendon sheath is a layer of membrane around a tendon. It permits the tendon to move.
It has two layers:
A synovial joint, also known as a diarthrosis, is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal. As with most other joints, synovial joints achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones.
Structural and functional differences distinguish synovial joints from cartilaginous joints (synchondroses and symphyses) and fibrous joints (sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses). The main structural differences between synovial and fibrous joints are the existence of capsules surrounding the articulating surfaces of a synovial joint and the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within those capsules (synovial cavities).
Synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) (synonyms include synovial chondromatosis, primary synovial chondromatosis, synovial chondrometaplasia) is a rare disease that creates a benign change or proliferation in the synovium or joint-lining tissue, which changes to form bone-forming cartilage. In most occurrences, there is only one joint affected, either the knee, the hip, or the elbow. Rarely involves the TMJ.
The etiology or cause is unknown.