The sacroiliac joint or SI joint is the joint in the bony pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined by strong ligaments. In humans, the sacrum supports the spine and is supported in turn by an ilium on each side. The joint is a strong, weight bearing synovial joint with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking of the two bones. The human body has two sacroiliac joints, one on the left and one on the right, that often match each other but are highly variable from person to person.
The sacroiliac joints are two paired "kidney bean" or L-shaped joints having a small amount of movement (2–18 degrees, which is debatable at this time) that are formed between the articular surfaces of the sacrum and the ilium bones. The two sacroiliac joints move together as a single unit and are considered bicondylar joints (where the two joint surfaces move correlatively together). The joints are covered by two different kinds of cartilage; the sacral surface has hyaline cartilage and the ilial surface has fibrocartilage. The SIJ's stability is maintained mainly through a combination of only some bony structure and very strong intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments. As we age the characteristics of the sacroiliac joint change. The joint's surfaces are flat or planar in early life but as we start walking, the sacroiliac joint surfaces develop distinct angular orientations (and lose their planar or flat topography.) They also develop an elevated ridge along the ilial surface and a depression along the sacral surface. The ridge and corresponding depression, along with the very strong ligaments, increase the sacroiliac joints' stability and makes dislocations very rare. The fossae lumbales laterales ("dimples of Venus") correspond to the superficial topography of the sacroiliac joints.
The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis.
The internal iliac artery supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. The vesicular branches of the internal iliac arteries supply the bladder